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📊 | Kohnan Shoji / Opened in "Noblesse Parc Fukuroi", Fukuroi City, Shizuoka Prefecture


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Kohnan Shoji / Opened in "Noblesse Parc Fukuroi", Fukuroi City, Shizuoka Prefecture

 
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In particular, in addition to strengthening the product lineup of building materials, we have also enhanced home appliances and pet supplies, aiming to create a store that will satisfy customers in various lifestyle situations.
 

Kohnan Shoji will open a commercial complex "Knob ..." on October 10, due to redevelopment around the south exit of "JR Fukuroi Station" in Fukuroi City, Shizuoka Prefecture. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Building material

Building material(Architecture,British: building material) IsBuildingEverything used to buildIngredientsIs that[1]..In abbreviated formBuilding materials"(Kenzai).

Overview

What is a building material?BuildingIt is a general term for various materials used to build.

範 囲

There are some fluctuations in which range is called "building material".

The term "building material" usually refers to "material provided in the field of construction" (eg cement, gravel, glass, brick, etc.).[2].

(The sentence "materials provided to the building construction site" can be divided into the part "provided to the building construction site" and the part "material".) For example, the building construction site (= "building site" When "brick" is "provided" (= brought in) and used in "), the brick is called a" building material ", and for the clay that is the raw material of the brick at the construction site (the brick is made of clay etc. at the brick factory). It is manufactured as a (material), and clay is a fine "material" in a brick factory.) It is not called a "building material".[2].. (To avoid misunderstanding, this does not mean that "clay is (always) not a building material", and clay is sometimes called a building material, for example, on a wall at a construction site. When the clay is brought to the construction site in the exact form of clay and used by the left officer at the stage of performing the "left officer's work", the clay is called "building material".)

(Next, focusing on the word "material" in the definition) a combination or processing of the above building materials, such as sandwich panels, precast concrete plates,PrefabFrom the standpoint of actually assembling a building on site, such as members (≒ prefabricated parts), rather than "materials", "members", on the contrary, "members"partsThings that should be called "(parts parts)" are also called "building materials" in a broad sense.[2]. water pipe,Gas pipe,air conditioningductThere are fluctuations in the type of building materials, which may or may not be included in "building materials".Equipment such as light-shielding equipment, soundproofing equipment, or seismic isolation equipment may not be included in building materials, or it may be included in broadly defined "building materials" (because it is incorporated into the building from the beginning and integrated with the building). Yes, there are fluctuations.However, it is common that things like air conditioners (coolers) are not included in "building materials".

Sort

There are several classification methods, such as classification by function, classification by part, and classification by type of material. →#Classification

History

Tracing the history of humankind, we began to build buildings using things that originally existed in the natural world in a simple manner, and things that are close to us while living in nature. For example, soil, mud, stones, etc. at your feet, plant-based materials (tree branches, bark, leaves, etc., grass (herbaceous) stems, etc.) that are abundant in the forest, etc.stone toolAfter I became able to master and cut trees, I would have been able to use the trunk (tree trunk) as well), and gradually began to build buildings. is there. (Even in modern times, in Africa, etc., mud (often mixed with grass) is piled up by hand, dried for a while, and repeated to make a wall, and tree branches and logs are assembled and covered with leaves like a bridge over the wall. There is an area where it is practiced to wipe the roof and make it a single house. It has been ancient to modern times to build a house using only mud, tree branches (or logs), leaves, etc. as building materials. It has been done up to.)

In addition, stones are piled up (without any special processing) and hardened with mud or mortar (cement) (made by mixing the materials at the feet) to make a wall.In ancient times, mud was put into a wooden frame and pulled out to make a "sun-dried brick" that had a constant shape and was dried in the sunlight to make a block, which was then piled up to make a building. Has also come to be done.In the ancient Mesopotamian ziggurat, in addition to the basic sun-dried mud blocks, clay-fired blocks (fired bricks) were also used on the surface of the building.In ancient Egypt, stones were processed to build magnificent temples, and only processed stones were piled up to build pyramids.In addition, as the technology for processing stones improves in various parts of the world, it will be possible to create walls in a state that modern people call "stone walls" by taking the shape of the stone in advance. It has also become possible to compose.In ancient Greece, for example, in the Parthenon, marble was elaborately processed into a magnificent white shining pillar as a building material, and timber was laid on it to make a roof structure, and ceramic roof tiles were placed on the roof. It has also come to be done to wipe.In Western Europe, it has become common to use processed stone as the main building material and walls assembled with stone as the main structure of the building.[Note 1][Note 2]

In Asia, in ancient times, the ground was dug a little to make a flooring material, and logs were used as a building material to simply assemble it into a building structure (roof structure) (the roof itself is almost the entire building). It was done to wipe 萱 etc. as a roofing material on the top.In Asia, it has become common to use timber as the main building material, and eventually to make elaborate holes in the timber and assemble them together to make a building.[Note 3]

→#history

Sort

There are several classification methods, such as classification by function (use), classification by part, and classification by material type.

Classification by function

  • Structural material-StructureSkeletonMaterial used for.西洋の(伝統的な)建築のWestern (traditional) architecturewall,arch, Oriental (traditional) wooden buildings and recent wooden houses such as the United StatesPillar,BeamMaterials such as.
  • Finishing material
    • Exterior material- ExteriorMaterial used for.建築物をBuilding(I.e.,WindIngredients needed to protect against and to improve the appearance.roofRoofing material that coversRoof Tile,slate),outer wallExterior wall material that coverstile,Bricks, Siding board, etc.).
    • Interior material- InteriorMaterials used for
  • Auxiliary materials-Other materials other than structural and finishing materials,paint,adhesiveIs included[3][1].

A single building material cannot always be clearly classified as either a structural material or a finishing material (exterior material, interior material), and is often used for multiple parts.[Note 4].

Classification by part

There is also a method of classifying from the viewpoint of which part of the building it is used for.

Classification by material type

(Speaking of materials and materials in general, not limited to architecture, they are roughly classified according to their origin, such as "earth (earth, ground, substances on the surface of the earth)", plants, metals, synthetic resins, etc. The method is the basis, and such a classification concept exists for building materials for the time being.) Regarding building materials, if they are based on materials, they are classified as follows, for example.

History

From the time of ancient Mesopotamia to the present day --- adobe

Ancient mesopotamiaFrom the time of the mud brick mud block (or) in dry areassun-dried brick Scratched block, "Adobe") Is used.たとえばFor exampleZigguratBasically, it is made of adobe, and only the surface is made of fired brick.日干しレンガは(日本人が「煉瓦」という表記を見て想像するようなものとは大いに異なりAdobe is very different from what Japanese people imagine when they see the notation "brick".[Note 7]) Adobe bricks are made by putting mud in a square wooden frame, removing it immediately afterwards, arranging it on the ground, and then exposing it to the sun for several days to dry it.It is not baked in the kiln at all.If you have only a wooden frame in advance for adobe, you will find a place with a lot of mud near the place where you are going to build a building or a place where it becomes mud just by watering it (often it is a vacant lot adjacent to the building site). ), Outdoors, secure a certain amount of ground, put mud in a wooden frame, remove it, leave it on the ground and dry it repeatedly, it can be easily mass-produced, and it is under construction Since it can be manufactured in the vacant lot next to the building, you can save the big trouble of transporting heavy items.Even in modern times, adobe isMiddle East,AfricaAll over South Americaペルー And so on, all over the worldDry zoneIt is still widely used today.

The Ancient Greek

In ancient Greece, stone, wood and ceramic materials were used.The private house had a thatched roof and a tiled roof.Parthenon templeIn the case of, the pillar of the main structural material is Penterico (Mount Pentelicus)大理石Was used, and the structural material of the roof part was timber, and the roof tiles covered it.

Ancient rome

Ancient Roman EmpireHad outstanding technology in the field of architecture and construction.A wide variety of materials such as stone, wood, cement, mortar, etc. were used.Ancient Roman architectscement,mortarThe technology was also excellent, and various formulations of cement and mortar were used according to the purpose.We also developed and mastered water-curable cement...Excellent cement used in ancient Rome (concrete) Is "by modern researchersroman concrete Roman concrete"It is called.Ancient Rome also excels in water and aqueduct technology, which is why it was possible to repair or extend the water while it was running.今もEven nowRoman ForumThere are many historical buildings of ancient Rome, and you can see their building materials.古代ローマ時代にすでに窓にAlready in the window in ancient Roman timesガ ラ スThere is a record that was beginning to be used.

en: Ancient_Roman_architecture # MaterialsSee also (Ancient Roman Architecture-Materials).

Medieval europe

中 世EuropeSo, there is a history of building stone buildings, and the building method in which the walls form the basic structure of the building is historically the mainstream.wall,PillarVariousStoneIs used (that is, the structural material is stone), andbedAnd so on大理石There is a history that stone materials such as these have been used extensively.石材をさかんに加工する必要があったのでBecause it was necessary to process the stone material activelyMasonThe profession has developed, and the vocational union (guild) Has also developed.There is also a history of wooden construction,wood(timber) Has a history of being used as a building material.In the case of wooden buildings, both structural and interior materials are often made of wood.Church Ofwindow TheStained glassWas used.It consists of soldered metal frames and colored glass.

Chugoku

ChugokuThen,wood・ Etc.plantIn addition to the original materials, many stones were also used.またAlsoPlasterEtc. are also used.The roof was made of unglazed roof tiles.In mainland China, there are records that roof tiles were manufactured in historical documents during the summer era. There are also examples of using paper as the interior material (similar to Japan).

Japan

JapanThen,Jomon PeriodMost of the residences inPit dwellingTherefore, natural plant-based materials were often used. (地面をいくらか掘り下げており、地面が床材ではあるが)構造材としてAs a structural material (although the ground is a flooring material, with some digging into the ground)logUsingreedI wiped the roof with something like that.Archaeological surveys have gradually revealed that pit dwellings were widely used not only in the Jomon period but also in the 6th and 8th centuries. Asuka PeriodThen, the influence of mainland China will increase, and as a building materialStoneとwood,XuanWe used vegetable materials such as.In Japan, as an interior material, not only woodKaragami-ShojiSuch,paperA unique culture has been formed that makes heavy use of.This is basically a culture and tendency not found in Europe.

Raw materials / applications

Interior materials, etc.

Material nameRaw material nameFeaturesUse
aluminumaluminumLight, corrosion resistant and easy to processJoinery (sashes, etc.)
PlasteringRice straw etc.Prevent cracks and peelingInterior materials (walls, ceilings)
Gypsum boardCalcium sulphateFire resistant, environmentally friendly, recyclableInterior materials (floor, walls, ceiling)
tile磁器Minimal water absorption, weather resistance, durabilityExterior materials, interior materials (floor, bathroom, etc.)
tileStormLow water absorption, hard, weather resistance, durabilityExterior materials, interior materials (bathrooms, etc.), pavement
tile陶器Water-absorbent, porousInterior material
mortarsand,cement,WedPaste-like, elasticFinishing material, skeleton adjustment, joint material, etc.
Las boardGypsum boardFire resistance, sound insulation,Interior material (base of plaster wall)

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ As a result, in Western European architecture (as opposed to Asia), even among the various craftsmen involved in architectureMasonThe role of (Ishii. Mason. Stonemasonry) was especially important.
  2. ^ Not necessarily all over Europe, but in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe, there are many areas where buildings that use almost only timber as building materials (with almost no stone) were made.
  3. ^ Therefore, in contrast to Europe, in Asia, among the various craftsmen involved in architecture,timber processingThe role of the carpenter to do this was especially important.
  4. ^ concreteIs mainly contained in structural materials, but it can also be used as an exterior material.brickWas originally born as a structural material, but is often used as a decorative finishing material.
  5. ^ Most of the pillars of Athens buildings are Pentelicus marble.Since then, marble has become a standard building material in the West.
  6. ^ ParisMost of the buildings in the area are made of tuff excavated from the nearby underground.
  7. ^ If you write "brick", it includes the Chinese character "brick", which means "baked", which is contrary to the actual situation of adobe that is just dried in the sunlight. It has become.

Source

  1. ^ a b Yoshito Kawakami, et al., "Building Materials", Asakura Shoten, April 2009, 4, First Edition, First Edition,ISBN 9784254268768
  2. ^ a b c World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition "Building Materials"
  3. ^ a b c Hirozo Mihashi, et al., "Building Materials", Kyoritsu Shuppan, April 2007, 4, first edition, 15st edition published,ISBN 9784320076952

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