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💴 | How much is your annual household income?Check the average by generation


How much is the annual household income?Check the average by generation

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According to the same survey, the average annual income of elderly households in 2018 is 312 yen.

Average annual household income for all households and households with children The annual household income per household is announced by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in "1 ... → Continue reading

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income(Income,British: revenue) Is in many caseswageRefers toIndividualOrCorporationBut I got it in a certain period by a certain meanscurrencyRefers to.

Accounting income concept

Income in accounting practice refers to the immediate inflow (receipt) of cash or cash equivalents.[1][2].

Of the profit and loss calculation methods, the cash balance calculation method (Cash basis accounting), Cash income-cash expenditure = profit[3]..However, in modern corporate accounting, it is normal for credit transactions to be carried out and for permanent economic activities to be carried out by holding a large number of fixed facilities by huge investment, and the cash balance calculation method (cash balance calculation method) that grasps profit and loss with cash (Cash basis accounting) is said to be irrational with a few exceptions[3]..Exceptionally, when economic transactions are mostly cash settlement and there are no fixed facilities, the cash balance calculation method (cash basis accounting), which is a reliable and simple method, may be adopted.[3].

Tax law income and income

Under tax lawEconomyunit(Individual or Corporation) Was newly obtained in a certain period as compensation for economic activities and existing rights.moneyOrPersonal property,Real estate,rightIt is a general term for properties that can be converted into monetary value.Established under tax lawincomeIs different.This section also describes income.


Personal income

The period is often based on one month and one year, and the total amount of each ismonthly income(Geshu),annual incomeCalled (Nenshu).

employmentIndividuals who have beenSalary earner)
The laborAs a consideration for the provision ofSalary-BonusNoemploymentupperEmployee WelfareThis is the benefit, etc.
Jewelry businessSexual individual (Self-employed)
Get by businessSalesCorresponds to this.
Asset-rightIndividuals with
From assets / rightsinterest,dividend,rent,rightThis corresponds to investment profits such as consideration based on.
Caused by service acts that are not defined as labor (lectures, cooperation, help, etc.)RemunerationCorresponds to this.
Caused by inheritancemoney, The property corresponds to this.
More informations
insurance, Benefits,Lottery OfPrize moneyAnd so on.

Corporate income

Public corporation
Country,Local governmentThat of public organizations such asrevenueMostly called.
Commercial corporation
Get by businessSalesCorresponds to this.
Non-profit corporation
OriginallyCommercial businessEven if it is a corporation that does not aim forbudgetIt occurs with the resources and businessinterestdividend,rightConsideration will be incurred based on.

Income under the Public Assistance Act

WelfareIn the system, it is classified and certified as follows.[4].

  1. Income from employment
    1. Labor income
    2. Agricultural income-sometimes not monetary
    3. Self-employed income
    4. Unstable employment income
  2. Income other than income from employment
    1. Remittance, child support, etc.
    2. Public benefits paid on a regular basis
    3. Temporary public benefits
    4. Insurance that will give you a refund if you cancel
    5. Extraordinary income from disposal of real estate, etc.
  3. Handling of items not recognized as income
    1. Celebration of ceremonial occasions, charitable money, etc.
    2. Condolence money, etc.
    3. It is paid to a specific person for the purpose of mental consolation and encouragement, paying attention to the disability, etc.
    4. What is used for self-reliance


In the first place, income is obtained by using goods.utilityAnd human service (Services), But utility and satisfaction itself are difficult to use as indicators, so when discussing income that is a taxable property of income tax, the expression of income is based on the monetary value that enables the utility and satisfaction. It is common to replace it with.

The usage of the word "income" differs greatly in the following two ways.

Income under tax law

Under tax lawIncome tax lawIs typical, but it usually refers to the amount after various deductions.That is, under tax lawincomeIs an individual or a corporationincomeFromRequired expensesAnd tax lawDeductionAnd refers to the amount calculated to determine the taxable amount.However, personal take-home, corporate or business individualGross profitIs another concept.

Income as a daily term

For example, according to the Basic Survey on National Living conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the employee income, which accounts for most of the income, is "the salary paid by the household member from the place of employment.wage・ The total amount of bonuses, including taxes and social insurance premiums. Is[5], Refers to the amount before tax, and in the case of office workers, it is almost the same as the amount of income at the stage before taking over.But the self-employed get "Business income"" Refers to the amount (profit) after deducting costs and expenses from income, and the two are different.

"Type of income" in the National Life Basic Survey is classified according to the following classification.[5].

  1. Working income
    Employer income, business income, farming / livestock income, and homework income.
    Employer income
    The total amount of salary, wages, and bonuses paid by a household member from the place of employment, including taxes and social insurance premiums.
    In-kind payments (such as securities and meal payments) made in lieu of salary payments were included in the amount estimated at the market price.
    B Business income
    The amount obtained by deducting purchase costs and necessary expenses (excluding taxes and social insurance premiums; the same shall apply hereinafter) from the income earned by household members from businesses (excluding agriculture and livestock businesses).
    C. Farming / livestock income
    It is the amount of income earned by household members from the farming and livestock business minus the purchase cost and necessary expenses.
    D. Homework income
    The amount of income earned by a household member from domestic work minus necessary expenses.
  2. Public pension / onkyu
    The amount of pension paid by a household member from each system of pension and onkyu (if the amount is received from two or more systems, the total amount).
  3. Property income
    Amount obtained by deducting necessary expenses from income (including in-kind benefits) generated by renting land / houses owned by household members and amount obtained by deducting necessary expenses from interest / dividends generated from deposits and savings, public and corporate bonds, stocks, etc. (Including taxable portion separated from the source).
  4. Social security benefits other than pensions
    A Employment insurance
    It refers to the unemployment benefits under the Employment Insurance Law and the unemployment insurance claims under the Seafarers Insurance Law received by household members.
    B. Children's allowance, etc.
    Children's allowance, children's dependent allowance, special children's dependent allowance, etc. received by household members.
    C. Other social security benefits
    Refers to social security benefits (such as assistance under the Public Assistance Act) other than the above (2), (4) a, and b received by household members.However, in-kind benefits are excluded.
  5. Remittance, corporate pension, individual pension, other income
    A remittance
    Remittance sent to household members on a regular or continuous basis.
    B Corporate pension, individual pension, etc.
    The amount paid as a pension by a household member paying (paying) an insurance premium (payment) for a certain period of time.
    C Other income
    Items other than the above (1) to (4), (5) a and b (temporary remittances, ceremonial occasions and incense, various congratulatory money, etc.).
  • Employment income
Salary earnerLooking at (so-called office workers),Salary,Salary,BonusFrom such things, salary income determined according to the amount of salary incomeDeductionThe amount after deducting the amount is considered to be salary income.The salary deduction can be thought of as a necessary expense for the salary earner, but it is actually necessary for the salary earner to get a salary.Suit,shoesIt is said that the deduction amount is much larger than the expenses such as.Also,Severance payWith regard to, the retirement income deduction, which is determined according to the length of service and the amount of allowance, is deducted from the retirement allowance, etc., and half of the balance is regarded as retirement income. Some are.
From income such as salaryincome taxTaxes, etc.Welfare pension insuranceChargesHealth insuranceSuch asSocial insuranceDisposable income is calculated after deducting the fee.Of salaried workersDisposable incomeIn the calculation of, the deduction of salary income, which is the necessary expense, is not deducted.[6][7]

Income inequality problem

Changes in employment form

In Japan in recent years, young peoplePart-time workerBecomingCompanyChanges in employment attitude (PermanentDecrease,Dispatch-AgreementEmployees, part-time workers, etc.Non-regular employeeincrease of),wageInstitutional changes (Seniority wage systemからResults-orientedIncome (income) for reasons such asDisparityIs said to be spreading.OECDStatistics[17]According to1985/から2000/OverPoverty rateIncreased from 11.9% to 15.3%. (This poverty rate is the annual income of all households.MedianRefers to the proportion of the poor, which is less than 50% of the total. )Also,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfIncome redistribution surveyAccording to (2002 survey), it depends on the social security systemIncome redistributionIf you limit the target to the income before theGini coefficientRise[18]However, in 2005, it exceeded 0.5 for the first time and became the largest ever.[19].

Regarding the correction of disparities,PermanentIt is said that the number of employees will increase further, the wages of regular employees will be curtailed and reduced, and the wages of non-regular employees will increase.On the other hand, regular employees and non-regular employees have completely different working hours and responsibilities, so there may be disparities in wages.資本主義It is natural in the society of Japan, and there is a view that it is unfair to try to correct the disparity by force.Even for regular employees, the treatment is completely different between SMEs and large companies.中小企业Then, there are many people with low wages who are said to be "name-only office workers" as if they were non-regular employees.

Mitsubishi UFJ Research & ConsultingAs a result of a survey on lifetime wages in 2004, the average for regular employees is 1 million yen, and the average for non-regular employees is 6000 million yen.

Income inequality by sector

SexIncome inequality betweenRegionIncome inequality betweengenerationThere are income disparities between them.

  • Income inequality between genders is that women in the enterpriseGeneral staffnotComprehensive workIn recent years, it has been shrinking due to the increasing number of people who are interested in getting married and long-term work due to unmarried people.
  • Income disparities between regions vary depending on geographical characteristics and the industrial structure of the region.Highest incomeTokyoHas the lowest incomeOkinawaIt is about twice as much as.
  • Income inequality between generations, often due to the increase in the Gini coefficient, can be attributed to an increase in the number of elderly households with a high proportion of those who have already retired.But,Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare OfIncome redistributionAccording to the surveySenior citizensIn the case of, although improvement was seen by pension benefits, the Gini coefficient, which is an indicator of income disparity, is for men and women in their 30s and 40s.2002/In the last 15 years, it increased by up to about 30%, and there was no improvement in social security.
  • In Japan, there is a clear correlation between income and marriage rate for both men and women.[20]In particular, the percentage of unmarried male regular workers in their 30s is 30.7%, while that of non-regular workers is 75.6%.[21]For details, late marriage,Marriage # Marriage under the Japanese Civil CodeSee.

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Tetsuya Morita, Tadashi Nakamura, Kiyoshi Okamoto, "Accounting Science Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition, Supplementary Edition," Chuokeizai-sha, 2001, p. 553. 
  2. ^ Kobe University Accounting Laboratory "Accounting Dictionary" Dobuntan Publishing, 2007, p. 643. 
  3. ^ a b c Toshimitsu Osakai, "Basic Concepts of Accounting, Augmented and Revised Edition", Soseisha, 1994, p. 249. 
  4. ^ Assistance Handbook (separate volume question and answer collection) XNUMX Social Welfare Promotion and Examination Center
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 22 National Life Basic Survey Overview Terminology
  6. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1400 Salary Income
  7. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1410 Salary income deduction
  8. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1350 Mechanism of taxation of business income (business income)
  9. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1480 Forest Income
  10. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1310 When you receive interest (interest income)
  11. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1330 When you receive a dividend (dividend income)
  12. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1500 Miscellaneous Income
  13. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1370 When you receive real estate income (real estate income)
  14. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer Capital Gains
  15. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1490 Temporary Income
  16. ^ National Tax Agency Tax Answer No.1420 When receiving retirement allowance (retirement income)
  17. ^ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/11/34542691.xls
  18. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/shingi/2005/07/dl/s0713-12c02.pdf
  19. ^ http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20070824it14.htm?from=top
  20. ^ Marriage status of singles at the time of the first survey Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  21. ^ 22 Survey Report on Awareness of Generations Supporting Social Security Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

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