Support for household goods and tools for Ukrainian refugees Kanagawa Welfare Business Association and others
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There are currently 30 refugees from Ukraine in the prefecture, of which no one lives in the housing provided by the prefecture so far.
As the movement for humanitarian assistance to Ukraine spreads, welfare business groups are home to support the lives of refugees in Kanagawa Prefecture. → Continue reading
It is a TV station, tvk (TV Kanagawa) in Kanagawa prefecture.We will inform you of news such as incidents and accidents in Kanagawa prefecture, administrative information of prefectures and 33 municipalities, seasonal topics, etc. as soon as possible.
Wikipedia related words
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|Individual OfLegal status|
refugees(Nanmin,British: refugee) Is external戦 争,PeopleConflict,Racediscrimination,ReligiousPersecution,thoughtRepression,PoliticsPersecution,EconomyOfPoverty,Natural disasters,hunger,EpidemicFor some reason,国境People who fled to foreign countries in search of asylum.Home countryRefers to people who have left or were forced to leave[Annotation 1].
Many of themlandRoad,海Road,RiverEscape abroad on the road and seek the asylum and help of another country.Statistically, if a refugee is recognized as a refugee in a country richer than the home country such as a developed country, there is a tendency that even if the home country starts a ceasefire or reconstruction, it does not want to return to the home country.Request only a short-term residence permit and wish to return home at the start of reconstruction in your home countryRefugeesDifferent from (evacuees).. Japan alsoSecond World WarUntil around 1960, until the later border security was fully restoredKorean PeninsulaTo JapanSmuggling・ The refusal to return or repatriate those who came to Japan on their own initiative became a problem..
CurrentInternational lawThen, in a narrow sense, "Political refugees (Seiji Nanmin, Political Refugee) "refugeesThe international community is obliged to provide relief and support to those who have become refugees due to crackdowns and persecution.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR) May 2022, 5, asylum-seekersInternally displaced personsThe total number including2022 Russia's invasion of UkraineAnnounced that it exceeded 1 million people for the first time due to the increase due to.. As of the end of 2020, the number of people displaced from their hometowns was about 8240 million.It is said that 77% of the world's population of 1 billion people, and 1% of all human beings have been forced to evacuate due to conflict, persecution, violence, etc..
re: back fugere: escape ium: place for
In Japan, "people who cannot or do not want the protection of their home country and seek to live in a foreign country" are referred to as "refugees" and "exiles."Therefore, refugees and asylum seekers are sometimes used interchangeably, but people who have relatively few political reasons for fleeing abroad tend to be called refugees, and those who seek asylum for political reasons tend to be called asylum seekers..
Refugee Convention and Definition of Refugees
1951/7/28,Switzerland OfGeneva"Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees" (Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees) at the United Nations Plenipotentiary Conference on Refugees and Stateless PersonsRefugee Convention)[Annotation 2]Was adopted.
Definition of refugees, administrative measures for refugee protection,Non-refoulement principle(Principle of Non-refoulement)[Annotation 3]The treaty, which stipulates, is the refugee law "Magna CartaIt is called and respected.
As a supervisory body for refugee support activities in December 1950 prior to the enactment of the 12 ConventionUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR)[Annotation 4]Has been established.
However, the area covered by the treaty isEuropeAnd because the target audience was limited to refugees who occurred before January 1951, 1, when UNHCR began its activities.1967/1/31,United Nations"Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees" (Refugee Protocol）[Annotation 5]As a result, the limitation of the target area was canceled in principle, and the time limit of the target refugees was abolished.Usually, "Refugee Convention" and "Refugee Protocol" are integrated into "Refugee Convention".Refugee ConventionCalled[Annotation 6].
|Those who are outside the country of nationality to have a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. Those who cannot receive the protection of their nationality or who do not wish to receive the protection of their nationality because of such fear, and those who have habitual residence as a result of these incidents. Non-national persons outside the country who cannot return to the country where they had their habitual residence or who do not want to return to the country where they had their habitual residence because of such fear. (Excerpt from Article 1A (2) of the XNUMX Convention)|
This is in a narrow sensePolitical refugeesIt hits.However, refugees were not originally limited to political reasons,Natural disasters,hunger,EpidemicSuch asDisaster refugees[Annotation 7]In addition,ReligiousExpulsion and inside and outside the regionConflictThose who have been forced to live in order to escape fromRefugees)[Annotation 8]Was the majority.
Also, refugees fleeing abroad from economic povertyEconomic refugeesCalled (Economic Refugee), it is becoming more difficult to distinguish from political refugees.In principle, humanitarian assistance was not available without passing the refugee status of UNHCR and the first asylum country, but in recent years, human rights have been taken into consideration.Asylum applicant[Annotation 9],Internally displaced persons[Annotation 10]Emergency assistance is now available under a position outside the refugee's meaning, such as (refugees in the region).
Incidentally,Coup d'etatAnd people's uprising to escape abroad "exileThe word "" gives the impression of leaving the country voluntarily, but the legal interpretation is synonymous with refugees, and whether or not it applies to the principle of non-delivery of political criminals depends on the country of arrival.
Refugee images and labels
"" Refugee "is not an innate attribute such as" Japanese "or" woman ", but a categorization given by society and does not represent the identity of the person. "WhenTokyo UniversityA graduate researcherEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euInConflict-violenceThemed movie "The man who repairs a woman』Screening / Talk Show" How We Deal with Our (Non) Interest "(Co-sponsored by the Refugee Assistance Association).
Oxford University"Refugee Research Journal"As R. Zetter states in "One of the Most Powerful Labels", the effectiveness of the "Refugee" label isHumanitarian assistanceWhile strongly appealing to the world for the need for the label, it has been pointed out that practitioners who used the label will participate in the human rights business.The enormous amount of relief supplies and activity costs gained from the label's effectivenessAnthropologyPerson BE Harrell-BondIt leads to what is called "Imposing Aid", and on the contrary, it reduces the refugees' willingness to work and their ability to maintain their livelihoods.Refugee campIt just makes the inside "request grouping".
Refugee outbreak areas and figures
According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) listed below2021/6/18Published "Global Trends FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2020"In the statistics of2020/12/31At the time in the worldrefugeesとAsylum applicantThe total number of people is about 2,479 million.
Internally displaced personsno nationalityAfrica (40.2%) has the highest total number of people, followed by Africa (XNUMX%).AsiaThe order is (32.1%) and South America (18.1%).In the case of South America, sheltered abroadベネズエラThe influence of people is great.
- 2020 Global Trends: Refugees, Returnees, Internally Displaced Persons and Stateless Persons and Venezuelans Evacuated Overseas
|Area name||Refugees (A)||Equivalent to refugees|
Those who are in a situation (B)
|A + B||Asylum applicant||Returnees|
|Internally displaced persons||Returnees|
(Internally displaced persons)
|Stateless||More informations||Evacuation abroad|
- New coronavirus infectious disease epidemicDespite the movement restrictions due to, it has increased by about 4% from the previous year.
- The total number of refugees has doubled from 4,000, when it was less than 2011 million.
- About 95 in 1 people are affected by displacement, accounting for more than 1% of all humankind.The number of refugees who have returned is decreasing year by year.
- The number of refugees who were able to return to their hometowns and settle in a third country was the lowest in the last 3 years.This is due to the decline in resettlement acceptance and the impact of the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection.In addition, only 20 people were able to settle in third countries throughout 3.
- More than 10 (9%) of 86 refugees have fled to developing countries, most of them in neighboring countries.Nearly three-quarters (about 4%) of Venezuelan refugees have fled to neighboring countries.
- More than two-thirds of refugees' home countries are concentrated in five countries (Syria, Venezuela, Afghanistan, South Sudan and Myanmar).
- It is estimated that minor refugees under the age of 18 make up about 42% of all refugees.
Next, by country, the countries of origin of the most refugees as of the end of 2020 are(I.e.(668 people).Thenベネズエラ(385 people), the third isアフガニスタン(259), the fourth is南 ス ー ダ ダ(218 people), the third isMyanmar(110 people).The top three countries account for about 3,298%, and when South Sudan and Myanmar are included, it is about 3%..
In terms of total number including internally displaced persons and stateless persons, the country with the largest number is(I.e.(1,361 people).Thenコロンビア(975 people), followed byEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu(763 people), the third isベネズエラ(599 people), 1,088thアフガニスタン(580 people) There were.The top three countries account for about 9,701%, and when Afghanistan and Venezuela are included, it is about 3%.Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Afghanistan have more internally displaced persons..
Looking at the countries of origin and destinations of refugees evacuated abroad by country, the largest number at the end of 2020 was 364 people evacuating from Syria to Turkey. Nearly one in three was supported by UNHCR.This was followed by 1,370 people from Venezuela to Colombia, about two in seven people supported by UNHCR.Next was Afghanistan to Pakistan, with 3 people, all of whom were supported.In addition, refugees from around the world (the number of refugees and those who are placed on the same level as refugees excluding asylum-seekers) and refugees from Venezuela (not only refugees from Venezuela but also refugees)exileIn total, the total number including applicants) was 2020 in 2,519, of which about 5,714% (57.1) was supported by UNHCR..
|Country of origin of refugees||Evacuation destination country||Number of refugees (as of the end of 2020)||Number of refugees supported by UNHCR|
|南 ス ー ダ ダ||Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu||887,452||887,452|
|南 ス ー ダ ダ||スーダン||736,685||483,686|
- The number of refugees is the number of refugees and those who are placed on par with refugees, excluding those who wish to asylum.
- The number of refugees from Venezuela in this table includes not only Venezuelan refugees but also refugees and asylum seekers.
Types of refugees
As mentioned above, there are various forms of refugees, and there are differences in the views of refugees perceived by UN agencies, national authorities, and international NGOs, making it difficult to understand refugees through each organization.In the following, various types of refugees are shown in binary opposition, but there are also people who are placed between the binary oppositions and people who are very similar to refugees but cannot be included in the types.
- "True Refugee (Bona Fide Refugee)" and "Fake Refugee (Mala Fide Refugee)"
- "Traditional Refugee"[Annotation 12]And "New Refugee"[Annotation 13]
- "Displaced Person (DP)" and "Internally Displaced Person (IDP)"
- "Convention Refugee" and "Non-convention Refugee"
- "Voluntary Refugee" and "Involuntary Refugee"
- "Political Refugee" and "Economic Refugee"
- "Statutory Refugee" and "Mandate Refugee"[Annotation 14]
- "Boat People" and "Air People"
- "Asylum Seeker" and "Support Target (POC:) People of Concern) "
- "Forced Migrant" and "Voluntary Migrant"
- "Anticipatory Refugee Movement" and "Acute Refugee Movement"
Refugee / camouflaged refugee issues to Japan
Refugees from Baekje
Refugees from the Dutch Republic
With a few exceptions, it had cut off trade with foreign countriesEdo Period OfIsolationEven in the systemDejima OfDutch trading houseWas inHendrik DoeffEtc. of the homelandFederal Republic of( Netherlands)ButFranceBeing destroyed by Japan, he became a kind of refugee and was left behind in Japan.
Asylum seekers to Japan during the Russian Revolution (white Russians)
TaishoEven in the age ofRussian RevolutionWith the communism (redness) of the homeland byRussiaWas chasedWhite Russian,TatarsThere are also cases where some of them have been exiled to Japan via Manchuria or Sakhalin...Of a professional baseball playerStarffin, The businessmanFyodor Dmitrievich Morozov,Valentin Fedorovich Morozov, ConfectionerMakarov GoncharoffAnd so on.
Jewish refugees wishing to go through Japan
ShowaIn the period,GermanyToNazi regimeWas born and a large amountJewWhen refugees occur, JapanMinistry of Foreign Affairs TheMainland Japan,Mainland ChinaJapan-controlled areaManchuriaViaThe United States of AmericaAsylum in countries such as "Rules governing the treatment of Jews"Or"Remaining measures measures] Etc. were enacted. When Jewish refugees flooded Harbin Station in Manchuria on March 1938, 3, Harbin's Secretary-GeneralKiichiro Higuchi(From August 1942, 8, the day after the start of the Pacific War (Greater East Asia War)HokkaidoSapporoThe commander of the Northern Army, which has a headquarters in Japan, arranged a rescue train at his own discretion as a humanitarian issue and ordered the issuance of visas.This Jewish refugee escape route was later called the "Higuchi route," and it is said that the number of Jewish refugees rescued reached 2.Two years later, in 2リトアニアWas the Japanese ambassadorChiune SugiharaIs issuing a "Visa for Life".They emigrated to each desired place of residence, mainly in the United States, via Japan..
After the war
1979/8IsVietnamAs the first refugeeLou Finn ChauCame to Japan and was widely reported.Chau later made her singer debut in her Japan.20st century,Indochina refugeesThe need for international contributions to1981/10/3ToJapanIs in the "Refugee Convention"1982/1/1Is a member of the "Refugee Protocol"1982/1/1Both treaties and protocols have been issued.And the previous "Immigration Control Ordinance'[Annotation 15]The enactment was significantly revised and revised based on "Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act"(Hereafter, Immigration Refugee Law)Refugee recognition procedureIt stipulates the system (the Foreign Resident Registration Law is abolished).Immigration controlThe authorities' accreditation work was private and harsh from the beginning,the 1980sIn the second halfVietnamfromDisguised refugeesWhen a large amount of water was introduced, a screening system was introduced and the certification criteria were further raised.Since then, the refugee recognition procedure in Japan has been considered complicated for asylum-seekers who are foreigners.Minister of Justiceas well as the [Annotation 16]To sayMinistry of JusticeWhen the international community criticized the fact that only officials have the authority to recognize refugees as lacking humanitarian consideration, the Ministry of Justice responded to this.2002/6Held a specialized subcommittee on refugee issues,2005/5Amend the Immigration Refugee Law to involve outside experts and people with practical experience in the refugee recognition procedure.Refugee Examination CounselorIn addition to introducing the "system," the Immigration Bureau has abolished the so-called "60-day rule," which states that if a refugee application is not filed within 60 days after entering Japan, the party will be deported as an illegal stay.Japan TheUnited NationsIt provides a large amount of funds every year, and the contribution amount from 2017 to 2019 is the third largest in the world...However, they are cautious about accepting refugees in Japan, and the number of refugee recognition is significantly lower than in other countries...In recent years, the number of people seeking refugee status has increased rapidly in Japan.2005/In Japan, there were 384 people seeking refugee status.2013/3260 people,2014/There were 5000 people in.However, in Japan, the criteria for recognizing refugees are strict, and of these 5000 applicants, 11 were recognized as refugees..2009/In July, the Japanese governmentMyanmar refugees OfResettlementAnnounce acceptance and next2010/9More than 3 yearsThailandWesternMae La CampEvacuating toKarenWe started accepting 30 refugees, 90 refugees each, as a pilot case to promote international contribution.[Annotation 17]..However, when accepting Myanmar refugees in Japan, there is a lack of understanding of misjudgment regarding democratization and ethnic issues.And there are no refugees who want to move to JapanAnd Japanese social maladaptationThere is a problem such as.SeveralHigher educationIs an institutionUniversityHas established an admission recommendation system for refugees.Meiji University,Aoyama Gakuin University,Kwansei Gakuin UniversityIsUnited Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesWe have signed an agreement with (UNHCR) to enroll refugee children.2017/The number of refugee status applications increased by 80% from the previous year to 1.Applicant'sCitizenshipHas 82 countries and the main nationalities areフィリピン,Vietnam,Sri Lanka,Indonesia,ネ パ ー ル..As a result of the refugee recognition procedure, 65 people were granted residence... In 2018, the number of refugee recognition applications was 1, 493 refugee recognition, and 42 including those who were granted residence..
Disguised refugee problem
You can apply for the refugee recognition system in Japan as many times as you like.During the application, you will not be deported to your home country and you can work if you have a status of residence.Migrant"I came to Japan for the purposeDisguised refugeesAlso exists.2010/From now on, you can get a uniform job 6 months after applying for refugee status...It has been pointed out that this "camouflaged refugee" is one of the causes of the rapid increase in applications for refugee status in Japan in recent years...Supporting refugees in JapanLawyerGroups andNongovernmental organizationWhile recognizing the existence and problems of "disguised refugees," the government should prioritize improving the accreditation system over measures against abuse of the system before tackling the "disguised refugee" problem.Ministry of JusticeIs discussing raising the standards for extremely low refugee status to international standards... April 2015,Ministry of JusticeDecided to admit "a new form of persecution" in the refugee recognition system and to incorporate the opinions of "refugee examination counselors" by outside experts in the recognition...Suppose that he accepted the refugee examination counselor because he wanted to actually increase the number of people accepted.Tadamasa FukiuraAccording to the report, it has not been submitted that one of the 100 or more people in charge should be recognized as a refugee..2010/If you apply for refugee status, you will be able to work full-time from 6 months after the application, but as a result, in JapanThe laborIt is said that there are many cases in which those who wish to apply as "refugees" apply.as a result,Ministry of JusticeThe refugee reception office was punctured, and it took a lot of time to apply.Waiting for results is convenient for disguised refugees because they can work for a long time until the results are obtained, but for the original refugees, they have to wait for a long time.Kiyohiko Toyama(at that timeKomeitoA member of the Diet) said that this deregulation was "Democratic Party"The administration's hidden big mismanagement" is criticized...Due to these problems, the Ministry of Justice has changed the operation of refugee recognition, and the reason for becoming a refugee is debt, reapplicants without a justifiable reason, etc. Became.
Border crisis caused by refugees and illegal immigrants in the United States
The United States of AmericaThe acceptance of foreigners distinguishes between refugees and immigrants, and there is an upper limit on the number of refugees accepted annually (for American immigrants).Immigration to the United StatesSee section).However, those who wish to immigrate from Latin America (Illegal immigration(Applicants) ・ It is difficult to distinguish refugees, and they are in a border crisis with Mexico. Until 2016Barack ObamaAt the end of the administration, an annual refugee allowance of 11 was set.However, it was launched in 2017Donald TrumpThe administration has taken an intolerant attitude toward accepting foreigners regardless of refugees or immigrants, so the number of quotas has been gradually reduced, and by 2020 it was reduced to 1... Inaugurated in 2021Joe BidenUnder the administration, the number of applicants from Central and South America via Mexico has increased nearly nine times, and the area along the Mexican border has become a refugee camp...However, regarding immigration policy, it has announced that it will take over the Trump administration and limit the annual number of people to 1.Therefore, on May 5000, the same year, following criticism from the left wing of the Democratic Party, he announced that he would increase the number of people accepted to 5.He has indicated that he will continue to withdraw from the next year and beyond...Then, in September of the same year, Haiti deported alleged refugees as illegal immigrants..Kamala HarrisVice President in Guatemala, his first destinationAlejandro GiammateiAt a joint press conference after the meeting with the president, immigrant refugee applicants were in a border crisis, so they told immigrant applicants to the United States, "Don't come (to the United States). Don't come. The United States He urged the United States not to enter the United States illegally, saying, "We will continue to enforce the law and keep the border." "If we come to our border, we will be driven back."There are opinions that ridicule the fact that they did not show measures to immigrants and refugee applicants..
World Refugee Day
6/20OriginallyOAU(Organization of African Unity) "" to commemorate the entry into force of the XNUMX Convention[Annotation 18]Was,2000/12/4 OfUnited Nations General AssemblyAt2001/More yearly6/20ToWorld Refugee DayIt was resolved to say.
Since then, June 6th of each year will be a day to raise global interest in refugee protection and assistance, and to deepen understanding and support for the activities of UNHCR and other UN agencies and NGOs (non-governmental organizations). "World Refugee Day Event" in various placesIs being held.
- By year of publication
- Harrell = Bond, Barbara E. (1986). Imposing Aid: Emergency Assistance to Refugees. Oxford University Press. NCID BA00327489
- Hiroshi Honma "What is the refugee problem?" <Iwanami Shinsho> 1990.National bibliographic number:91022030.
- Castles, S .; Miller, MJ (1993). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. The Macmillan Press. NCID BA20929961
- "refugees"Takashi Katou, Takashi Miyajima (Edit),University of Tokyo Press, 1994.National bibliographic number:94039632.
- Weiner, Myron The Global Migration Crisis: Challenge to States and to Human Rights. The HarperCollins series in comparative politics. HarperCollins College Publishers. NCID BA28608316
- Gorman, RF (2000). Historical Dictionary of Refugee and Disaster Relief Organization, 2nd Edition. International organizations series. The Scarecrow Press. NCID BA47544028
- Sadako Ogata "Conflict and Refugees-Recollection of Sadako Ogata-"Shueisha, 2006.National bibliographic number:21011461.
- Yoko Iwata, "Current Status and Issues of Japan's Refugee Recognition System," "Survey and Information-ISSUE BRIEF-" No. 710,National Diet Library, August 2011, 5.
- Refugee Studies Forum, Refugee studies journal, Hyundai Humanities, 2011, ISSN 2186-4292.
- Written by Simon Stranger, translated by Reiko Hidani "This T-shirt was made by child labor. 』\Shiobunsha, 2013.National bibliographic number:22204808.
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ The Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues the brochure "Refugee Convention" at the time of joining the "Convention on the Status of Refugees" and the "Protocol on the Status of Refugees"., October 2004It has been reprinted in (A5 version, page 68).The revised edition includes the "Convention on Refugee Status" and "Protocol on Refugee Status" at the end of the book, as well as "List of Parties to the Convention and Protocol" and "Convention and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Office Regulations". "Relationship" is attached.
- ^ The law number in Japan is "Convention No. 56 of 21".Effective January 1982, 1.
- ^ Non-refoulement Principle: Principle of prohibition of repatriation (of refugees).
- ^ Sadako OgataIs the 1991th generation between 2000 and 8High Refugee CommissionerServed for 3 terms, "Golden Pigeon Award" International AwardAward.
- ^ The law number in Japan is "Convention No. 57 of 1".Effective January 1982, 1.
- ^ "Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActArticle 2 No. 3-2The term refugee is defined in the above as "a refugee subject to the Refugee Convention under the provisions of Article XNUMX or the provisions of Article XNUMX of the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees", and of course the actual operation is the same..
- ^ Disaster refugees: Often because victims move to different parts of the countryInternally displaced personsSometimes called.
- ^ Refugees (DP):Displaced Person.
- ^ Asylum Seeker: According to UNHCR, people who have been displaced from their own country and seek refugee status and protection in other countries. Even if UNHCR recognizes a refugee, the government of the primary asylum may not recognize it as a refugee.
- ^ Internally displaced persons (IDP):Internally Displaced Person) — Refugees are only recognized across national borders.However, according to UNHCR, there are many "people who stay in the country but are displaced from their hometowns and are in the same situation as refugees."
- ^ Palestinian refugeesSupport activitiesUnited Nations Palestinian Refugee Relief AgencyPlease note that (UNRWA) is in charge and is not reflected in the statistical figures because it is not under the jurisdiction of UNHCR.
- ^ Traditional refugees: Refugees that fall under the definition of the XNUMX Convention.Synonymous with political refugees.
- ^ New refugees: Refugees caused by ethnic conflicts that have become apparent around the world after the end of the Cold War.
- ^ Mandate Refugees: Not only Convention Refugees, but also refugees recognized by UNHCR in their own interpretation (due to serious and indiscriminate threats to life, physical protection and freedom, and serious confusion over widespread violence and public order). Persons with international protection who are outside the home country and cannot return to their home country due to the threats that arise).
- ^ Potsdam Declaration(20 Edict No. 5412)
- ^ To be nominated as a refugee investigator, "Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act" (Cabinet Order No. 26 of 319), Article 2, No. 11, No. 12, and No. 12-2.Instructions to appoint refugee investigatorsIn accordance with Section 3 (enforced on January 13, 1), he is an immigration inspector and has an administrative salary (6) level 4 or higher.It has been.
- ^ In 2010, the first year was accepted as 5 people from 27 families., The group came to Japan on September 2, 9, except for 2010 members of 9 families who are in poor physical condition.The two families also arrived late on October 28, 2..
- ^ 1997, at that timeSouth AfricaPresidentNelson MandelaCalls on African countries to cooperate on June 6, the "African Refugee Day" (now "World Refugee Day"), calling for the resolution of conflicts involving refugees and refugees.He also said in 20,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euVisited refugee camps in western Tanzania and listened to Burundian refugees in the process of peaceful resolution of the civil war.
- ^ "Refugee protection / Q & A”(Japanese). UNHCR Japan. 2022/3/15Browse. “Refugees are people who have fled to foreign countries for asylum across national borders.”
- ^ "Who We Help> Refugees" (English). UNHCR.As of August 2013, 1originalMore archives.2013/2/25Browse.
- ^ "About Us> History of UNHCR> The 1951 Refugee Convention (1951 Refugee Convention)" (English). UNHCR.As of August 2013, 5originalMore archives.2013/2/25Browse.
- ^ "What is a refugee?". UNHCR Japan.As of August 2017, 6originalMore archives.2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "Basic Information> Refugee Convention". unhcr.or.jp. 2013/2/25Browse.[Broken link]
- ^ "About the Refugee Convention". UNHCR Japan.As of August 2017, 6originalMore archives.2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "Refugees> Refugee Issues and Japan I: -What is the Refugee Issue?". Ministry of Foreign Affairs.As of August 2013, 2originalMore archives.2013/2/25Browse.
- ^ a b "Recent Pamphlet "Refugee Convention"". Ministry of Foreign Affairs.As of August 2006, 12originalMore archives.2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "Cover ("Refugee Convention")". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.As of August 2006, 11originalMore archives.2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "Pamphlet "Refugee Convention" (pdf) ”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.As of August 2013, 2originalMore archives.2013/2/25Browse.
- ^ a b "The Nihon Ryoku Shimbun』Volume 43 (1991) p.34
- ^ Showa 27/02/27 House of CouncilorsRemarks by Ichi Suzuki, Local Government Committee "From October of the year before lastImmigration BureauHas sent back XNUMX Koreans in about a year since its inauguration.Most of the current smuggling is XNUMX% Korean. "
- ^ "Dynamics of 4 stowaway routes The infiltration of the back road of the sea connecting Japan and South Korea is only 2% of those who catch tea."Industrial economy newspaper] June 1950, 6
- ^ Translated by Rinjiro Sodei "Yoshida Shigeru= MacArthur Round-Trip Letters-1945-1951 "Hosei University Press March 2000
- ^ "Asahi Shimbun" July 1959, 7, page 13 "Mostly voluntarily announced by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Koreans in Japan Wartime recruitment is 2 people"
- ^ "More than 1 million refugees in the world""Mainichi Newspapers』Morning edition April 2022, 5 (international side) viewed on the same day
- ^ ""About refugees" on the UN site". 2022/3/2Browse.
- ^ Harper, Douglas. “refugee" (English). Online Etymology Dictionary.As of August 2006, 5originalMore archives.2011/8/21Browse.
- ^ Sub-item encyclopedia, reference in the World Encyclopedia, carefully selected Japanese language encyclopedia, Digital Daijisen, Digital Daijisen Plus, Britannica International Encyclopedia. “What is an asylum seeker?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ “IX edition 1993 Golden doves for journalism—International Award” (English). List of Winners 1986-2016, The Journalism Prize. Gold Pigeon Award. p. 2. http://www.archiviodisarmo.it/images/pdf/list.pdf 2019/4/17Browse..
- ^ Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act - e-Gov Law Search
- ^ ""Ministry of Justice: What is the XNUMX Convention?"". Ministry of Justice. 2019/7/24Browse.
- ^ "How we deal with our (no) interest". Peatix Inc..As of August 2017, 6originalMore archives.2017/9/23Browse.
- ^ Zetter, R. 2007, pp. 172–192.
- ^ Imposing Aid: Emergency Assistance to Refugees 1986.
- ^ a b Koizumi 2005.
- ^ a b c d UNHCR (2021-06-18) (PDF). Global Trends FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2020> GLOBAL TRENDS --Full annexes> Table 1. Refugees, asylum-seekers, internally displaced persons (IDPs), returnees (refugees and IDPs), stateless persons, others of concern to UNHCR and Venezuelans displaced abroad, by country / territory of asylum, end-2020 (Global Trends 2020 Forced Movement> Global Trends-Complete Annex> Table 1. Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Returned Residents (Refugees) And IDP), non-national persons, other people related to UNHCR and internally displaced persons, Venezuelan, asylum country / region, end of 2020) (Report). https://www.unhcr.org/flagship-reports/globaltrends/ 2021/7/4Browse..
- ^ a b UNHCR Japan Chapter (June 2021, 6). “Refugee situation in numbers (2020)". 2021/7/4Browse.
- ^ "[Press Release] UNHCR: Putting an End to the Increasing Forced Movement and Calling on International Leaders for Action" (Press Release), UNHCR, (20201-06-18), https://www.unhcr.org/jp/36843-pr-210618.html 2021/7/4Browse.
- ^ a b UNHCR (2021-06-18) (Excel). GLOBAL TRENDS FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN 2020- Annex tables> table 2020 (Global Trend Appendix Table> Table 3), table 3 Global Trend Appendix Table> Table 6) (Report). https://www.unhcr.org/flagship-reports/globaltrends/ 2021/7/4Browse..
- ^ EF Kunz 1973, pp. 125–146.
- ^ "Japanese history you should know = Keizo Tokuriki = (XNUMX)”. Nikkey Shimbun. 2020/12/26Browse.
- ^ "<Korean culture> Korea, Japan and China collaborate to study "Manyoshu"”. Toyo Keizai Daily. 2020/12/26Browse.
- ^ XNUMXnd Edition, Selected Edition Japanese Language Dictionary, Digital Daijisen, World Encyclopedia. “What is a white Russian?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ Kenta, Shiraiwa (August 2021, 8). “[Correct Morning] Vice Admiral "Military is Evil" to save Jews and prevent Soviet ambitions”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ Iwata 2011, p. 2.
- ^ Act on Salary of General Staff (Act No. XNUMX of XNUMX) Appendix XNUMX. https://elaws.e-gov.go.jp/search/elawsSearch/elaws_search/lsg0500/detail?lawId=325AC0000000095 2019/4/20Browse..
- ^ "Status of specialized subcommittees on refugee issues, etc.”. Ministry of Justice. As of October 2017, 9originalMore archives.2017/9/23Browse.
- ^ "Countries with high UN contributions”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2019/11/2Browse.
- ^ ""Japan's refugee examination is too strict" Eri Ishikawa of the Refugee Assistance Association"Mainichi Newspapers], January 2015, 3.2014/3/29Browse.
- ^ "Japan's refugee policy: acceptance is a "narrow gate"". Nippon.com, a public interest incorporated foundation (September 2015, 5). 2015/5/9Browse.
- ^ a b Yasuhiko Ota ""Countries earned by refugees" and "Countries earned by refugees" ... Japan is a "country that does not see refugees""Nihon Keizai Shimbun], January 2015, 3.2015/3/18Browse.
- ^ "Press Release "Myanmar Refugees Visit to Japan by Resettlement"". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2010, 9). 2010/9/28Browse.
- ^ "First "resettled" Myanmar refugees". Yomiuri Shimbun (September 2010, 9). 2010/9/28Browse.
- ^ "Press Release "Myanmar Refugees Visit to Japan by Resettlement"". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2010, 10). 2010/10/13Browse.
- ^ "[Human Security] Together with all Myanmar people> To solve the problems left in democratized Myanmar". nippon-foundation.or.jp (February 2013, 1). As of February 23, 2013originalMore archives.2010/9/27Browse.
- ^ Koji Takahashi (November 2012, 11). “The Impact of Resettlement Refugees, Zero Applicants”. Mainichi Newspapers. originalArchived as of October 2013, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20130625111608/http://mainichi.jp/opinion/news/20121128k0000m070105000c.html 2013/4/20Browse.
- ^ Shin Nimura (Commentary) (March 2012, 3). “[Public theory of time] Issues of resettlement refugee acceptance”. As of May 2012, 3originalMore archives.2013/4/20Browse.
- ^ "Concluded an agreement with UNHCR Office in Japan regarding the implementation of recommended entrance examinations for refugees". Meiji University (February 2010, 7). As of February 28, 2013originalMore archives.2015/5/18Browse.
- ^ "Recommendations for refugees under an agreement with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Office in Japan". Aoyama Gakuin University. 2015/5/18Browse.
- ^ Center for International Education and Cooperation: “About the recommended admission system for refugees under the agreement with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Japan (UNHCR Japan)". Kwansei Gakuin University (February 2014, 7). As of February 24, 2014originalMore archives.2015/5/18Browse.
- ^ "Number of refugee recognition applications increased by 80% year-on-year"Qnew News", March 2018, 3.2018/7/10Browse.
- ^ "The situation of refugee asylum in Japan, etc.”. Ministry of Justice. 2019/11/2Browse.
- ^ "3120 people who are not recognized as refugees and have the highest number of dissents."Nihon Keizai Shimbun"Kyodo News, August 2016, 3.2016/3/26Browse.
- ^ "Is it okay for refugees to be in a cold country?"Nihon Keizai Shimbun], January 2015, 3.2015/3/18Browse.
- ^ Hironori Yoshitomi "Listening: <News commentary> Urgent refugee issue"Mainichi Newspapers], January 2015, 4.2015/5/2Browse.originalArchived as of 2015-05-01.
- ^ Motoki Kaneko "Expanding the scope of refugee recognition Examinations will be stricter and external opinions will be introduced."Asahi Shimbun], January 2015, 9.2015/9/5Browse.originalArchived as of 2015-09-05.
- ^ Tadamasa Fukiura"Misunderstandings about Japan's acceptance of refugees"Nippon.com], January 2015, 7.2016/1/27Browse.
- ^ Yusuke Maekawa "The worst slaughter of the 21st century that attacks the Rohingya (Part XNUMX)"NewsweekMarch 2017, 3 issue, September 28, 2017,2017/9/23Browse.
- ^ "Refugee applications to Japan are halved. Is it effective in curbing "impersonation applications"?”. Asahi Shimbun. 2019/11/2Browse.
- ^ "It does not mean that you can work in Japan if you apply for refugee status.”. Ministry of Justice. 2019/11/2Browse.
- ^ "U.S. raises refugee acceptance limit to "pre-Trump" level”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2021, 5). 2021/5/4Browse.
- ^ "US-Mexico border, more than 21 million detainees in 170 record high (photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 10). 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ "It's like a refugee camp ... people rushing to "America in Byden" Mexican border area, trials for US administration | Prime News”(Japanese). Fukui Shimbun D. 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ "U.S. raises refugee acceptance limit to "pre-Trump" level”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2021, 5). 2021/5/4Browse.
- ^ https://www.newsweekjapan.jp/headlines/world/2021/09/346014.php
- ^ "Biden's administration is closed in all directions-will the US "Democratic Party bubble" collapse (Hiroshi Ohara) @gendai_biz”(Japanese). Contemporary business. 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ "US Vice President, Illegal Immigrants "Don't Come to America"”(Japanese). BBC News (September 2021, 6). 2022/3/15Browse.
- ^ "High Commissioner marks Africa Refugee Day" (English). unhcr.org (September 2000, 6). 2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "UNHCR commemorates former South African President Nelson Mandela". unhcr.org/jp (September 2013, 12). 2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ "June 2018, 6 World Refugee Day Announcement of UNHCR Association related events”. UNHCR Association (2018). 2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ Naoko Nogo (July 2018, 7). “A movie screening and talk event "Refugees x SDGs" will be held in honor of "World Refugee Day"!". Independent administrative agencyJapan International Cooperation Agency. 2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ Masaaki Sasaki "[Rio Olympics] IOC approves 6 boys and 4 girls in the limelight for the refugee Olympic team"Sankei Shimbun], January 2016, 6.2017/9/23Browse.
- By year of publication
- Kunz, Egon F (1973). “The refugee in flight: kinetic models and forms of displacement”. International Migration Review 7. two:10.2307/3002424.
- Koichi Koizumi "Political Sociology of International Forced Movement"Keiso Shobo, 2005.National bibliographic number:20752434.
- Zetter, Roger (2007). Refugee Studies Program, University of Oxford. Ed. “More labels, fewer refugees: remaking the refugee label in an era of globalization” (English). Journal of Refugee Studies (University of Oxford) 20 (2). http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/by/year 2011/9/22Browse..
- Yoko Iwata, "Current Status and Issues of Japan's Refugee Recognition System," "Survey and Information-ISSUE BRIEF-" No. 710,National Diet Library, August 2011, 5.
Treaties and regulations
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Japan Chapter
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Geneva Headquarters(English)
- refugees -Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- United Nations UNHCR Association
- Asia Welfare Education Foundation Refugee Business Headquarters
- Refugee Assistance Association
- Association for Aid and Refugees
- Refugee Research Forum
- Immigration Research Center (CMS)(English)
- European Commission on Refugees and Asylum(English)
- Center for European Studies on Immigrants (ERCOMER)(English)
- United States Refugee Immigration Commission (USCRI)(English)
- International Relief Commission (IRC)(English)
- Global Commission on International Immigration (GCIM)[Broken link](English)
- "Immigration" Overseas Development Institute (ODI)(English)[Broken link]
- International Center for Immigration Policy Development(English)
- Refugee Forum(English)
- Immigration information(English)
University Research Institute
- The University of Tokyo, Refugee Immigration Documentation Center(English)
- Oxford University Refugee Studies Center(English)
- Oxford University International Institute for Immigration(English)
- University of California, Gender Refugee Studies Center(English)
- La Trove University Refugee Research Center(English)
- University of Pretoria, Human Rights Center(English)
- University of East London, Immigrant Refugee Trust Research Center(English)
- University of Essex, Heartbreak Asylum Refugee Center[Broken link](English)
- University of York, Refugee Studies Center(English)
- LSE Brookings Institute / Internally Displaced Persons Project[Broken link](English)