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📊 | GENDA SEGA / Shizuoka City "Bay Dream Shimizu" capsule toy specialty store "GORON!"


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GENDA SEGA / Shizuoka City "Bay Dream Shimizu" capsule toy specialty store "GORON!"

 
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Will continue to expand into facilities operated by GENDA SEGA Entertainment and shopping malls.
 

GENDA SEGA Entertainment will be on January 1th at the commercial facility "Bay Dream Shimizu" in Shizuoka City ... → Continue reading

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Shopping center

Shopping center(British: mall) Is multipleretailStores and restaurants,Beauty salon,Travel agencyな どService industryAlso storesCommercialFacilityIs. The abbreviation is "SC".Shopping mall(British: mall) Is also called[Annotation 1].

Compared to opening a single store, it can attract customers more strongly,Parking LotIt is possible to share the cargo handling facilities. Further, if the developer owns the building, the retailer's initial investment can be reduced.

Definition

Japan Shopping Center AssociationDefines a shopping center as follows[2].

A shopping center is a group of commercial and service facilities that are planned, developed, owned, and operated as a unit, and that have a parking lot. Depending on its location, scale and composition, it offers a variety of choices, convenience, comfort, entertainment, etc., and plays a part in urban functions as a community facility that meets the needs of consumers.

SC handling standard

SC isDeveloperIt is planned and developed by and requires the following conditions:

  • Retail store area is 1,500m2That is all.
  • Ten or more tenants are included, excluding key tenants.
  • If you have a key tenant, the area must not exceed 80% of the shopping center area. However, among other tenants, the retail store area is 1,500m2This is not the case when the above is the case.
  • There is a tenant association (shopping association), etc., and they are conducting joint activities such as advertising and joint events.

As of the end of 2016, there were 3211 locations in Japan and store area was 5172 m.2The number of tenants reaches 15 stores[3].

Applying the above definition,Imperial Hotel Arcade,Narita International AirportIs also one of the shopping centers[4].

Incidentally,Senken ShimbunIs a shopping center "from a company (tenant) whose facility (developer) has a store in the facility.rentReceive and manage/operateReal estate leasing』」Department store,Volume storeSuch as (selling itself)Retail tradeIs going to be different from[5].

History

起源

2st century OfRomeToconstructionWas doneTrajan marketIs the first shopping center in human history[6].

prototype

As a modern shopping center,1922/ToThe United States of America OfKansas CityIt is said that the "Country Club Plaza" by the real estate agent, JC Nicols, started in the first place. After that1950/From the front and backCar socializationSuburbAgainst the background of housing development,1948/ToOhioColumbus"Town and Country Shopping Center" opened by Doncaster, a real estate agent ofState of Washington OfSeattleThe "Northgate Shopping Center" opened by JB Douglas became the prototype of today's shopping center.

Development-present

after that,1956/Dayton HudsonMinneapolisIn the suburbs, we opened the Southdale Center, the first fully co-located mall (see below). This is a huge city that can be called a single town, and because it has a large parking lot and you can comfortably shop around many stores even in the harsh winter of Minnesota, you can shop and event from multiple states as well as the Minneapolis metropolitan area. Customers who enjoy themselves gathered.

1981/ToCanada OfAlbertaEdmontonOpened inWest Edmonton Mall"1998/The total floor area is 4m when the fourth construction is completed2With a total of more than 800 stores, hotels, amusement parks, aquariums, etc., it is a large-scale one with a total of 2000 million visitors a year, making it the largest shopping center in the world.Guinness Book][7][8].2004/After that, "" and "South China MALL","SM Mall of Asia"Such,Chugoku,Southeast AsiaLarger shopping malls are being built in various places[9].

2008/May 10,DubaiThe world's largest shopping mallDubai MallIs officially opened. Total area about 111 m2, Indoor floor about 55m21200 retail stores, indoor aquarium, skating rink, movie theater, etc.[10].

History in Japan

1954/(Showa29 years)Okinawa under the United StatesAtPlaza House Shopping CenterIs open.

1964/(Showa 39)DaieiHowever, in the experimental sense of a large commercial facility,OsakaToyonaka City"Daiei Shonai store" opened (currentlyGourmet City Shonai) Is, in effect, Japan's first shopping center.1968/(Showa 43)Daiei Kaori store(2005/Closed) is open. Japan's first full-scale suburban shopping center was born. After this,Car socializationThe number of shopping centers corresponding to the above has increased.

1980 eraSince then, the socialization of cars has further progressed in Japan. Along main roads in the suburbs and rural areas,Agricultural land conversionLarge scale closed due to changes in industry structure工場On the former site, the opening of large shopping centers with a vast site and parking lot became popular. EspeciallyUS-Japan structural consultation,DeregulationThroughLarge-scale retail store law(Large store law) was abolished,Large-scale retail store location law(Large store location law) was enacted2000/(HeiseiSince 12, the number and scale have increased significantly.

Above allMall type shopping centerThere are many specialty stores and amusement stores in one building.Cinema complexAs a "time-consuming" facility that allows you to stay all day long, it has become synonymous with large shopping centers of this era.

However, large commercial facilitiesShopping districtOr adversely affecting neighboring municipalities,2006/(18)Town development 3 methodWas revised and the store area was 1Square meterConstruction was put in place for suburban facilities exceeding the size.

Even in a shopping center that attracts shoppers from the shopping district,Internet mail orderIt is not uncommon for sales to stagnate due to competition with aging, aging and obsolescence. For this reason, there are some cases where it is closed, or it is reopened after being refurbished by the operating company and other companies that have acquired it.[11].

Types

Depending on the size of the store area, etc., it is classified into three types: "regional shopping center", "community shopping center", and "neighborhood shopping center".[12].

Regional shopping center

The abbreviation is "RSC". Store area 4m2Above, basically wide area with radius of 8-25 kmTrade areaLarge shopping center (large SC, shopping mall).General supermarket(GMS)Department storeEtc.Nuclear storeFor "1 core 1 mall type" and those core storesMovie theater,Consumer electronics storeIn addition, there are facilities that form a “two-nucleus, one-mall type” in which large specialty stores with high customer attraction are added to the sub-nucleus stores and malls are installed in the middle of each other. A famous specialty store in a specialized field, restaurant, Service shop,AmusementThis is a time-consuming facility with the aim of enjoying a day's shopping only at a wide variety of stores such as shops.

In addition, SaitamaKoshigaya OfAEON Lake TownEtc. of a super-large SC that has a wider commercial area than the regional typeSuper regional SCIs a store area of ​​10m2With the above, some facilities have a basic trade area of ​​about 8 to 40 km.

Community shopping center

Abbreviation is "CSC". Store area 1-3m2With a radius of 5-10 km as the basic trade area,discount storeA medium-sized shopping center with specialty stores. In Japan, there are many general supermarkets before the abolition of the large store law, and specialty stores are mainly the nearest items and service stores. In recent years, some malls have been added to these traditional stores, and some facilities have been expanded to regional types.

In recent years, in the United States, a community-based SC size “” that gathers specialty stores carefully selected from regional SCs has formed a new genre in the suburbs where there are many wealthy people, but in Japan there are few successful cases and some businesses It is only done by the person.

In Japan, regional SCs are saturated, and due to the revision of the Machizukuri Law in 2006, construction became difficult.Therefore, regional SCs in urban areas where a high-density population can be secured even if the commercial area is narrow. A new type of community-based SC that adopts such mall type is increasing.

Neighborhood Shopping Center

Abbreviation is "NSC". Store area 3000-1m2This is a relatively small-scale facility as a small-commercial-area type shopping center with a basic trade area in a neighboring area with a radius of about 5 km.Food supermarket,Home centerIt is made up of specialty stores that handle relatively practical products, such as the core stores, and specializes in familiar shopping. Since it is used for daily shopping, it is characterized by a small commercial area population but frequent store visits.

House

Enclosed Mall

The facility itself is a large building with a passage in the building. The feature is that it is not affected by climate and weather, and it is a form often seen in large regional shopping centers and medium-sized community shopping centers.

There is also a developer who named a "mall-type shopping center" (mall-type SC) to adopt a Galleria type mall that uses the center of the mall (passage) to reduce the feeling of pressure and improve the visibility by improving visibility. This made the word “shopping mall” popular in Japan. The disadvantage is that the construction cost is high and the risk of opening a store is high.

Open mall

A type of shopping center with outdoor passageways connecting stores. In the type of building where each store is independent, there is a parking lot in front of the entrance of each store, and there is an advantage that the walking distance is short because the target store is close to the parking lot. In some types of multi-story floors, the aisle connecting the stores is connected by an outdoor pedestrian deck to improve the shopping efficiency. Since the construction cost can be suppressed by making it a simple facility as a whole, there is a merit that even small and medium-sized businesses can easily enter, and it is often seen in neighborhood shopping centers.

Location

Urban type

City centerA type of shopping center located in a densely populated area. In Japan 2000 (HeiseiWas abolished in 12)Large-scale retail store lawDue to the severe restrictions on the opening of large stores, large stores were mainly opened in the central city area. In the city centerAutomobileBecause there are many places with poor access inTrain,Transit BusMost of the facilities are mainly those that use existing public transportation.

Community-type SCs are the main focus due to land restrictions, but there are also regional-type SCs that have been built in redeveloped towns or large-scale factory sites in urban areas. In recent years, there are cases in which community-type SCs are closed mainly in rural areas and replaced with regional SCs newly opened in the suburbs.

Suburb

A type of shopping center located in the suburbs away from the city center. Compared with opening a store in the central city area, where land prices are high and land negotiations take time, it is possible to secure vast land at a cheaper price in the suburbs.Large-scale retail store location lawIt has increased sharply since its establishment.

This is a form that can be seen in regional-type SCs, which require a large parking space, and neighborhood-type SCs that have commercial areas in the surrounding suburbs as the main area is car visitors. Especially in the case of regional type SC, accessibility from a large population area is important. In the case of facilities away from the railway station, as a means of access other than by car, you can take a local bus or bus from the nearest station or a densely populated area.Free shuttle bus(Shopping bus) May be operating. Access from the train station may be extremely bad, and if there is no route bus, it will be a taxi.

In addition, "it was enforced in 2006 (Heisei 18)Town development 3 methodAfter the revision, the opening of large commercial facilities in the suburbs was banned in principle, making large-scale suburban construction difficult.

problem

America

Since the 2000s, the rise of online mail order companiesToys'R'Us,SearsBusiness failures of major retailers have occurred one after another, and in the suburbsDead mallThe number of abandoned shopping malls known as is increasing. Also, it is expected that 2022/1 of the shopping malls will disappear by 4, and there is concern about the impact on the local government.[13].

in Japan's case

For some time after the war, existing large-scale stores, including SCs, planned to open even in downtown areas.Shopping districtAlthough there was some opposition from the above, the co-existence relationship was established, as the effect of shoppers entering and leaving large stores was large[14].

With the abolition of the large store law, as shopping centers began to expand into the suburbs in search of vast land from the central area, the number of visitors to the local shopping districts and local small and medium-sized supermarkets decreased, and the stores closed one after another. As a result,Donut phenomenonAlso, people who do not own or can not drive a car are troubled even shopping for daily necessities such as groceries and daily necessities.Shopping refugeesThe problem got worse.

Kyoto University professorSatoshi FujiiIf you buy fresh foods at a large shopping center in the suburbs of a nationwide chain, 8% to 9% of your expenses will be leaked out of the region and the railway and route buses will decline, because there are many domestic and foreign regions. On the other hand, it is analyzed that 5 to 6% of the shopping amount will be returned locally at the local mall. It points out that suburban SC of the national chain will exhaust the local economy[15].

For South Africa

South AfricaIn the republic1990 eraThereafter illegalImmigrationIs flowing into the citySecurityIs getting worse. Armed around a high fenceSecurity guardA shopping center that emphasizes safety has developed. However2000 eraWhen I entered, gradually shooting and shooting incidents occurred in the shopping center, and the deterioration of security came to be reported.[16].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ A shopping mall generally refers to the one inside a large-scale commercial facility building, but it is a pedestrianized road with the passage of automobiles excluded on the streets of the shopping street.arcadeIs also called a shopping mall. The Mall is the official royal event road in front of the main gate of Buckingham Palace in London.The mall(British: The Mall) Derived from[1].

Source

  1. ^ Yoichi Kubota "Understanding the Road"Technical critic company<Structure Illustrated>, November 2009, 11, first edition, page 25.ISBN +978-4-7741-4005-6.
  2. ^ "SC definition”. Japan Shopping Center Association. 2018/2/2Browse.
  3. ^ "Number of SCs and general conditions nationwide”. General Incorporated Association Japan Shopping Center Association. 2018/2/20Browse.
  4. ^ "3. SC list by prefecture, ordinance-designated city, and municipality (as of the end of December 2016)”. General Incorporated Association Japan Shopping Center Association. 2018/2/21Browse.
  5. ^ Senken Shinbunsha Co., Ltd. “[Apparel industry research] What are the trends and current status of SC (shopping centers), and what are the recent hot facilities?”. Senken JOB. 2021/4/12Browse.
  6. ^ Craig Glendi, Guinness World Records 2014, Kadokawa Magazines, 2013, 146 pages.ISBN-978 4047318847
  7. ^ Edmonton Economic Development Corporation
  8. ^ Guinness World Records
  9. ^ American Studies at Eastern Connecticut State University-Shopping Mall Studies
  10. ^ Dubai Mall officially opens on October 10-UAE, WEB-TAB,2008/May 8Update.
  11. ^ "Buying and recreating commercial facilities Hulic and Yamato House, attracting stores by renovation"The Nihon Keizai Shimbun morning edition August 2018, 8 (read September 26, 2018).
  12. ^ "Shopping Center Term Dictionary (new edition)" published by Gakubunsha
  13. ^ “Destruction Mall” surges in the US, loses to the net, and disappears in a quarter - Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  14. ^ As an example,IsetanMatsudo store (ChibaMatsudo-shi) When the store was closed in 2017, many local shops were opposed to the store and called for effective use of the building.Isetan Matsudo's support issue "closed store opposition" Voice of demand for survival / Assumption of withdrawal, request for later use "Chiba Daily" September 2017, 9.
  15. ^ [Relay Opion] Century of the car (7) Cause of regional exhaustion Need control / Satoshi Fujii, Professor, Kyoto University``Asahi Shimbun'' morning edition February 2018, 2
  16. ^ “South Africa: frequent robbery murders in safe shopping malls”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2009, 8). http://mainichi.jp/select/today/news/20090827k0000e030014000c.html 

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