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📢 | Release of a new sense of cosmology handbook "The true identity of the universe" that unravels the "mystery of the universe" with "logical thinking" ...


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Released "The True Identity of the Universe", a new sense of cosmology handbook that unravels the "mystery of the universe" with "logical thinking" ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
Nowadays, the "heliocentric theory" in which the earth is moving has become the common sense in the world as the truth.
 

Sunrise Publishing Co., Ltd. (Location: Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Representative Director: Keisuke Sato) has published a new book, "The Positive of the Universe ... → Continue reading

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism(Chidosetsu)The center of the universe is the sun, and the earth is another惑星Around the sun withrotationwhile doingrevolutionThe theory that you are doing.The center of the universe is the earthPtolemaic theoryIt is a theory that is opposed to (Earth-centered theory).Sun-centered theory"HeliocentrismHowever, whether the earth is moving and whether the sun or the earth is the center of the universe are different concepts, and the heliocentric theory is ".HeliocentrismIt has been pointed out that it is inappropriate as a translation of.Although the interpretation of the Bible and the question of whether the earth moves were related, the earth-centered theory was never a Catholic doctrine.[1]..The process of establishing the heliocentric theory (sun-centered theory) is often told by the model of the brave struggle of scientists against religious people (Christianity), but this is a story made after the 19th century, and it is a fact. Is different[1].

History

Ancient heliocentric theory

4nd century BCア リ ス ト テ レ スFrom the age ofCopernicusAppears16st centuryUntil then, the earth is in the center of the universe, and the surrounding celestial bodies are moving.Ptolemaic theoryHas been believed.In ancient times, when you actually see it with your own eyes, the sun rises above the horizon and then falls below the horizon, and as long as celestial bodies other than the sun move in the same way, you will receive the phenomenon as it is. It was normal to interpret.

HoweverMonthRegarding the fact that the movement is different from other celestial bodies, and that astronomical observations will develop惑星Was also recognized to behave differently from other celestial bodies, and occasionally to move in the opposite direction on the celestial sphere (Retrograde).

Meanwhile,CopernicusSome people thought that the earth was moving before that.Famously around the 5th-4th centuries BCPhilolausSo, he has a central fire in the center of the universe, and all celestial bodies including the earth and the sun are around it.revolutionI thought.

Especially outstanding was the last of the Ionian era in the 3rd century BC.AristarchusIs.He argued that the Earth is spinning, the Sun is in the center, and five planets revolve around it.What is good about his theory is that it puts the sun in the center and clearly and completely shows the arrangement of the planets.This goes beyond the idea of ​​a mere "sun-centered theory" of the planet.RetrogradeCan be explained perfectly.This has almost reached the level called "science".Since the advocacy of this theory in 280 BC, humanity has not reached the level of Aristarchus for 1800 years before the advent of Copernicus.[2].

In addition, posterityLeonardo da VinciAlso, the content about the heliocentric theory is "Lester manuscriptIt is written in.

In a broad sense, these also fall into the heliocentric theory (sun-centered theory).

The predominance of the Ptolemaic theory

2st centuryToApollonius,Hipparchus,Claudio PtolemySystematized the Ptolemaic theory.They never advocated the Ptolemaic theory from superstitions and religious ideas, but based on the knowledge known at the time, they advocated the Ptolemaic theory as a result of scientific and rational interpretation.On the other hand, according to Aristarchus's heliocentric theory, why birds flying in the sky are not left behind by the rotation of the earth, and why stones thrown straight up fall to their original positions without being left behind by the rotation of the earth. It was said that the weakness was that it could not be explained.Also proposed by ApollodorusEpicycle and epicycleThe concept of, and also proposed by PtolemyEquantWith the concept of, the Ptolemaic theory was able to explain the retrograde of the planet almost perfectly in the accuracy of astronomical observation at that time.

However, there was something strange.for example

  • The unit of "5 year" always appears in the orbit calculation of all 1 planets.[3]
  • Unclear evidence of why the order of the planets is that order
  • There are a few errors regarding the retrograde of Mars.

And so on.However, no other theory that could explain these phenomena and accurately predict the position of the planet appeared.

Also in EuropeThe Ancient GreekScience has stagnated since the times,Western Roman EmpireAfter the fallDark ageWill be greeted.As we will see later, science is once again flourishing in Europe.RenaissanceAfter that.

For this reason, albeit with scientific difficulties16st centuryUntil then, the Ptolemaic theory was supported.As the accuracy of astronomical observation improved, a deviation from the Ptolemy system began to be seen, which was explained by overlaying the epicycle on the epicycle. In the 16th centuryCopernicusAlthough he proposed the heliocentric theory, it was not superior to the geocentric theory in terms of the accuracy of astronomical observation.

Age of Discovery

Ptolemaic theoryThe system has long been believed, but in time its various cracks have become clear.

Age of DiscoveryPreviously, the operation of vessels was exclusively coastal voyages, limited to the area where the land was visible, and it was not possible to navigate the open ocean without any landmarks.compassWith the advent of, it is possible to sail away from the land,CompassWith an accurate star map, I can now accurately grasp my latitude even in the open sea.However, there were quite a few problems with the star catalog at that time.[4].. Especially惑星There was always an error in the position of several degrees.

In addition, another problem was emerging.Was used at that timeJulian calendar1 yearObserved yearIt was slightly longer.As a result, more than 45 years have passed since the enactment in 1000 BC, and there is a gap between the calendar and the operation of celestial bodies. For example, the vernal equinox day on the calendar is March 3, but it is actually observed.spring equinoxWas March 10th, 3 days earlier.Vernal Equinox Day is one of the most important events in ChristianityEasterIt is a reference date for calculating the date of, and it was a problem that it was off by 10 days.This problemRoger baconIt was raised by, but was left unattended for about 300 years.

Generally speaking, one year is strictlyReturn yearAnd its definition isEquinoxorSolsticeThe time from to the next same equinox or solstice.However, in the Ptolemy system believed in the 16th century, the value of one year is an amount of independence isolated from other astronomical values.[5]There was no way to determine the value of the year, other than measuring the position of the sun over decades to hundreds of years.According to Kuhn, this observation has been very difficult, and the calendar reform problem has always plagued pre-1th century astronomers.

Introducing Copernicus

Catholic church OfPriestMetNicolaus CopernicusFocused on this error.HelloIt is said that the heliocentric theory was regarded as the neoplatonist sun belief.[Source required]For such religious reasons, it was a serious problem for him to continue to use the inaccurate length of the year.CopernicusAristarchusKnowing the research of, centering on the sun, the earth spends a year around itrevolutionAs what to do, 1Stellar year365.25671 days, 1Return yearWas calculated as 365.2425 days. There are two types of values ​​for one year, depending on whether the standard for one year is set at the position of the sun or at the position of another star.

Copernicus1543 Immediately before he died in the book "About the rotation of celestial bodies』Published.There, I described all the measurement methods and calculation methods of the heliocentric theory.In this way, anyone can remeasure the length of one year and the radius of revolution of each planet in the same way.Copernicus is considered to be the founder of the heliocentric theory because of this verification.[6].

Also, about this achievementGalileo GalileiWas described as "reviving the sun-centered theory"[2].

Theories after Copernicus

after that,PopeGregory XIIIBy1582 ToGregorian calendarHowever, Copernicus's heliocentric theory was not incorporated into the theory of the calendar reform.Ptolemy's Ptolemy theory has not been adopted either.

However, Copernicus's first book in Latin, the theory of lunar operation in Arabic astronomy and the calculated one-year values ​​were used as references during the calendar reform.There is also a theory that Copernicus rediscovered the operation theory of this month independently of Arabia.

Copernicus's heliocentric theory

theory

Copernicus's heliocentric theory is not merely a positional transformation of the center of the geocentric theory from the earth to the sun.In the heliocentric theory, the orbit of one planet fixes the orbit of another planet.In addition, the values ​​of the revolution radius and the revolution period of all planets including the earth are related to each other.The orbital radius of each planet is determined by the ratio to the orbital radius of the earth.Similarly, the distance between the earth and each planet can be calculated.This is a big difference from Ptolemy's Ptolemy theory.Ptolemy's Ptolemy theory could not measure the distance between planets in any way.Also, according to the heliocentric theory, the revolution radius and revolution cycle of each planet are related to the values ​​of all the planets, so if any value changes even a little, the whole system will collapse.[7]..This is also a major feature not found in Ptolemy's Ptolemy theory.Many researchers believe that the creation of this system, which does not allow even the slightest changes, is the reason why Copernicus was convinced that this theory was true.

According to Copernicus's heliocentric theory, planets revolve in a circular orbit centered on the sun.The planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn in the order of proximity to the Sun.[8]..Planets with a short orbital period are closer to the Sun.However, in reality, simple circular orbits alone cannot explain the fine movements of each planet, and Copernicus's book continued to use epicycles and the off-center sun.[1]..In reality, the orbit of the planet is an ellipse instead of a perfect circle, and a simple circle could not explain the motion. Did not notice[9].. "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Body" was published shortly before his death, but did not cause the criticism that Copernicus feared.[1]..The book was read, but most readers were not persuaded and had few supporters.[1]..Copernicus's book was more like a theory book, and although it was possible to calculate the length of a year, it did not describe how to completely calculate the movements of the five planets.His theory was neither more compatible with observational data than the previous Earth-centered theory, nor was it naturally simple.It was difficult to think that his theory was true, as the moving earth clashed with basic natural sciences, common sense, and perhaps the Bible.[1]..Objects were thought to naturally fall into the center of the universe, the lowest point in the universe, but Copernicus's theory did not explain why the Earth did not fall towards the Sun.[1]..Also, if the earth makes one revolution in 24 hours, it should be moving at a very high speed, but I could not feel the movement and the birds flying in the sky were not left behind.If the earth orbits the sun, the starsparallaxHowever, no parallax was observed.The lack of parallax indicated that the Earth was not moving or that the stars were mysteriously far away.Assuming no parallax and the Earth moving, the star would be at least 2,400 billion kilometers away, but its far-reaching voids were puzzling to the reader.[1].

Copernicus post-copernicus heliocentric theory

For these reasons, few considered the Copernicus system to be true, but many astronomers at the time did not believe that it could reliably explain whether the Sun or the Earth was the center of the universe. rice field[1]..What they wanted was not a theoretical book, but a simpler star catalog that could calculate planets and moon age by applying the numbers in the table.At that timeastrologyThis is because it has great practical significance in weather forecasting and medical treatment, and it was necessary to calculate the positions of planets in the past, present, and future in minutes.The table for determining the position of the planet is simpler in the solar core system, and the Copernicus system was used as a convenient fiction.[1].

In Copernicus's book, the values ​​required for calculation are scattered all over the place, and it was difficult to predict the position of the planet by that book alone.1551 ,Erasmus ReinholdIncorporated the Copernicus theoryPrussian Star Catalog"created.However, the calculation was complicated because the number of epicycles was larger than that of Ptolemy's Ptolemy theory.The error was also slightly smaller in the Prutenic table, but it was not much different from the Ptolemy theory.The position calculation of the planet was made based on the Ptolemaic theory after that.Alfonso Star CatalogContinued to be used in parallel.However, Owen Gingerich claims that the Alfonso star catalog was replaced by the Prutenic table during this period.

Until then, the position of the planet could not be predicted without using the Ptolemy theory.Other similar methods have been devised, but none have been able to forecast with accuracy that surpasses the Ptolemy theory.However, the status of the only absolute Ptolemy theory was greatly shaken at this time when it was found that the position of the planet could be predicted with the same or higher accuracy based on the Copernicus theory.

Tycho BraheIs a stellarAnnual parallaxHowever, the earth was stopped because it could not be observed with the telescope at that time, but the sun followed the five planets around the earth.revolutionHe advocated an eclectic idea of ​​doing.The first professional astronomers to agree with the heliocentric theory, except for Copernicus's direct disciple Retics.Johannes Keplerwas.[10]1597 , Published "Mysteries of the Universe".He defended Copernicus by claiming that he fully agreed with the Copernicus theory.Following these,Galileo GalileiAlso advocated the heliocentric theory.

Galileo Galilei found a lot of evidence in favor of the heliocentric theory.First by experimentLaw of inertiaI found.This is the reason why Apollodorus, Hipparchus, Ptolemy and others denied the heliocentric theory, why birds flying in the sky are not left behind on the rotation of the earth, why stones thrown straight up are not left behind on the rotation of the earth. It was a rational explanation as to whether it would fall back to its original position.And in actual astronomical observation,Jupiter OfsatelliteIf you discover and the earth movesMonthSealed a counterargument to the heliocentric theory that he would be left behind.Also, GalileoVenusI also observed the phases of the.this is,地球とVenusIt was an indication that the distance was changing.Moreover(I.e.Observe sunspots and the sun toorotationI showed that I was doing it.Galileo published these in a paper.All of this provided favorable evidence for the heliocentric theory.Galileo thought that the ebb and flow of the tide was also evidence of the heliocentric theory, but was later denied that the ebb and flow of the tide was due to the attraction of the moon.

Galileo trial

Johns Hopkins University OfHistory of science教授(English edition)Points out that "Galileo and the Church" is a mythical and misleading episode.[1]..It was an incident involving intellectual, political, and personal issues, and although it has not been fully elucidated yet, it is known that it was not a simple composition of "religion vs. science."[1]..The composition of the conflict between science and religion is a story created by scientists in the 19th century.[1].

The geocentric theory was never the formal doctrine of the Catholic Church, and the church had no direct interest in the question of whether the earth-centric theory or the sun-centric theory was true.Galileo's supporters and opponents existed both inside and outside the church, and Galileo's first major supporters were Jesuit astronomers.[1].InquisitionThe order to withdraw the Earth movement that Galileo issued was untimely, political plots, church factions, biblical hermeneutics, and a friend of the Pope.Urbanus VIIIt is believed that it was caused by a conflict with (Maffeo Barberini).[1]..It was the church that had the right to interpret the Bible, but the "moving earth" was involved in the interpretation of the Bible, and Galileo rushed to defend his theory on this issue in the 1610s. Was[1]..The method of rejecting traditional interpretations in order to pass on one's claim is contemporaneous.ProtestantWas similar to[1]..Galileo promised to treat it as a hypothesis with Pope Urban VIII until there was clear evidence of the sun-centered theory and the movement of the Earth, and obtained permission to write the Astronomical Dialogue.[1]..However, when the book came out with the approval of Vatican licensees and censors, Pope Urban VIII was told by the person who played the clown, with only a few touches on the last page of what he promised. I knew that[1].Thirty years warUrban VIII, who was exhausted by diplomatic negotiations, political disputes and criticisms, felt insulted and was furious.InquisitionRefused to propose a plea bargain (if the plea bargain was granted, Galileo would have been guilty of a minor offense and returned home), ordered Galileo to withdraw the Earth's movement, and Galileo agreed.[1]..But including the nephew of UrbanusCardinalSome of them refused to sign Galileo's sentence, which turns out to be not the consensus of the church.[1].

Later, Galileo was put under house arrest in his villa in Tuscany, where he continued to work, taught his disciples, and wrote the most important book, The New Science Controversy.[1]..Today, Galileo is often said to have been condemned and imprisoned as a heretic, but it is a mistake.[1]..There is no evidence in the episode that Galileo muttered "still the earth is moving" at the time of the trial, but it has been symbolically handed down to this day.

After the Galileo trial

It is difficult to accurately estimate the impact of Galileo's decision.Rene DescartesAnd someNatural philosophyNo longer try to express conviction in the Copernicus theory[1]..Catholic priests could no longer openly support the Copernican system and adopted the Tycho Brahe system or a variant thereof.[1]..But on the other hand, scientific exploration, including astronomy, continued to take place in Italy and other Catholic countries.[1].Johannes KeplerIt is,Holy Roman EmpireAlthough he was an imperial mathematician (astrologer with a court), he continued to advocate the heliocentric theory, and even if his book was designated as a forbidden book by the Roman Curia, he was not persecuted for that reason.

Copernicus's theory is bound by the conventional wisdom that celestial bodies make circular motions, and similar to Ptolemy's geocentric theory, he used epicycles to explain the movement of planets.Kepler carefully studied Tycho Brahe's observation records and found that assuming that the orbit of the planet was an ellipse, it could explain the orbit more simply and accurately.Rudolph table』(Rudolph star catalog),1627 Published in.The Rudolph catalog, which is 30 times more accurate than its predecessors, has spread rapidly, no matter what the Holy See says.惑星An era was about to begin in which the position of could not be calculated without the theory of heliocentrism.Prior to the accuracy of the Rudolph table, the shortcoming of the heliocentric theory that annual parallax could not yet be observed was considered a trivial problem.

But why neither Kepler nor Galileo are left behind by birds地球I still couldn't give an accurate answer to the question of why it didn't stop and kept moving.Galileo discovered the law of inertia, but did not explain why the phenomenon occurred.It is to complete thisIsaac NewtonI had to wait for the appearance of.Newton formulates inertia,The law of universal gravitationBy discovering and presenting a new methodology that makes it unnecessary to hypothesize the cause in science, the heliocentric theory can answer all questions and prove its correctness by calculating the position of the planet. It became a theory.

In addition, Galileo and Kepler's heliocentric theory was that the center of the universe was the sun.Newton's law of universal gravitation shows that the planet revolves around the sun simply because the sun is much heavier than the planet, and there is no evidence that the sun is the center of the universe. rice field.Many researchers have been bound by the idea that the sun is the center of the universe even after Newton, for example.William Herschel TheGalaxyWhile discovering that it has a disk-like structure, he thought that the Sun was at the center of it, but gradually the recognition that the Sun was just one of many stars became widespread.The fact that the annual parallax is still unobservable means that the star is far away from the planet, and yet the light reaching the earth means that the star is a celestial body on a scale comparable to or surpassing the sun. Because it meant.

However, in order to solidify the proof of the heliocentric theory,James Bradley OfAberrationDiscovery,Friedrich Wilhelm BesselSuccessful observation of annual parallax is also required.

1992 PopeJohn Paul IIAdmitted the error in the Galileo trial and officially apologized[11].. Pope in 2008Benedict XVIOfficially acknowledges the heliocentric theory that "his research was not against faith"[12].

2014 years,American Society for the Promotion of ScienceHas published results that about one in four Americans still do not know that the earth is revolving around the sun.[13].

Sun-centered theory and Christianity

When referring to the heliocentric theory, it is almost always the heliocentric theory.キ リ ス ト 教It is alleged that he was persecuted by a religious person.Lawrence M. Principe says that the struggle model devised and popularized in the late 19th century, the brave battle between "scientists" and "religiousists," is now (2011) denied by all historians of science. Says[1]..This model does not give a correct understanding of the historical situation.Early modern EuropeNatural philosophyThose believed that knowing nature was understanding God, and there was no contradiction between faith and scientific inquiry.[1]..For reference, both theories are listed together.

Grounds for alleged persecution

  • Nicolaus CopernicusFeared that the novelty of the system would be criticized, and hesitated to announce it after continuing to elaborate for more than 25 years.The announcement was just before his death.
  • "About the rotation of celestial bodiesWas published by the Lutheran minister Andreas Ogiander, who was commissioned to publish it, with an anonymous preface, "a purely mathematical assumption," to undermine Copernicus's claim.
  • Even after the announcement, no astronomers agreed with the heliocentric theory.Astronomers took this action because they feared persecution (for the actual circumstances).# Copernicus's heliocentric theorychecking).
  • Martin LutherSaid the Copernicus theory, "This idiot is trying to turn the heavens and the earth upside down," and denied the heliocentric theory.result,ProtestantBut the heliocentric theoryIsaac NewtonWill be subject to persecution until the appearance of.
  • He defended Copernicus's heliocentric theory, claiming that the universe, which was previously thought to be finite, is infinite.Giordano BrunoIt is,InquisitionBe hung up1600 ToFire punishmentWas dealt with.
  • Galileo GalileiWas persecuted for advocating the heliocentric theory (for the actual circumstances#Galileo Trialchecking).
  • 1616 ToRoman PopeBanned the heliocentric theory (different from historical facts)[1]).
  • 1633 At the timePopeUrbanus VIIIs himselfGalileo GalileiIn the second religious trial against the Inquisition, he was sentenced to heresy (it is a folklore that he was convicted as a heretic, and in fact he was neither condemned nor imprisoned as a heretic, and the basis of this theory is different from historical facts.[1]).
  • "About the Rotation of the Celestial Body" was published by the Roman Curia in 1616 until 1835.Forbidden bookWas made[14].

"The sun-centered theory was the reason for the criticism."

  • Christian priests claim that the earth can move神There is no problem because it can prove the greatness of, but it is claiming that the earth is moving神It is said that he thought that he would deny the greatness of.
  • 1539 Martin Luther first criticized the heliocentric theory as a religious issue.LutherThe Old Testament OfJoshua[15]Pointed out that it contradicts the miraculous statement that God stopped the movement of the sun when the Israelites and Amorites fought in[Source required].
  • Was the Chief Executive Officer of the Galileo TrialRobert BellarmineThe Cardinal believes he can prove the mobility of the earth, but said he wonders if he can prove the movement of the earth.
  • ア リ ス ト テ レ スDraw the flow ofScholasticismScholars advocated the Ptolemaic theoryア リ ス ト テ レ スIt is said that it was a problem that the theory of was denied.
  • Catholic churchHowever, in Galileo's "Astronomical Dialogue," the Aristotle scholars who are blamed by the aristocrats who advocate the heliocentric theoryPope-Urbanus VIIIt is said that he thought that it was a rubbing.

Counterargument

The model of struggle between "scientists" and "religious people" as described above is now denied.[1]..The following counterarguments were made to the above theory (which is not currently supported).

  • Copernicus hesitated to publish his theory, if he made a mistake, he or sheCatholic churchThis is because he was afraid that his honor and authority would be lost.
  • Copernicus's heliocentric theory is in the form of a manuscript1514 It has been disseminated since then, and if it is persecuted or banned, it should be banned or burned before publication.
  • It was the prominent clergy who rushed to Copernicus, who hesitated to publish his theory, and the Pope's private secretary gave a lecture on the Copernican system for the enjoyment of Pope Clement VII and the Cardinals.[1].
  • Copernicus wrote a commentary book on his theory before his death was approaching.ProtestantIt is published in the name of a disciple who was, but neither has been persecuted.
  • "About the rotation of the celestial body"PopeThere is a dedication to.At that time, writing a dedication would have required the permission of the other party, and it is clear from this that the Catholic Church did not persecute the heliocentric theory at that time.
  • Gregorian calendarPope of Rome on the occasion of the calendar reform toGregory XIIIThe calendar reform committee, which was set up directly by the company, also used the figures in Copernicus's "On the Revolution of the Celestial Body" (of course, the figures of other scholars) to calculate the length of one year required for the calendar reform.
  • What the Protestant Martin Luther criticized was the Catholic Church itself.Luther criticized the heliocentric theory simply because Copernicus, who advocated the heliocentric theory, was a priesthood of the Catholic Church.Luther was also generally critical of the study of classics such as humanism and natural sciences.
  • The person in charge of printing "About the Rotation of the Celestial Body" (published in 1543) is a Protestant.Protestants were critical of the heliocentric theory from the beginning, as can be seen from Luther's example above.It is probable that this had an effect and the preamble was added without permission.
  • The reason why few astronomers immediately agreed with the heliocentric theory was that the Copernicus values ​​were inaccurate.Ptolemaic theoryThis is because the position of the planet could not be calculated more accurately than when it was calculated in.on that evidence,Johannes KeplerAs soon as he published the more accurate "Rudolph Star Catalog", all European astronomers began to use it.
  • Giordano BrunoWas burned at the stake(I.e.Not because he said it was the center, but because he criticized the Catholic Church at the same time.Bruno is not an astronomer (does not perform astronomical calculations, etc.), although he has evidence of teaching astronomy.The most angry part of the church in Bruno's theory about astronomy is the sun and others.starIt is the same kind of star as, and it is not a special star, and there is no specific center in the universe, and in that sense, the earth is not a special star.Of course, Bruno's theory was correct, and it is believed that some astronomers thought the same way at the time, but no one at the time claimed it.
  • Galileo trialIs not a judgment of the heliocentric theory, but a trap set up by political opponents to close the path of Galileo's career, which was beginning to advance at that time, and the heliocentric theory was only used for that reason.on that evidence,Advocating the heliocentric theoryheresyNo one has been identified since Galileo.Also, it has not existed before Galileo (Bruno's guilty charges do not clearly state the heliocentric theory).this time period,Roman PopeIt is true that he banned the heliocentric theory, because he had to give a reason first in order to convict Galileo.[Source required].
  • "About the rotation of the celestial body"1616 ,Galileo trialIt was listed on the banned book list just before the start of, but it is conditional on making ten corrections.[14].. In 1620 there was a place that should be deleted[16].
  • Catholic church The(I.e. popeBecause I thought it was a symbol of(I.e.It is said that he did not consider the idea that is at the center as a problem.The Holy See1620 When he asked for corrections to Copernicus's "On the Revolution of the Celestial Body," it is said that the description of the motion of the Earth was more problematic than the description of the center of the universe.

Ancient Chinese "heliocentrism"

Even in ancient China, there was a unique "heliocentric theory". ""Liezi"of"QiThe original text of the story says, "The heavens and the earth we are in are just tiny things in the infinite space" (husband, heaven and earth, one in the air), which was already on a cosmic scale at that time. It turns out that there was a recognition that even "heaven and earth" was a minute existence (however, the ancient Chinese did not know that "heaven and earth" was actually "earth")."" which was popular in the Han dynastyResumeHowever, there are some simple heliocentric theories.for example"Spring and autumn"The heavens turn left and the earth moves right (heavenly left rotation, earth right movement)" and "If the earth moves, it will be seen as a celestial event (earth movement rule celestial event)". .. ""Shosho』(Calligraphy) Is a bizarre heliocentric theory that the earth moves north, south, east, and west and up and down every year. Immobility, ignorance of people ").It's just like a person on a big ship with closed windows can't perceive the ship moving. "唐 OfLiu ZongyuanHowever, based on this Chinese heliocentric theory, he wrote Chinese poetry ("Tento").[17]..As mentioned above, there is an opinion that the "heliocentric theory" is inappropriate as a translation of the Western Heliocentrism (the sun-centered theory. In modern Chinese, the "heliocentric theory").Although the ancient Chinese "heliocentrism" is a different view of the universe from Heliocentrism, it is a literal heliocentric theory that clearly preaches "heliocentrism" such as "heliocentrism", "heliocentrism", and "heliocentrism". Met.

Heliocentric theory of the medieval Islamic world

Omar KhayyamIslamic astronomers of the era already knew the "sun-centered theory (heliocentric theory)", but it is speculated that professing it was silent because there was a danger of being attacked by Islamic orthodoxism. There is[18]..One of the grounds is Umar Khayyam's Quatrain (Le Bayert) Is the next one[19].

We are confused by the world around us
It seems like a rotating lantern
The sun is the light and the world is the bone of the lantern
We go back and forth like a shadow picture in it

In addition, Copernicus's heliocentric theory even speculates that the prototype was actually in astronomy in the Islamic world.[20].

on the other hand,Abu Raihan al-Biruni(973-1048) describes the heliocentric theory in his book, Masoud Hoden.Also (although it is unknown whether it is a ground motion theory)Abbasid OfMa'munIn the age ofAl-Fuwari's MeIs on the premise that the earth is a sphere near the Sinjar Plain and Palmyra, north of the Euphrates River.LatitudeandMeridian arcLongSurveying(From the survey results, the earth'sPerimeterIs 3 kilometers and has a diameter of 9,000 kilometers).

Heliocentrism and Japan

Keicho 11 years (1606 )Jesuits OfMonk,Ilman FabianとLinsanIs in a global dispute.Fabian is a heliocentric theorySpherical Earth theoryInsisted and argued.This timeLinsanIs the heliocentric theorySpherical Earth theoryResolutely do not acceptPtolemaic theoryIt was decided that Razan would win by insisting on the Earth square theory.[21].

Tokugawa YoshimuneIn the age ofキ リ ス ト 教After permitting the import of foreign books translated into Chinese other thanTokugawa IeharuIn the age ofYoshinaga MotokiIs the first in Japan in "Waran Earth Illustrated" and "Tenchi Nikyu Usage"CopernicusIntroduced the heliocentric theory of.Yoshinaga Motoki's discipleTadao ShizukiIs in the "Kyokusho Shinsho"KeplerLaw andNewtonian mechanicsWas introduced.Of the painterShiba GanghanIntroduced Western astronomy such as the heliocentric theory in "Waran Tensetsu" and made a star map called "Waran Tenkyuzu".Flag book OfKatayama Matsusai(Enzen) was taught about the heliocentric theory by Shiba Kokan, and has written books that introduce the heliocentric theory such as "Astronomical Abbreviation Name".Of the doctorAsada Goryu 1763 In, for the first time in the world, using the heliocentric theory of Kepler's elliptical orbiteclipseI predicted the date and time of.The shogunate should change the calendar to a calendar system based on Western astronomy.Takahashi Yoshitoki,Hazama ShigetomiCommanded to1797 Adopted an elliptical orbit for the operation of the moon and the sunKansei calendarWas completed.Shibukawa KagesukeIncorporating the achievements of Western astronomyTemporary calendarTo complete1844 The calendar was changed from the Kansei calendar to the Meiji era.solar calendarWas used until was introduced.

BuddhismIn the world, in the early Edo periodYusu Rokuof"Tenkyo or Q"soPtolemaic theoryWas introducedSumiyamaSince the view of the universe shook文 雄,PujiThey were defending Mt. Meru's view of the universe.After the introduction of the heliocentric theory, this defense was developed in a form of increasing precision,Entsu TheTrigonometric tablesOr create[22], MathematicianMei WendingWhile referring to, he wrote the book "French National Calendar Elephant Edition", which is a Buddhist view of the universe and defends the calendar.He also claimed that the Western calendar also originated in India.[23].

What the heliocentric theory brought

The heliocentric theory has had a great influence on philosophers and scientists in the world, not just on the problem of planetary orbit calculation.The era when the heliocentric theory was bornScientific revolutionThe era of era has given so much to science as a whole, and科学It also reflects the time when humans began to influence human life.

"A new theory that upsets (proves) common sense"Copernican turnIt is a remnant of that.AlsorevolutionThe word (Revolution) was originally a term that refers to this scientific revolution, and was later diverted to a political term.

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Lawrence M. Principe, "Scientific Revolution" Translated by Akira Sugaya and Toshihiro Yamada, Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd., 2014
  2. ^ a b Karl SaganWritten by Shigeru Kimura "Cosmos Under" P.49 The first heliocentric theory in history ISBN-4 02-260270-8
  3. ^ Almagest
  4. ^ Translated by Takahashi, "On the Revolution of the Sky, Copernicus Nobody Read"
  5. ^ Almagest
  6. ^ World Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Thomas Kuhn, Copernicus Revolution, Translated by Keiichi Tsuneishi, Kodansha, 1989
  8. ^ Uranus, Neptune, and asteroids have not yet been discovered during this period.
  9. ^ The accuracy of the values ​​used by Copernicus was poor, and it was difficult to find an elliptical orbit in any case.
  10. ^ Kepler visited Brae in 1599 and became a collaborator.Although there is a description that he is an assistant, he claims that Kepler himself was welcomed as a collaborator, and there is no wording that Brahe himself will be welcomed as an assistant in the remaining letters sent to Kepler.
  11. ^ "Pope John Paul II apologizes to Galileo"Current affairs dot com], January 1992, 10.2021/2/14Browse.
  12. ^ "Pope admits heliocentric theory for the first time / Benedict XVI"Shikoku Shimbun], January 2008, 12.2021/2/14Browse.
  13. ^ "Approximately one in four Americans are unaware of the" revolution of the earth, "and the findings.". AFP (Agence France-Presse). (October 2014, 2). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3008555 2014/5/17Browse. 
  14. ^ a b Owen Gingerich, "Copernicus Nobody Read" Hayakawa Publishing ISBN-4 15-208673-4
  15. ^ Chapter 10: verses 12-14.
  16. ^ Jan Adamchevski "Nikolaus Copernicus" Japan Broadcast Publishing Association
  17. ^ Toru Kato, "Mysterious Ranjin" pp.274-280
  18. ^ "Omar Khayyam Rubayat" by Chin Shunshin (2004, Shueisha) pp.126-127
  19. ^ Chen Sun-sinTranslation
  20. ^ Howard R. Turner, Translated by Yoshiaki Kubo, "Islamic Culture Read in Illustrated Science" pp.138-140, ISBN 4791758641
  21. ^ Kiyonobu Itakura 1993a, p. 26.
  22. ^ Naofumi Hizuka (1979). “Introduction of foreign books related to Western mathematics (2)”. Wasan 26. http://www.wasan.jp/kinkikaisi/wasan026.pdf 2020/12/14Browse.. 
  23. ^ Kazuhiko Miyajima (2017). “Preparation of Buddhist astronomy and translation of "Buddhist calendar elephant edition" (Osaka Science Museum Research Report 27, 75 --84)". Osaka Science Museum. 2020/12/14Browse.

References


 

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