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💹 | Chugoku to accelerate issuance of local special bonds and support investment expansion = state media


China accelerates issuance of local special bonds to support investment expansion = state media

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The State Council said that increased government spending would contribute to increased private investment in the first quarter of 22.

[Beijing XNUMXth Reuters] – The State Council of the People's Republic of China (Cabinet) is specializing in local governments on the XNUMXth to support the slowing economy. → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Annual expenditure

Annual expenditure(Saishutsu,British: government spending) Isfiscal yearIt refers to the expenditure of the central government, local governments, local governments, etc. (public sector) in Japan.ModernGovernment accountingThe system states that expenditures for that fiscal year will be covered by revenues for that year.Fiscal Year Independence PrincipleTherefore, it is emphasized for each fiscal year, and expenditure within one fiscal year is called expenditure.


Expenditures refer to all accounting expenditures made by the public sector within each year, so they include a wide variety of public expenditures for the year.For example社会 保障,social welfare,Public works,Education,Military, Civil servant labor costs,Public debtRedemption fee (Government bond costs)and so on.ExpendituresFiscal policyIt is an indispensable element to realize.

Under the principle of fiscal year independence, expenditures are constrained to be within revenues.In addition, most modern nations have adopted the principle of total budget principle (all revenues and expenditures must be included in the budget).budget TheParliamentExpenditures are subject to very strong budget and parliamentary constraints, as they are required to pass the vote.Therefore, there is an aspect that it is not possible to immediately respond to the demands of the people and residents.

Due to the principle of fiscal year independencerevenueAs with expenditures, the fiscal year to which they belong is a very important issue.Focus on when the cause of spending occursaccrual basis(Budget principle) and formalism that emphasizes the time when the expenditure itself is completed (Cash basis・ There are two types of thinking (settlement principle).In practice, it is unlikely that one will depend on only one of them, and in Japan, eclectic operations are carried out depending on the situation.The Asahi Shimbun has set a guideline for curbing spending increases in Japan, where social security expenses account for about one-third of spending, and is calling for drastic efforts, including system revisions.[1].

Expenditure type

Government final consumption expenditure

The act of purchasing goods and services for immediate use by the government to meet the needs of the individuals and groups that make up the community is called government final consumption expenditure.In government accounting, it is counted in the "use of income account" and is the purchase of goods and services to directly meet the individual demand (individual consumption) of the community and the demand of the group.

Public fixed capital formation

Transfer spending

Expenditures that only result in the transfer of money without the purchase of goods or services (社会 保障Expenditures, etc.) are called transfer payments.These expenditures are said to be exhaustive as they do not consume goods or services or leave products behind.In other words, transfer spending is one that does not trade goods or services at all.[2]..Examples include welfare dividends, social security and government subsidies.

International comparison

Percentage of GDP

The ratio of government expenditure to the GDP of each country is shown below (Source:Heritage FoundationとWall Street Journalby2011 Index of Economic Freedom[3]..Tax revenue is included in the comparison).

CountryOccupy in GDP
Tax burden rate (%)
Occupy in GDP
Government expenditure (%)
Albania flag ã‚¢ãƒ«ãƒãƒ‹ã‚¢24.332.3
Algerian flag ã‚¢ãƒ«ã‚¸ã‚§ãƒªã‚¢8.035.4
Angola flag ã‚¢ãƒ³ã‚´ãƒ©6.141.6
Argentina flag Argentine26.124.7
Armenian flag ã‚¢ãƒ«ãƒ¡ãƒ‹ã‚¢16.821.8
Australian flag Australia30.834.3
Austrian flag Austria42.949.0
Azerbaijan flag ã‚¢ã‚¼ãƒ«ãƒã‚¤ã‚¸ãƒ£ãƒ³17.731.1
Bahamas flag (I.e.16.820.9
Bahrain flag ãƒãƒ¼ãƒ¬ãƒ¼ãƒ³4.825.7
Bangladesh flag ãƒãƒ³ã‚°ãƒ©ãƒ‡ã‚·ãƒ¥8.815.9
Barbados flag ãƒãƒ«ãƒãƒ‰ã‚¹32.941.3
Belarusian flag ãƒ™ ラ ル ー シ30.449.6
Belgian flag Belgium46.550.0
Belize flag ãƒ™ãƒªãƒ¼ã‚º22.728.2
Benin flag (I.e.17.223.0
Bhutan flag ãƒ– ー タ タ9.034.6
Bolivian flag Bolivia28.534.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu37.650.3
Botswana flag ãƒœãƒ„ワナ30.240.2
Brazilian flag Brazil34.441.0
Bulgarian flag Bulgaria33.337.3
Burkina Faso Flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu12.121.6
Myanmar flag Myanmar3.08.0
Burundi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu18.040.0
Cambodia flag Cambodia10.513.9
Cameroon flag ã‚« メ ル ー ン18.518.5
Canadian flag Canada32.239.7
Cape Verde flag ã‚«ãƒ¼ãƒœãƒ™ãƒ«ãƒ‡20.631.1
Central African Republic flag Central African Republic7.915.5
Chad flag ãƒãƒ£ãƒ‰5.322.1
Chilean flag ãƒãƒª18.621.1
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku18.020.8
Colombia flag ã‚³ãƒ­ãƒ³ãƒ“ã‚¢19.326.5
Comoros flag (I.e.10.827.2
Flag of the Republic of Congo Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu5.326.0
Flag of Democratic Republic of Congo Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu13.122.7
Costa Rica flag Costa Rica15.620.9
Cote d'Ivoire flag ã‚³ ー ト ワ ワ ー ル15.219.7
Croatian flag Croatia23.340.7
Cuban flag Cuba41.278.1
Cyprus flag Cyprus39.242.6
Czech flag Czech Republic36.242.9
Danish flag Denmark49.051.8
Flag of Djibouti ã‚¸ãƒ–チ22.740.6
Dominican country flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu30.442.5
Dominican Republic flag Dominican Republic15.019.1
Ecuador flag Ecuador16.040.8
Egyptian flag Egypt15.434.0
El Salvador flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu13.020.0
Equatorial guinea flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu0.925.5
Estonia flag ã‚¨ã‚¹ãƒˆãƒ‹ã‚¢32.339.9
Ethiopian flag ã‚¨ãƒã‚ªãƒ”ã‚¢9.919.4
Fiji flag Fiji21.125.0
Finnish flag Finland43.249.5
French flag France44.652.8
Gabon flag ã‚¬ãƒœãƒ³9.920.1
Gambia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu19.226.0
Georgia (country) flag ã‚¸ ョ ー ジ ジ24.936.4
German flag Germany40.643.7
Ghana flag ã‚¬ãƒ¼ãƒŠ20.642.4
Greek flag Greece35.146.8
Guatemala flag Guatemala11.313.7
Guinea flag (I.e.14.717.4
Guinea-Bissau flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu10.238.8
Guyana flag ã‚¬ã‚¤ã‚¢ãƒŠ20.248.6
Haiti flag ãƒã‚¤ãƒ10.318.2
Honduras flag ãƒ›ãƒ³ã‚¸ãƒ¥ãƒ©ã‚¹16.321.8
Hong Kong flag Hong Kong13.018.6
Hungarian flag Hungary40.549.2
Iceland flag ã‚¢ã‚¤ã‚¹ ランド40.157.8
Indian flag India18.627.2
Indonesian flag Indonesia13.319.2
Iran flag (I.e.6.128.3
Irish flag Ireland30.842.0
Israeli flag Israel33.542.9
Italian flag Italy43.148.8
Jamaica flag Jamaica26.034.3
Japanese flag Japan28.337.1
Jordan flag Jordan18.336.1
Kazakhstan flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu27.726.8
Kenya flag Kenya20.930.1
Kiribati flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[4]39.0114.6
Kuwait flag ã‚¯ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒˆ1.531.8
Kyrgyz flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu23.329.3
Laos flag Laos12.518.2
Latvian flag ãƒ©ãƒˆãƒ“ã‚¢29.138.5
Lebanese flag Lebanon16.634.2
Lesotho flag Lesotho63.151.2
Liberia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu28.633.4
Libyan flag (I.e.3.443.0
Lithuanian flag ãƒªãƒˆã‚¢ãƒ‹ã‚¢30.637.4
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg36.537.2
Macau flag Macau25.914.9
North Macedonia flag Northern Macedonia28.334.5
Madagascar flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu12.918.5
Malawi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu16.538.0
Malaysia flag Malaysia15.326.3
Maldives flag Maldives21.063.1
Republic of Mali flag (I.e.15.021.2
Malta flag Malta36.044.8
Mauritania flag ãƒ¢ ー タ ニ ニ13.429.5
Mauritius flag Mauritius19.025.8
Mexican flag Mexico8.223.7
Federated States of Micronesia ãƒŸã‚¯ãƒ­ãƒã‚·ã‚¢ 連邦11.562.3
Moldova flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu33.441.6
Mongolia flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu30.841.0
Montenegro flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu30.048.8
Morocco flag ãƒ¢ãƒ­ãƒƒã‚³26.929.1
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique14.228.0
Namibian flag Namibia24.829.0
Dutch flag  Netherlands39.845.9
Nepal flag ãƒ パ ー ル10.419.7
New Zealand flag New Zealand34.541.1
Nicaragua flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu18.025.0
Niger flag ãƒ‹ ジ ェ ー ル11.423.8
Nigerian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu5.930.0
Norway flag Norway42.140.2
Oman Flag Oman3.032.6
Pakistan flag Pakistan10.219.3
Panama flag ãƒ‘ナマ10.619.5
Papua New Guinea flag ãƒ‘ ュ ュ ニ ニ26.635.0
Paraguay flag ãƒ‘ラグアイ11.814.8
Peru flag Peru16.017.3
Philippines flag ãƒ•ã‚£ãƒªãƒ”ン14.117.3
Polish flag Poland34.943.3
Portugal flag Portugal37.746.1
Qatar flag Qatar4.927.0
Romanian flag ãƒ«ãƒ¼ãƒžãƒ‹ã‚¢28.537.6
Russian flag Russia34.134.1
Rwandan flag Rwanda13.526.7
Flag of Saint Lucia ã‚»ãƒ³ãƒˆãƒ«ã‚·ã‚¢27.530.9
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ã‚» レ ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン ン25.634.1
Samoan flag ã‚µãƒ¢ã‚¢23.032.7
Sao Tome and Principe flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu16.132.9
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia6.629.1
Flag of senegal ã‚»ãƒã‚¬ãƒ«18.326.6
Serbian flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu36.344.0
Seychelles flag ã‚» ー シ ェ ェ28.139.8
Sierra Leone flag ã‚·ã‚¨ãƒ©ãƒ¬ã‚ªãƒ10.821.0
Singapore flag Singapore14.217.0
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu29.334.8
Flag of Slovenia ã‚¹ãƒ­ãƒ™ãƒ‹ã‚¢37.644.3
Solomon Islands flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu24.147.3
South African flag South Africa25.727.4
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea26.630.0
Spanish flag Spain33.941.1
Sri Lanka flag Sri Lanka13.322.6
Suriname flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu21.125.6
Swaziland flag Swaziland36.033.7
Swedish flag Sweden47.952.5
Swiss flag Switzerland29.432.0
Syrian flag (I.e.10.222.1
Taiwan flag Republic of China12.918.5
Tajikistan flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu18.727.5
Tanzania flag Tanzania14.825.5
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand16.017.7
East Timor flag æ± テ モ ー ル[5][6][7]24.697.0
Togolese flag ãƒˆ ー ゴ16.319.5
Tonga flag ãƒˆãƒ³ã‚¬25.729.9
Trinidad and Tobago flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu19.428.4
Tunisia flag ãƒãƒ¥ãƒ‹ã‚¸ã‚¢22.427.3
Turkish flag Turkey23.523.4
Turkmenistan flag ãƒˆãƒ«ã‚¯ãƒ¡ãƒ‹ã‚¹ã‚¿ãƒ³21.812.3
Uganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu11.917.8
Ukrainian flag ã‚¦ã‚¯ãƒ©ã‚¤ãƒŠ37.747.3
United Arab Emirates flag United Arab Emirates1.826.4
British flag United Kingdom38.947.3
United States flag America26.938.9
Uruguay flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu17.928.0
Uzbekistan flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu19.631.1
Vanuatu flag ãƒãƒŒã‚¢ãƒ„19.726.4
Venezuelan flag ãƒ™ãƒã‚ºã‚¨ãƒ©13.634.0
Vietnam flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu23.628.8
Yemen flag Yemen7.343.0
Zambia flag Zambia17.524.6
Zimbabwe flag Zimbabwe31.797.8


  1. ^ [1](Editorial) Next year's budget Can spending expansion be suppressed?
  2. ^ Bishop, Matthew (2012). “Economics AZ terms beginning with T; transfer". The Economist,. 2012/7/11Browse. “Payments that are made without any good or service being received in return. Much PUBLIC SPENDING goes on transfers, such as pensions and WELFARE benefits. Private-sector transfers include charitable donations and prizes to lottery winners.”
  3. ^ 2011 Index of Economic Freedom
  4. ^ An offshore investment fund underwrites government spending. For more information see: Kiribati information on economic freedom. Facts, data, analysis, charts and more. Heritage Foundation.
  5. ^ Offshore petroleum projects are sources of tax revenue. For more information see: Timor-Leste information on economic freedom. Facts, data, analysis, charts and more. Heritage Foundation.
  6. ^ http://www.gov.east-timor.org/old/fbea/wage_income_tax.php
  7. ^ http://siakhenn.tripod.com/capita.html

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Expansion of private investment


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