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📢 | Doctor's advice "What is an effective way to eat foods that boost immunity?" Supervised by Sawako Hibino


Doctor's advice "What is an effective way to eat foods that boost immunity?" Supervised by Dr. Sawako Hibino

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● Oil and vegetables to be cooked Carrots, which are rich in vitamin A, are recommended green-yellow vegetables for improving immunity, but you can get more vitamin A by eating the skin and leaves together.

Conducted a questionnaire survey on the foods ingested to improve immunity Euglena Co., Ltd. Euglena Co., Ltd. → Continue reading

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    Vegetable vitamin A

    Vitamin A

    Vitamin A (Vitamin A) is generally a substanceRetinol(Retinol, alcohol body)[1][2],Vitamin A1Also known as.In a broad senseRetinal(Retinal, aldehyde),Retinoic acid(Retinoic Acid, both Vitamin A Acid) and their 3-dehydroforms (Vitamin A2Including) and related substances[3], Including derivativesRetinoidCollectively called[3]..RetinolEssential nutrientsPromotes skin cell differentiation[4]..Vitamin A and β-caroteneNutrientsOne of theFat-soluble vitaminsare categorized.Vitamin A is present in animals andβ-caroteneThose that are converted to vitamin A in the body of animals are genericallyProvitamin ACalled.There are excess and deficiency of vitamin A, and the required intake increases in pregnant women.Retinol compounded in cosmetics as a quasi-drug in JapanWrinkleAlthough the indication of improvement effect is approved[5], Skin irritation and unstable properties as a substance are regarded as problems[6][7].

    What is Vitamin A?

    Internationally, vitamin A is used to express physiological effects, and as a substance nutritionally called vitamin A.Retinol Called (Retinol)[1]..Generally, retinol is called vitamin A and the terminal functional group is an alcoholic form.[2].

    In the body, the terminal involved in vision is aldehyde, which is an aldehyde, and the terminal involved in the regulation of gene expression is carboxylic acid.Retinoic acidIt is oxidized in order to become the main body of active action.[2]..This is broadly called vitamin A[3]..Including its related substancesRetinoidと 呼 ば れ る[8].

    Other substances that are ingested and cause the physiological effects of vitamin A in the body include retinyl esters andProvitamin Aare categorizedCarotenoidThere,β-caroteneThere are about 50 types[3]..It differs in that it is ingested as a retinyl fatty acid ester from animal foods and as a carotenoid of provitamin A mainly from vegetable foods, and carotenoids do not cause excess disease due to ingestion.[3].


    Retinol (second conversion diagram), -CH on the far right2OH (alcoholIf the part of) is -CHO, then retinal (aldehyde), -If COOHRetinoic acid(carboxylic acid).3-Dehydroretinol is a double bond in the lower left bond of the ring structure on the left side.

    Physical characteristics (retinol)

    • Molecular weight 286.46
    • UVAbsorption maximum 325 nm
    • Fluorescence wavelength Excitation 325 nm Fluorescence 470 nm
    • WedInsoluble in.
    • OxidationEasy to receive.
    • (I.e., Breaks at high temperatures.
    • Relatively stable under alkaline conditions.
    • Vitamin EStability is increased in the presence of antioxidants such as.

    Since it is easily decomposed by air, oxygen, humidity, heat, light, etc. and does not function as an active ingredient as an external medicine, it is well stored at low temperature and high oil content, and processing such as encapsulating retinol is performed. Sometimes[4]..Retinol is chemically and optically unstable, and the hydrous retinol released under ultraviolet light at a temperature of 4 degrees is completely decomposed within 2 days.LiposomesWhen processed, 8% was decomposed even after 20 days.[9].

    Almost all of the retinol was decomposed after 2 hours with respect to light, improving the properties.Retinyl retinoateAfter 24 hours, the peak of decomposition was seen, and after 4 weeks at room temperature, 90% of retinyl retinoate was still undecomposed and 70% of retinol.[10].

    Physiological activity

    Retinol is an essential nutrient that promotes skin cell differentiation[4]..Most of the vitamin A in human bloodRetinolIs.The blood concentration is usually about 0.5 µg / ml, and when it is less than 0.3 µg / ml, vitamin A deficiency symptoms are exhibited.

    β-caroteneIs broken down in the body in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine (or liver, kidney) to vitamin A.RetinoidThe name isretina Used to protect retinal cells, as derived from (retina), when deficientnight blindnessIt causes symptoms such as.Also,DNAIt is also used to control the genetic information of.

    In the human body, among the photoreceptor cells on the retina of the eyeball, rod-shaped cells that are important for mesopic vision are rods.OpsinIt binds to (protein) via a lysine residue andRhodopsinWill be.Vitamin A is a rhodopsin chromophore.Rhodopsin is one of a group of substances called visual pigments, and is an important substance as a trigger mechanism of light excitement (visual excitement) in photoreceptor cells.

    Rhodopsin signals the optic nerve in the following ways:retinaBy the mechanism in.β caroteneWhen is cut in the middle of the chain, twoTransformer typeRetinolalcoholForm of vitamin A is produced.Retinol is oxidizedRetinalTo sayaldehydeThis transformer type retinal isSis typeIs a protein that is transformed into retinalOpsinIt is stored in.This state is rhodopsin. To this rhodopsinLightWhen hit, the cis-type retinal returns to the stable trans-type, and the trans-type retinal molecule does not fit in opsin and comes off. This change細胞It is transmitted to the inside, chemically amplified, and becomes a signal that it is exposed to light.optic nerveThe trans-type retinal is once againIsomeraseIt is folded into a cis shape and stored in opsin. Eventually, retinal is consumed, so the shortage is supplemented by oxidation from retinol. Therefore, the retina is used to oxidize retinal to retinal.Alcohol dehydrogenaseIs abundant[11]¡When vitamin A, retinol, is deficient, rhodopsin, which plays the above-mentioned role, does not function and night blindness develops.

    Retinoic acidIt is,MucopolysaccharideIt is said that it promotes the biosynthesis of cell membranes and enhances the resistance of cell membranes.

    Vitamin A is fibroblast growth factor-18 ((English edition) Raise the lungsElastinIncrease expression of[12][13]For,Congenital diaphragmatic hernia It is being studied as it may be used to treat (CDH)[13].

    Daily requirements

    As a unit,International unit I used to use (IU). In the case of β-carotene, the yield and digestion and absorption rate at the time of conversion to retinol in vivo are different from those of retinol, so 12 µg of β-carotene corresponds to 1 µg of retinol.Until a while ago, vitamin A was expressed as vitamin A potency (unit: IU; IU), but now it is expressed as retinol equivalent (µg), which is the amount that acts on vitamin A.In addition, in retinol equivalent (RE) notation, 1 IU = 0.33 µg RE[14][15].

    Age rangeunit
    0-1 years1,000 ―― 1,300 IU
    1-5 years1,000 ―― 1,500 IU
    6-8 years1,200 IU
    9-14 years1,500 IU
    Adult boys2,000 IU
    Adult girls1,800 IU
    Lactating woman3,200 IU
    * Maximum allowable intake 5,000 IU for adults

    Ingestion of 100,000 IU or more may cause excessive disability.

    Studies have shown that taking 75,000 IU of retinol palmitate was safe.[16].

    Incidentally,New England Journal of MedicineAccording to the report (issued on November 1995, 11)妊娠Vitamin A requirements do not increase before and after, and adult women's requirements are 1,800 IU, both non-pregnant and during pregnancy.Therefore, unlike other nutrients, the requirement for vitamin A does not increase.Pregnant womanThere is also the view that overdose requires special attention.

    Easy to get vitamin A is high in β-carotene, a vitamin A precursorGreen and yellow vegetables, For examplecarrot,green pepper,Spinach,Komatsuna,PumpkinAnd so on.

    About vitamin A intake during pregnancy

    JapaneseMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareThe upper limit of vitamin A intake for pregnant women is 5000 IU.However, there are surprisingly many foods that contain vitamin A, and it is expected that the total intake will be excessive.It has been reported that the occurrence of malformations increases when vitamin A is ingested daily at 1 IU or more.If you take more than 10000 IU of vitamin A daily by the 12th week of pregnancy,Hydrocephalus,Cleft palateIt has been reported that the risk of developing fetal malformations is 5000 times higher than that of pregnant women with vitamin A intake of less than 3.5 IU.On the other hand, deficiency poses a risk of undifferentiated fetal malformations (such as cyclopia).It is also believed that pre-modern Japan had a poor carnivorous culture and a frequent occurrence of vitamin A deficiency.[17][18]This is in contrast to the fact that excess vitamin A induces overdifferentiated malformations (such as the cleft palate mentioned above).However, reports of teratogenicity due to overdose of vitamin A are mainlySupplementIt is reported that vitamin A (retinoic acid) derived from animals and vitamin A (retinol) derived from animals did not cause any problem even if it was ingested at 20000 IU or more.

    MedicineFor Vitamin A妊娠Within 3 months or妊娠Administration of vitamin A 5000 IU / day or more to women who wish to have it is contraindicated (do not prescribe).

    Estimated daily intake of vitamins for women aged 30 to 49.

    • Vitamin A 1800 IU or 540 µg (pregnant woman 2000 IU or 600 µg)
    • Upper limit of intake 5000 IU (1500 µg, this value does not apply when taking β-carotene)

    β-carotene is a precursor, provitamin A, which is converted to vitamin A in the body.Vegetables contain it in the form of β-carotene.

    Vitamin A (retinol) is abundant in animal foods, while β-carotene isGreen and yellow vegetables,SeaweedIncluded inpigmentA kind of.If you get enough vitamin A in your body, it will not change to A, so you don't have to worry about overdose.

    Foods containing a lot

    In each case, the notation is per 100 g.

    The source of vitamin A in Japanese is 50% green-yellow vegetables, 15% meat, 10% seafood / milk, and 10% eggs.

    Precautions when ingesting

    Vitamin A is susceptible to oxidation and decomposition at high temperatures, andoilIt has the property of dissolving in fat. "Cooking with oil is more efficient, so you can cook in a short time and get a lot of vegetables.バ タ ーIt is widely known that stir-fry is a good cooking method.

    Regarding carrots, "β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor contained in plants, can be mixed with the original lipids in cells even when simply boiled without using oil, and the intake efficiency can be improved to some extent." There is also a theory of[19]..Ingestion of green and yellow vegetables may be encouraged to prevent vitamin A deficiency, but it is an animal foodChicken eggs,milk,leverIt is also included in many.

    As long as you have a normal diet, you will not be deficient in vitamin A very often, but in lactating women the requirements will increase significantly.Also, although it is unlikely to be overdose with a normal diet, be careful of overdose by the liver of pelagic fish.Hypervitaminosis A due to overdose (such as diarrhea if mild)Food poisoningSymptomatism, if severeMalaise・ There is a skin disorder, etc.).If a large amount of vitamin A is accumulated in the body by taking the medicines described below, it will be more teratogenic (Malformed childIs born) very high risk[20]..In addition, β-carotene is not impaired by overdose.

    Precautions for pharmaceutical products

    With medical drugsnight blindness-rickets"Chocola A", a vitamin A oil preparation that has been used for a long time as a remedy forEisai) Means that a single dose of vitamin A has taken at least 1 IU.However, if you do not take a large amount or overdose or use it in combination with the tretinoin-based preparation described later, you will not fall into overdose. Because "Chocola AD" contains 2,000 IU in a daily dose,SupplementIt is necessary to pay attention to the balance of food and food.Widely distributedVitamin B6Vitamin A is not contained in the "Chocola BB" series of formulations.

    Especially for oral retinoids with high concentrationDry upTherapeuticEtretinate(Product name Chigazon,RocheCompany),Acute promyelocytic leukemiaTherapeuticAll-trans retinoic acid(Besanoid, Roche),Tamibarotene(Amno Lake, Toko Pharmaceutical)TeratogenicityTherefore, for a certain period of time for both men and womensexual intercourseOn the premise of not doing so, especially in etretinate, it is prescribed only after signing the consent form.A serious side effect of besanoids is retinoic acid syndrome, a serious excess, which is the worst case.Multiple organ failureIs what causes.Due to the emergency treatment system, it is prescribed after hospitalization in principle.

    Vitamin A uses the cell differentiation effect of vitamin A in the treatment of psoriasis and leukemia, but it is said that vitamin A has an antioxidant effect separately.Low density lipoprotein (LDLThere is a hypothesis that) is oxidized and arteriosclerosis progresses, and it was argued that the intake of vitamin A, which has an antioxidant effect, could prevent arteriosclerosis and prevent arteriosclerosis such as myocardial infarction. However, current findings do not provide epidemiological data that vitamin A intake can prevent myocardial infarction.

    Epidemiological research

    1862 smokers were given 50 mg of α-tocopherol daily and 20 mg of β-carotene daily (10 times the usual requirement) or both, or a placebo and followed for 5.3 years. Mortality was higher with tocopherols and β-carotene[21].

    Ingestion of five carotenoids reduced the risk of lung cancer, according to a report based on about 7 people from seven studies from North America and Europe.[22]..Vitamin ACell membraneBecause it works to prevent damage toGastric cancer,Lung cancerAlthough attention was paid to its preventive effect on illness, the results of clinical trials denying that effect were shown.[23][24].


    Deficiency measures

    Sub-SaharanMany residents in the underdeveloped areas suffer from vitamin A deficiency, which has been a cause of blindness and stunted growth in children.As a countermeasureUNICEFIn addition to developing a business to administer vitamin A to children[25],International Institute of Tropical AgricultureIn (IITA), it is a precursor of vitamin ABeta caroteneContains a lotcornThere is also an approach from the diet, such as popularizing the varieties of[26].

    Excess disease

    Food poisoning symptoms

    Stereolepis,shark,TunaSouthern fish such aswhale,Polar bear OfliverIf you eat too muchFood poisoningWake up as.

    Poisoning symptoms are 30 minutes-12 hours after eating, but most occur in a short time.

    • First, intenseheadacheThere is.VomitingAnd fever may occur.This recovers quickly.
    • Then, after 1-6 days, on the face皮膚It peels off and spreads to the limbs and the whole body.
    • Whole body in about a month皮膚Peel off.

    External use

    Applying retinol to the skin promotes collagen and elastin biosynthesis, reduces wrinkles and increases skin elasticity.[4]..Retinol compounded in cosmetics as a quasi-drug in JapanWrinkleApproved indication of improving effect[5]..As an external medicineTretinoin(Total trans-retinoic acid) has been used in dermatological treatments since the 1960s, but in 1984 retinol was added to cosmetics, and it has been mentioned that it is less irritating to the skin than tretinoin.[27].. In RCT with 65 people, tretinoin is considered to be 10 times more effective than retinol, so when retinol was mixed 10 times more than tretinoin and compared, there was no significant difference after 3 months, and the comparison was light damage and wrinkles. Made in fineness of texture, skin brightness, pigmentation[28].

    RCTs of 45 acne patients (10-50 grade II to III lesions) with 5% sodium ascorbic acid phosphate (XNUMX-XNUMX grade II to III lesions)Vitamin C derivative)と0.2%レチノールおよび併用を比較し、単体ではそれぞれ1か月で病変数を約20-22%、2か月で約49%減少させ、併用では1か月で約30%、2か月で約63%減少させていた[29]..Excessive use of retinol promoted inflammation and sunburn, and sodium ascorbic acid phosphate had less of this skin irritation.[29].

    Estee LauderReported at the 2018 International Dermatology Research Conference, retinol is well known for its anti-aging skin, but its skin irritation, optical instability is a drawback for cosmetic use, and more. As a new compound that is stable and less irritatingHydropinacolone Retino ArtExplained[6]..Induces retinol-like gene expression when appliedBakuchiolThen.[30],PhotoagingWith 44 peopleRandomized controlled trialIn humans, 0.5% bakuchiol cream and 0.5% retinol both have wrinkle area andPigmentationWas equivalent, but retinol caused peeling and pain[7].


    β-caroteneSmall intestineBeta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase present inEC (EC Is converted to retinal.

    β-carotene + Retinal

    In vivo, retinal is retinol dehydrogenase (EC Exists in a state of being reduced to retinol (reversible reaction).Also, retinal oxidase (EC Metabolizes to retinoic acid (irreversible reaction).

    Retinal + Retinol +
    Retinal + Retinoic acid +

    Retinol is stored in the liver in the form of palmitic acid esters and released as needed.The liberated retinol binds to retinol-binding protein (RBP) and furtherTransthyretinIt forms a complex with (prealbumin / TTR) and circulates in the blood.It is said that retinal or retinoic acid, which is a metabolite thereof, is more important than retinol in the expression of physiological action.



    In the early 1950s,BASFThe company has developed a method for synthesizing by a coupling reaction between vinyl-β-ionone and β-formyl rotyl acetate. β-Formylate rotyl acetate is 1-vinyl ethylene diacetaterhodiumWith a catalystHydroformylationObtainedLinaloolIt is coupled with vinyl-β-ionone derived from and converted to vitamin A acetate.Ef Hoffman La RocheThe synthetic method developed by the company also utilizes hydroformylation, and both synthetic methods account for the majority of the annual production of 3000 tons of vitamin A.[31].


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