"Multi Lactic Acid Bacteria Prime" releases repackaged version as Amazon limited brand cowhope ...
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By increasing the matching rate with the lactic acid bacterium that suits you with a supplement that is a blend of various types of lactic acid bacteria, you will feel more refreshed every morning.
Cowhappi Co., Ltd. (Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture) has 12 types of live lactic acid bacteria (live bacteria) *, which is characterized by its combination ... → Continue reading
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Lactic acid bacteria
Lactic acid bacteria(Nyuusankin) ismetabolismByLactic acidTo produceBacteriaIs the general term for. For growthSugar,amino acid,Vitamin Bgroup,mineral(Mn , Mg , FeEtc.金属) Is required.Yogurt,Lactic acid bacteria drink,picklesSuch as foodfermentationContribute to. Some lactic acid bacteriaIntestinesSuch asDigestive tract(Intestinal bacteria) AndvaginaOf the intestinal environment by coexisting with or antagonizing other microorganisms.HomeostasisIt is believed to help maintain.
The name lactic acid bacterium does not refer to a specific bacterial species in the biological classification of bacteria, but is named for its properties. Those that produce a large amount of lactic acid from sugars by fermentation and do not produce a spoilage substance that causes a bad odor are generally called lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are alsoTCA circuitLactic acid is the only end product produced from its fermentation modeHomo lactic acid bacteriaWhen,Vitamin C,alcohol,Acetic acidProduces something other than lactic acid at the same timeHeterolactic bacteriumare categorized.. In addition, due to the shape of the bacteria,Lactococcus(Nyusankyukin) and rod-shapedLactobacillus(Nyusankankin) is sometimes classified. However, these are all convenient classification names.
In general, typical bacteria often called and used as lactic acid bacteria include the following genera. Not only does each produce a large amount of lactic acid by fermentation, but it is also relatively lowpHProliferates well under conditions. For these bacteria, lactic acid is the end product of fermentation, and at the same time, it is thought to play a role in suppressing the growth of other microorganisms by producing it and changing the environment to acidic, leading to the growth of themselves. ..
However, fungi that meet the following requirements are considered to be lactic acid bacteria.
- Gram positive
- spore= None
- Mobility = None
- 消费GlucoseProduces 50% or more lactic acid
- Niacin(B3) Required
Relationship with vitamins
Heterologous rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria (21 strains subject to the experiment) are B without exception1,Nicotinic acid(= Niacin (B3)) (or nicotinamide) andPantothenic acid(B5) As an essential growth element, of which 13 strains producing DL-lactic acid areL. brevis 1 other than 12 share are B2All 8 strains that produce L-lactic acid are B2Requested.
Bifidobacterium isPantothenic acid(B5) cannot be used as isPantetinNeed also,RiboflavinIs supposed to require (B2).. Bifidobacterium (B. infantis,B. short,B. bifidum,B. longitudeas well as the B. adolescentisAll of) with vitamin B in the cells1, B2, B6, B12, C, nicotinic acid (B3),Folic acid(B9)as well asBiotin(B7) Accumulates, and vitamin B is extracellularly6, B12And folic acid were produced. Vitamin B is the estimated vitamin production amount of the average amount of bifidobacteria in the human (adult) intestine.2, B6, B12, C and folic acid account for 14-38% of the required amount and are considered to be non-negligible...However, of theseVitamin B12about,Intrinsic factorVitamin B associated with12Is absorbedileumFarther from the sitecolonWith vitamin B12Is produced, so humans can get vitamin B made in the large intestine.12Can not absorb enough.
Classification by growing place
- Intestinal lactic acid bacteria
- Inhabits the intestinal tract of animals. Many species have digestive juice resistance.. The number of bacteria in the intestinal tract depends on nutrients, oxygen concentration, tolerance to gastric acid,bile acidResistance to intestinalImmunologyFactors that may not be eliminated by the system, adhesion to the intestinal wall, etc... It is said that the number of bacteria per 1 g in human feces is 100 billion for bifidobacteria and 10 to 100 for lactic acid bacteria other than bifidobacteria..
- Animal lactic acid bacteria
- Lactic acid bacteria derived from animal matter, mainly fermented milk products (cheese, yogurt). Long history of research in Europe and America.
- Vegetable lactic acid bacteria
- Okada (1988)Proposed by Lactic acid bacteria derived from plant matterAnd mainlymiso,Soy sauce,pickles,Bread.. In addition, it has been pointed out that functionality such as suppression of allergic reaction due to bacterial species ingested cannot be expected if the amount of adhered substance is taken at the same time as pickled vegetables etc..
- Marine lactic acid bacteria
- Proposed by Ishikawa (2009).. It is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from the marine environment and is characterized by halophilicity, alkalinity and alkali resistance.
Belonging to the order Lactobacillus
History of the classification of the Lactobacillus order as lactic acid bacteria
The classification system for lactic acid bacteria began in the 1900s.Gram positive,Lactic acid fermentationBy (homo-fermentation or hetero-fermentation)Lactobacillus,Pediococcus,Streptococcus,LeuconostocWas classified into 4 genera. In this shape (bacillus and cocci),CatalaseNegative was added to the condition. In the 1980sCell wallPeptidoglycanComposition, fungusfatty acidFrom Streptococcus by compositionLactococcusとEnterococcusBecame independent and from the genus LactobacillusCarnobacteriumBecame independent. At the same timeDNA OfGC contentLactobacillus was added to the Gram-positive low GC content group. As a result of the introduction of 1990S rRNA phylogenetic analysis in the 16s, most of the lactic acid bacteria were included in the Lactobacillus order. According to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd Edition, LactobacillusAerococcidae,Carnobacterium,Enterococcus,Lactobacillus,Leuconostocidae,Streptococcus familyClassified into 6 families (Streptococcus).
LactobacillusIt is,Philmictes GateBacillusLactobacillus eyesLactobacillusBelongs toGram positiveIs a bacillus ofLactobacillusAlso called. In general, the term "lactobacillus" often refers to this genus in a narrow sense. Some species produce () only lactic acid and others produce () at the same time other than lactic acid.L. del brueckii,L. acidophilus,L.caseietc.
Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus) Is easily isolated from the field and has long been used in the production of yogurt.Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lactobacillus gasseri,Lactobacillus acidophilusMany species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus are used for yogurt production.
Many live in the digestive tract of humans and animals,fecesIs also separated from. In addition, the bacterial group that is said to live in the vagina of women is mainly composed of Lactobacillus. Also,L. fructivorans,L. hilgardii,L. paracasei,L. rhamnosusSuch as some Lactobacillus speciesalcoholThere is a strong one. They areSakeAt the brewing site,Burned-out fungusOf the fungusContaminationCauses the offensive odor and sourness of sake (burns down),L. paracasei ,L. plantarum It is,Wine OfMalolactic fermentationI do.
EnterococcusThe LactobacillusEnterococcusGram-positive cocci belonging to the category of Homolactic fermentation. It lives in the ileum, cecum, and large intestine.Feculis (E. faecalis), Fesium (E. faecium) and so on. Of these, E. faecalis is a bifidobacterium (Bifidobacteria), Lactobacillus () is often used in combination with.FaecalisStocksEF-2001Stock (E.faecalis EF-2001There is a report that the cells that have been sterilized by heating have high immunostimulatory activity. In addition, E. faecalis と E. faecium TheDrug resistanceIs high,Nosocomial infectionOccupy an important position in (Vancomycin resistant enterococciIs a representative species of. ).. E. faecalis was found in some of the B vitamins (Nicotinic acid,Folic acid,Biotin) Are required, and it is known that activities are promoted when these are given..
LactococcusThe LactobacillusStreptococcusGram-positive cocci that belong to the group and take the sequence of concatenated or dicoccus. "Lactococcus" in a narrow sense. Homolactic fermentation is performed. It is often found in milk and dairy products and is used in fermented dairy products made from these.L. lactis,L. cremorisSuch. Commercially availableCaspian yogurtIt is used for.
NisinIs 34amino acidPolycyclic residueAntibacterialpeptideAnd of the foodpreservativeUsed forLactococcus lactis Caused by fermentation of. Commercially,Lactococcus lactis Ofmilk,DextroseFermentation of fermented barley extract derived from barley shochu leesObtained byGram-positive bacteriaThe growth of food and extend the life of foodProcess cheeseIt is used for processing by adding to meat, meat and beverages. manyBacteriocinNormally inhibits only closely related species, whereas nisinListeria monocytogenes(Listeria monocytogenes) Is effective against a wide range of species including.
PediococcusIs a Gram-positive coccus that belongs to the order Lactobacillus of the order Lactobacillus and has the sequence of 4 streptococci. Homolactic fermentation is performed.picklesOften separated from fermented plant products such as.P. damnosusetc.
The LactobacillusLeuconostocidaeGram-positive cocci that belong to the group and take the sequence of concatenated or dicoccus. Heterolactic fermentation.SauerkrautSeparated from fermented plant products such as.L. mesenteroidesetc.L. mesenteroides It is,WinePerform malolactic fermentation of.
Streptococcus (Streptococcus) (Streptococcus)
StreptococcusThe LactobacillusStreptococcusGram-positive cocci belonging to the group, and takes a concatenated sequence. Streptococcus (Streptococcus) Is also classified as lactic acid bacteria.Streptococcus thermophilusIs found in fermented dairy products and is commonly found in yogurt (egBulgarian yogurt) Is used to manufacture.
Belonging to Actinomycetes
Bifidobacterium(Actinomycete(actinobacteria)(Actinobacteridae)(Bifidobacteriales)(Bifidobacteriaceae) Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium)) IsActinomyceteGram-positive obligate anaerobic bacillus belonging to the group, and often shows a V-shaped or Y-shaped branched morphology during growth. CommonlyBifidobacteriaAlso called. A type of hetero-lactic acid bacterium that produces lactic acid and acetic acid.B. bifidum,B. adolescentisetc.
Bifidobacterium bacteria are the most common gastrointestinal bacteria in the digestive tract of infants, especially breast-fed infants. Then, with age, it is replaced by other anaerobic bacteria.
In recent years, in the field of medicine and supplements, Bifidobacterium is a lactic acid bacterium in the narrow sense (Lactobacillus order (Lactobacillales) Belongs to. This is lactic acid bacteriaLactominIs described. ) Is usually written differently..
Lactic acid bacteria in food
Lactic acid bacteriaFermented foodHas been used in the manufacture of. Mainly, fermented dairy products such as yogurt and lactic acid drinks,KimchiAnd somepickles,pickles,Sauerkraut,Tempeh,misoFermented plant products, such asSalted,Salmon sushiSuch asNare sushiAnd so on. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria gives these foods a change in taste and scent, mainly of sourness, and the fermentation of foods with lactic acid.pHBecause of the bias toward acidity, it suppresses the growth of other microorganisms that cause spoilage and food poisoning and enables long-term storage of food.
In addition, lactic acid bacteria are used during fermentationVitamin CThere are strains that also produceHorse milk liquorEtc. are higher in concentration than vitamin C such as raw milk before fermentation.milkContains almost no vitamin C. The reason is that calves can synthesize vitamin C themselves and do not need to ingest it from milk. Yogurt made by fermenting milk contains a small amount of vitamin C. On the other hand, in the process of manufacturing other fermented foods, lactic acid bacteriaMiscellaneous bacteriaIt may be a problem to mix in. LactobacillusL. fructivorans,L. hilgardii,L. paracasei,L. rhamnosusSuch,alcoholLactic acid bacteria that are strong againstAlcoholic beveragesWhen mixed or grown during brewing or fermentation of sake, it produces off-flavors and sourness, which reduces the commercial value of sake. This is the sake brewing siteFire fallorRottingTherefore, these bacteria are feared by sake brewers as "burn-out bacteria". In addition, a method for preventing spoilage after brewing due to lactic acid bacteria mixed by burning down has been empirically devised. This is called "fire burning"Pasteurization methodThen, you can inactivate these bacteria by heating the brewed sake at a temperature of 65℃ for 23 seconds... BurningEdo PeriodIt was done from around the time.
WineSimilarly, during storage, lactic acid bacterium fermentation may cause off-flavors and sourness, and we tried to investigate the cause.Louis PasteurResearch shows that foodcorruptionThe mechanism ofPasteurizationIt led to the invention of the pasteurization method called.
L. lactisIs an antibacterial peptide called nisin (Bacteriocin) To produce. Nisin isStaphylococcus aureus,Listeria monocytogenesSince it has high antibacterial activity against food spoilage bacteria such asFood additiveIs widely used all over the world.
Position as a human indigenous bacterium
Among the lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, are resident in the digestive tract of humans and the vagina of females, and form a part of the indigenous bacterial flora. These lactic acid bacteriaCariesIt is believed that it does not directly cause human illness except for, but rather functions as a barrier that is beneficial to the living body. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria are sometimes expressed as "good bacteria." However, although it is an extremely rare case, cases that cause infectious diseases such as lactic acid bacteremia have also been reported.[Source required].
Lactic acid bacteria in the oral cavity
Many bacteria live in the human mouth,LactobacillusMany genera also inhabit. The main ones areL. oris,L.casei,L. salivarius,L. brevisAnd so on. thisLactobacillusGenus isCariesIs said to be involved in the occurrence of. Until the mid-1889th century, when dentist Miller published a research book entitled "Human Oral Microorganisms" in 20, Lactobacillus was the main cause of caries. However, although the ability to produce lactic acid is high at present, the ability to adhere to the tooth surface is low and the number of bacteria in the plaque is small, so cariogenicity is not strong (not the main cause) and it promotes caries progression. Is said to be.
Lactic acid bacteria in the digestive tract
Many kinds of microorganisms live in the intestines of healthy humans, and lactobacilli of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are detected in the intestines of almost all humans. These lactic acid bacteria are often regarded as a kind of so-called "good bacteria in the intestine", and increasing the proportion of these bacteria in the intestinal flora (intestinal flora) helps promote health. Is hypothesized. However, regarding its effectiveness, several conclusions have not been drawn because there were several results that were not relevant to the experimental results that were significant.
Lactic acid bacteria and probiotics as good intestinal bacteria
The idea of ingesting beneficial lactic acid bacteria to the human body isPasteur InstituteIs a Russian scientist who belonged toIlya MetynikovIs considered to be the idea. Metnikov advocated a theory of self-poisoning that toxic compounds found in the small intestine would be harmful if absorbed. Then, in 1907, he published a book called The Eternal Longevity Theory,BulgariaHe noticed that there are many people with longevity and ingested lactic acid bacteria in Bulgaria, and said that he could prevent self-poisoning and become longevity because the amount of putrefactive substances decreased. In addition to lactic acid bacteria in Bulgaria,KefirIt points out that people are unknowingly ingesting lactic acid bacteria through foods such as vinegared and salted foods..
After that, research based on these hypotheses developed. And although the causes of the disease vary, toxins produced by harmful intestinal bacteria alsoLifestyle-related diseasesIt is known to be one of the factors that lead to.
Products have been developed aimed at improving the balance of intestinal flora. Of these, those that contain bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria aliveProbiotics, That does not contain viable bacteria per se, but contains nutritional sources such as oligosaccharides specifically used by bacteria called good bacteria.PrebioticsCall. It is sold and used as a health food.
For most early-developed probiotic products, including the yogurt found by Mechnikov, subsequent studies have shown that most lactic acid bacteria die in the stomach and do not reach the intestine. It was The formulation technology and the development of new lactic acid bacterium strains have made it possible for the living bacteria to reach the intestine.In recent research, it has been reported that heat-killed cells also have disease-preventing effects. ing.. Taken orally Lactobacillus , Bifidobacterium Have been reported to be difficult to survive in the human intestine.
The so-called good bacteria are represented by BifidobacteriumBifidobacteriumGenus and called lactobacillusLactobacillusLactic acid such as bacteria of the genusButyric acidな どOrganic acidThere are many things that make bad bacteriaC. perfringensRepresented byClostridiumIt often refers to those that produce so-called spoilage substances such as genus and Escherichia coli that cause a bad odor. Bad bacteria make carcinogenic substances such as secondary bile acids and nitrosamines. Many bad bacteria are difficult to grow in an environment with many organic acids.
In Japan, there is a scientific basisFood for specified health use(Tokuho) is authorized to label the function of food. The approved food contains lactic acid bacteria as yogurt, and the ingestion of food reduces intestinal environment due to improvement of constipation and diarrhea, growth of bacteria classified as good bacteria and increase of organic acid, decrease of bad bacteria and decrease of ammonia. There are many research results showing that.. Tokuho-approved foods have been researchedblood pressureSome products have been confirmed to have low serum cholesterol.hay feverThere are also research reports that allergic symptoms such as.
Is a large number of Gram-positive bacilli that live in the vagina of healthy post-pubertal women. This name is for the discovererNamed after. It does not refer to a specific bacterial species, but is a population of various bacteria mainly composed of the genus Lactobacillus. By the action of female hormones, the vaginal epithelium of women after pubertyglycogenHowever, these lactic acid bacteria are well established by using glycogen of exfoliated cells as a nutrient source. The lactic acid produced by these bacteria keeps the vaginal pH acidic, which inhibits the invasion and growth of other pathogenic bacteria. That is, it is thought that the Bacillus dederlein is responsible for vaginal self-cleaning action and plays a role as a biological barrier.
Study on lactic acid bacteria
Discovered in 1857 and laid the foundation for the classification system in 1919.. Generally, when lactic acid bacteria are used for food processing, pure culture inoculum (starter) is used to prevent contamination with other bacteria than the target bacterial species..
Part of salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (halophilic lactic acid bacteria) ( Pediococcus halophilus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Tetracoccus sp. Pediococcus acidilactici Etc.) is soy sauce, miso,Fish sauceIt plays an important role in good fermentation such as, but some salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria ( Lactobacillus fructivorans ) May generate carbon dioxide and cause the food to deteriorate (the food etc. may deteriorate and become unsuitable for food)..
Application of lactic acid bacteria to livestock
silageIs a kind of livestock feed, which is fermented from feed crops such as grass by silos.SiloWas packed ingrassIt is,Anaerobic bacteriaFermentation by lactic acid and acetic acidOrganic acidThe component ratio ofpHLowering causes grass rotMold,Aerobic bacteriaKind of activity is suppressed and long-term storage is possible.In order to make such a fermentation process successful, various know-how has been cultivated for each farmer, such as adjusting the water content and adding additives such as lactic acid bacteria.Well-fermented silage will contain abundant organic acids,cowIt greatly contributes to good fattening of livestock. A high-quality silage is one in which the proportion of lactic acid in the organic acid generated by fermentation is high. It is also desirable that the pH is 4.5 or less. Generally, the water content is adjusted to around 75%, but what is adjusted to about 40% is particularly called haylage (low-moisture silage). If the airtightness of haleyage is poor, it undergoes aerobic fermentation, resulting in poor quality..
Lactobacillus phylogenetic tree
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