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📊 | Successful underwater observation demonstration experiment with unmanned submersible using drone as mother ship The University of Tokyo


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Successful underwater observation demonstration experiment with an unmanned aerial vehicle using a drone as a mother ship The University of Tokyo

 
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Therefore, research and development for long-term observation by improving batteries is indispensable.
 

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Research and Development

Research and Development(Kenkyu,English: Research and development,R & D) Is an activity to obtain a technological advantage by investigating a specific object, researching basic academic fields, searching for applied research according to the purpose, and testing technologies that will develop in the future. ..

in English20st centuryIt is a word that has been used since the beginning of, and there are many organizations, departments, and group names that use the abbreviation of R & D.

Overview

The concept of research was formed at the same time as the birth of science, and the relationship between research and development was recognized.Second World WarLater. (→#history)

Research and development can be broadly divided into pure basic research to know the basic principles and properties, purpose basic research conducted for specific practical purposes, applied research to respond to specific requests, and to introduce new products. Divided into studies. (→#Classification)

In recent years, industry, educational institutions, and public institutions have cooperatedIndustry-academia-government collaborationIs also being held. (→# Industry-academia-government collaboration)

Many of the governmental organizations in Japan, which have research institutes, carry out research and development, play a pilot role in various industries, and collect and transmit information via the Internet.

Sort

Research and development can be broadly divided into "pure basic research" for understanding basic principles and properties, "purpose basic research" conducted for specific practical purposes, "applied research" for answering specific requests, It is said that they will be divided into research to introduce new products.

There are also three types of "basic research," "applied research," and "development research."[1]In this case, "basic research" aims at accumulating technology as intellectual assets, and "applied research" aims at business promotion. "Development research" is defined as research that combines technologies developed in applied research.[1].

History

Since ancient times科学 OfknowledgeTo use as a toolAncient civilizationAlthough it has been recognized since the times, they were not systematic research and development.18st centuryToFrance OfRevolutionary governmentConfrontNational defenseEmbark on R&D as required abovecartridge,Flag signaltelegramHowever, this was not continued. this isModernFor up toEurope,AmericaMany inscientistIt is related to the fact that it was the mainstream for engineers to pursue their own research individually. HoweverGermany OfSiemens,Krupp,ZeissCompanygraduate SchoolAnd employ a large number of researchers for research and development,1870 The National Institute of Science and Technology isWeights and measures OfstandardizationPrepared for Research and developmentWorld War IChanges a lot withGermanyFollowed by1915 ToThe United KingdomAt Science and Industry Research Agency,1916 ToAmericaThe National Research Council was established in.World War IAfter almost allDeveloped country Oflarge companyIs uniquegraduate SchoolAs a result of managing research and development by installingAutomobile,airplane,radioThe technology has developed epoch-making in such fields. AlsoSecond World WarLater, it will be seen that the distinction between the military field and the civil field, which had been the main one until then, becomes ambiguous.Cold WarDuring the period戦 争As a result of conducting research and development, thinking that it is an important matter that can influence the victory or defeat ofMilitary,aviation,Computer,SpaceIn the field of, the technical strength of American industry was greatly improved.

In the 1980sJapanAt the same time, the industry's industrial competitiveness has become conspicuous, and at the same time criticism that "basic research is free ride"JapanWas turned to[2].. Then in Japan1986 Has experienced a reversal phenomenon in which R&D expenses exceed capital investment.[3][4]Also be treated. (However, when considering both domestic and overseas, the R&D cost/capital investment has not actually reversed and is approaching 1:1.[5]Also be treated. It is also considered that R&D expenses increased in Japan, many basic research institutes were established, and at the same time, self-sufficiency of research increased, inward thinking and closedness became stronger, and technical cooperation decreased.[6]The existence of "NIH syndrome" (Not Invented Here, the tendency not to consider things not found by us) has also been pointed out.[7].

By field

Company

R & D is especially important in the manufacturing industry[1]It is said that in modern times, companies can avoid price competition and set favorable prices by developing their own technologies and new products through R & D. R & D contributes to sales and profits, and it is said that R & D can give companies growth potential. "Source of growth potential" and "Engine of corporate growth"[8][9]May be described as.

Each company (especially the manufacturing industry) regards R & D as an important business that is directly linked to the future of the company, and invests in people and equipment with a view to the next few years (more than 10 years depending on the company / field). It is also called.Nowadays, with the development of the Internet, there is an appearance of searching for new research and development centered on Internet companies, and Yahoo !, Rakuten, etc. are establishing research institutes one after another.[10][11].

In companies, the R & D department is often called by names such as "laboratory," "research center," "development center," and "product development department."[1].

Since the duties of R&D are atypical, the organizational structure of R&D is a flexible “organic organizational structure”, that is, an organizational structure in which decentralization of authority is progressing without setting strict business rules. Is facing[12]It is said that bureaucratic organizations are not suitable.

It is said that the result of research and development in a company is usually recognized only when the product is put on the market and the money more than the invested money can be recovered.[13].

Therefore, in research and development in a company, requirements such as "product commercialization", "market acceptance", "product superior to other companies", etc. are required.[13]Also be treated. In other words, if these requirements are not met, we will not be able to commercialize or sell, and we will not be able to recover the investment.[13]It is.

At the R&D stage, the result does not exist as a tangible product and is often in an intangible state, so each company does not imitate other companies by registering patents for discoveries and ideas obtained through R&D. Sometimes protect[13].

朝鮮日報は2018年7月に日本企業247社による2018年の研究開発投資の総額が12兆4789億円となり、2017年に比べて4.5%増加したと報じた。その背景を「日本はアベノミクスによる円安で企業の収益が増加した」として韓国経済の低迷と比較している。更にアベノミクスで需要が高まった求人数に日本国内の労働者数が追いつかない人手不足のために人工知能(AI)やロボットを活用した自動化設備投資が増えたとして、「年間では1.1%成長は日本の潜在成長率(0.8%)を上回る」「成長に弾みがついた」と伝えている[14].

Administration

R&D in administration is conducted individually for each administrative department,Local industryThere are examples of subsidizing capital investment for new technological developments that companies and organizations that are operating are trying.

Of an independent administrative agencyNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) is highly likely to lead to industrializationBasic researchWe are seeking subsidizers to support the project, and NEDO has about 60 research and development items.NEDO open call for participants summary

Education

In the field of educationMinistry of educationIs supervised byR&D schoolWe have set up a new experimental education, changing lifestyles, efforts in cooperation with the actual conditions of the surrounding area, and analyzing and researching information obtained from the research and development school.Learning materials,Education methodIs under development.

Construction industry

In the construction fieldMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs supervised byArchitectural Institute,as well asCivil Engineering Research InstituteThe research institutes, including the ones, research, develop and develop matters that are difficult for private companies, and publicize and provide information on the accumulated results.

Joint R&D

To specifically support open innovation,Technical research associationThere is a system in place. The technical research union can enter the research and research expenses of the union as the research and research expenses of the members, and can utilize the R&D promotion tax system, so it is established as a particularly advantageous system for corporate finance. A drastic major amendment was made in the ordinary Diet session in 2009 for the first time in 48 years. In addition to being able to be established by two or more persons (three or more persons so far), a general meeting was no longer necessary, and the organization could be changed to a joint-stock company or a joint-stock company.

Industry-academia-government collaboration

Companies are about to marketKnow-howHowever, it is often financially difficult to continue investing in R&D over a long period of time.Educational institution(UniversityEtc.) can carry out research over a long period of time without considering profitability, but they often lack the know-how for marketization and commercialization. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, public institutions will start matching (matching) between companies and educational institutions.CooperationHas become popular.[12].

According to the "Fundamental Survey on University Ventures in 17" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the number of university-originated venture companies is 1503, and 7% of the companies that supply these venture products and services are companies.[15].. As for the breakdown of supply destinations, 57% are large companies and 16% are small and medium-sized venture companies.[16].

R&D as a occupation

In companies, occupations and positions named "R & D" or "R & D" may be set, and R & D is established as one profession.

However, in reality, the R&D department may be expected to have short-term profits, and thus the original meaning cannot always be retained.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d , "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration"Hidekazu system, February 2006.ISBN 978-4798013978 . p.202
  2. ^ Kiyonori Sakakibara and Masaharu Tsujimoto, June 2003 “Why the R&D Efficiency of Japanese Companies Decreases?” (Cabinet Office, Economic and Social Research Institute Discussion Paper Series) p.6
  3. ^ Fumio Kodama, Paradigm of High-Tech Technology: System of Macro Technology Chuo-Koronsha, 1991, p.43
  4. ^ “Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?” p.2.
  5. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.4
  6. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.13
  7. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.16
  8. ^ Morbey, Reithner 1990, etc.
  9. ^ "Why has Japanese R&D Efficiency Reduced?" p.6
  10. ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345869-2,00.htm
  11. ^ http://japan.cnet.com/news/media/story/0,2000056023,20345950,00.htm
  12. ^ a b "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.204
  13. ^ a b c d "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.207
  14. ^ "US and Japan to accelerate economic growth, South Korea to slow"".NovemberBrowse.
  15. ^ "Pocket Illustrated Book to Understand the Latest Business Administration" p.208
  16. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Survey Report on Growth Support for University-initiated Ventures"

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