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💴 | Revenge for price increases?Concerns about the impact of heat waves on agricultural products and how to connect rising prices to economic revitalization


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Revenge on price increases?Concerns about the impact of heat waves on agricultural products and how to connect rising prices to economic revitalization

 
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If the heat wave mentioned at the beginning leads to serious damage to crops, there may be further price increases.
 

A premature heat wave has arrived in India and neighboring Pakistan. “The hottest in the world” “It's too hot for humankind to live in ... → Continue reading

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MONEY PLUS is an economic media that conveys financial and economic information in an easy-to-understand manner for people who are not good at talking about money.


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    heat wave

    heat wave(Neppa,British: heat wave) Is the average of the areatemperatureRemarkably compared tohigh temperatureA lump of airIt is a phenomenon that continuously rushes like this.

    World Meteorological OrganizationAccording to the definition of (WMO), the maximum daytime temperature is 5 average maximum temperature.° CIt means that the number of days exceeding the above is 5 consecutive days or more.[1][2]..The definition of heat waves varies from region to region.

    principle

    In summerBlocking phenomenonWhen happensNorthern hemisphereThen.Prevailing windIs extremely southwardSouthern hemisphereThen blow to the north,equatorialAs the warm winds in the vicinity flow into the area(I.e.Obi is formed[Annotation 1]..Once the blocking phenomenon occurs, the same weather will continue for a long time (blocking high pressure), so warm winds will enter the area one after another, and the temperature will rise further.By repeating these things, the heat is amplified, and eventuallyheatstroke,Heat strokeIt will be hot enough to kill humans.

    The weather characteristic of heat waves is a stable sunny day for a long period of time.Therefore until the next morningRadiation coolingThen, the temperature rises day by day without being able to cool the atmosphere, and the temperature peaks often before the heat wave converges.In addition, the amount of rain decreases, the humidity decreases, and the tendency to dry.Because the wind is generally weak (especially near the center of the high pressure)Air pollutants purification-拡 散It becomes difficult to beAir pollutionDamage, especiallyPhotochemical smogDamage is likely to occur.

    However, when the heat wave passes the peak and the atmosphere becomes unstable and the cold air approaches, the convective activity becomes active due to the influence of the high temperature and it is intense.Heavy rain,thunderstormStormy weather byYudachi,SquallEtc.) tend to be prominent.

    影響

    The effects of heat waves can be broadly divided into those caused by high temperatures and those caused by light rain and dryness.

    Heat waves can cause the temperature to rise above body temperature.When it gets so hotheatstroke,Heat stroke,DehydrationMany people complain of such symptoms, and death may occur.[3]..Many buildings and paved roads are significantly hotter than the temperature.

    In addition, demand for light rain and dryness increases due to high temperatures.Water resourcesInvited a shortage ofWater supplyOf the riverWater intake restrictions,Water outage,Agricultural waterThere are often adverse effects such as a shortage of.

    May trigger a wildfire[4].

    Major heat waves in recent years

    Here, the ones that were particularly severely damaged are listed.Abnormality (climate) in the text refers to the case where the value becomes a rare value of about once every 30 years or less.

    • July 1977, 7 GreekAthensRecorded the highest temperature in Europe up to 2015 at 48.0 ℃[Annotation 2].
    • 1980/June-August US Central-Southern Heat Wave (TexasWichita FallsMaximum temperature 47 ℃, TongDallas38 consecutive days with a maximum temperature of 42 ° C or higher,OklahomaTulsa,KansasWichitaIn July, the average temperature difference (at that time) was + 7 ° C or higher,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クRecorded the highest average temperature in August, killing more than 8 people in the United States)[Source required]
    • 1987/July Greek heat wave (maximum temperature 7 ℃, more than 45 dead)[Source required]
    • 1993/July Southeastern United States heat wave (GeorgiaAtlantaRecord high average temperature in July, but floods in the Midwest and unusually low temperatures in the northwest)[Source required]
    • 1994/June-August Extreme heat in Japan and South Korea[Source required]
    • 1995/ ChicagoHeat wave (739 dead), killing more than 3000 people across the Midwest[5].Similar heat waves have occurred in the past, but it is said that the damage has increased sharply due to the progress of urbanization.[Source required]
    • 1998/ 2541 people died in India (both 3028)[Source required]
    • 1999/ Eastern heat wave in the United States (New York average temperature record in July)[Source required]
    • 2000/ Pakistan140 dead[Source required]
    • 2003/ France, Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Switzerland[Annotation 3]Etc. for 500 yearsEuropean heat wave(More than 52,000 deaths across Europe[6]
      • フランス14,800、ドイツ7,000、イタリア4,200、スペイン 4,200、イギリス2,139(1833年に150人の記録)ポルトガル2,099、オランダ1,400、ベルギー1,250、スイス975
    • 2005/ Heat wave throughout the United States (temperature over 40 ° C)[Source required]
    • 2006/ Heat waves throughout the United States (temperatures above 40 ° C. Among them, California reached the highest record at a maximum temperature of 48 ° C.)[Source required]
    • 2007/
      • Heat waves mainly in Europe. On July 2007, 7, daily maximum temperature observations were recorded in central and eastern Europe.[Annotation 4]
      • Pakistan heat wave (maximum temperature 51 ℃, 26 dead)[Source required]
    • 2009/ Southern Australia heat wave (maximum temperature 45 ° C)[Source required]
    • 2010/July Europe-WestRussiaIn the western part of Russia, there was an abnormally high temperature, an abnormally light rain, drought and forest fire damage.The state where a tall high pressure was generated due to the westerly meandering continues throughout July[Annotation 5], Due to the fact that it was covered with high temperature areas and fine weather areas.
    • October-November 2010 "The hottest summer in the history of observation" in Japan[8]
    • 2015/
      • 2015/May Indian heat wave kills more than 5 people.AllahabadAt 47.7℃,DelhiAt 45.5 ℃[9][10][11][12].
      • 2015/6 PakistanMore than 2000 people died in the heat wave[13].SukkurAt 48 ℃, on June 6ndKarachiAt 45℃,RamadanAnd the damage spreads due to the power outage[14][15].
      • 2015/7 Europe.Cordoba50 ℃ for the first time in 43.7 years,MadridThe highest temperature in the history of observation is 39.7 ℃.Geneva39.7 ℃, the highest in the history of observation[Annotation 6][16],Germany40.3 ℃ in southern Kitzingen (new record in German observation history from 1881)[17].AustriaAnnounced "the hottest July in the history of observations in the last 248 years"[18].
      • July 2015-Australia's Meteorological Bureau recognizes it as "the hottest July in observation history in the last 7 years"[19].
      • 2015/7/31 (I.e.Bandar Mazuhar (Bandar-e Mahshahr(Persian Gulf coastal city near Kuwait) with a maximum temperature of 46.1 ° C (115)° F), Minimum temperature 32.2 ℃ (90 ° F), Experience temperature 74 ℃ (165 ° F) considering humidity[Annotation 7][20]..The day before, the maximum temperature was 42.8 ℃ (109 ° F), the minimum temperature was 32.2 ℃ (90 ° F), and the sensible temperature was 68 ℃ (154 ° F).[21].
    • 2016/
    • 2019/
      • In France, there were two big heat waves, June 6-July 24 and July 7-7, and on July 7, southern France.GardThe village recorded a record high of 45.9 degrees in the history of observation in the country.By September 9, the French Ministry of Health revealed that 9 people had died in connection with the heat wave.[25].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Although there are differences in the intensity of cold and warm air, the blocking phenomenon itself occurs throughout the year.
    2. ^ The normal July maximum temperature in Athens is 7 ° C.[Source required]
    3. ^ The highest temperature ever recorded in Switzerland until July 2015 was 7 ° C observed in 2003 in the village of Grono in the Graubunden region.[Source required]
    4. ^ The daily maximum temperature observations are as follows.(1) Demir Kapiya (Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) 45.7, (2) Bali Paraise (Italy) 45.6, (3) Geigeria (Macedonia) 45.3, (4) Amendria (Italy) 45.2, (5) Smedeleska Parenska (XNUMX)Serbia and Montenegro) 44.6, (8) Sandanski (Bulgaria) 44.6 (All units are ° C).In Bulgaria, it recorded 1916 ° C in 45.1.[Source required]
    5. ^ MoscowSignificant positive anomalies with a monthly average of 500hPa altitude of 5820m (normal year difference + 150m) or more in some parts of the vicinity.In Moscow, Russia, the daily maximum temperature on July 7 reached 29 degrees Celsius (normal value of about 38 degrees Celsius).[7].
    6. ^ The record so far is 1921 ° C in 38.9.[Source required]
    7. ^ World record for sensible temperature on July 2003, 7 in Saudi ArabiaDhahranIt is 81 ° C (178 ° F) recorded in.[Source required]

    Source

    1. ^ Bhattacharya, Suryatapa (May 2015, 5). "Why did the heat wave of 45 degrees Celsius in India occur?". Wall Street JournalJapanese version. http://jp.wsj.com/articles/SB11729237550577364065404581014513133635694 2015/8/6Browse. 
    2. ^ "Weather_ A summer heat wave”(English). Weather Cast. 2015/8/6Browse.
    3. ^ The first “murder heat wave” over XNUMX degrees in Tokyo peaks this weekYukan Fuji official website
    4. ^ Wildfire Photo Feature in GreeceJiji Press
    5. ^ “Heat Wave 1995”. Chicago Now(July 2015, 7). http://www.chicagonow.com/chicago-weather-watch/2015/07/heat-wave-1995/ 2015/7/13Browse. 
    6. ^ Brown, Leicester (May 2006 issue). “Summer heat wave kills more than 5 Europeans". Eco Economy Update. WWJ Global Environment Email Magazine Epsilon. 2009/8/23Browse.
    7. ^ "Abnormally high temperatures from eastern Europe to western Russia". 22 Press Release Material. Japanese Meteorological Agency (September 2010, 8). 2010/8/10Browse.
    8. ^ "Extreme Weather Report 2014 Extreme Weather and Climate Change in the World in Recent Years-Actual Conditions and Prospects- (VIII) (PDF)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. P. 3 (2015-27-03). 2015/8/6Browse.
    9. ^ “Heat waves in various parts of India killed over 500 people The capital is 43.5 degrees”. Reuters(July 2015, 5). http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPKBN0OA1HV20150525 2015/5/26Browse. 
    10. ^ “Indian heat wave melts roads in the capital to over 800 dead”. AFP = current affairs (Yahoo! News). (December 2015, 5). http://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20150526-00000042-jij_afp-int 2015/5/26Browse.  [Broken link]
    11. ^ “Heat wave continues to sweep across India, toll over 1,700”. Ummid.com(July 2015, 5). http://www.ummid.com/news/2015/May/28.05.2015/india-heat-wave.html 2015/5/29Browse. 
    12. ^ “Over 2100 deaths from Indian heat waves”. NHK(July 2015, 5). http://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20150531/k10010097961000.html 2015/5/31Browse.  [Broken link]
    13. ^ “Blistering Pakistan heat wave leaves nearly 2,000 dead over last two weeks”. Bloomberg Japan Times (AP). (June 2015, 6). http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2015/06/24/environment/south-pakistan-heat-wave-deaths-622-rising-morgues-overwhelmed/#.VaOrLSww-ig 2015/7/13Browse. 
    14. ^ “Pakistan, 400 heat wave dead, continued to heat up in the south”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2015, 6). http://www.sankei.com/world/news/150623/wor1506230020-n1.html 2015/6/23Browse. 
    15. ^ “Pakistan heat wave, more than 1000 dead”. AFP = current affairs (Yahoo! News). (December 2015, 6). http://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20150625-00000044-jij_afp-int 2015/6/25Browse.  [Broken link]
    16. ^ “Highest temperature ever in Geneva, Switzerland”. AFP(July 2015, 7). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3053957 2015/7/8Browse. 
    17. ^ “Europe, North America ... Heat wave all over the world, the highest update in Germany over 40 degrees”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2015, 7). http://www.sankei.com/world/news/150710/wor1507100006-n1.html 2015/7/12Browse. 
    18. ^ “Iran hits heat waves around the world with a sensible temperature of 74 degrees Celsius, India kills 2300 people, and a glacier pinch in the Alps”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2015, 8). https://www.sankei.com/article/20150805-TJ7QN3TEKVIE5GTAGBWUTNEFYM/ 2015/8/5Browse. 
    19. ^ “Close-up 2015: Double high pressure and intense heat”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2015, 8). http://mainichi.jp/shimen/news/20150809ddm003040104000c.html 2015/8/22Browse. 
    20. ^ “Extreme temperature: Iran city sizzles with near world record-breaking heat of 165 ° F”. Christian today(July 2015, 7). http://www.christiantoday.com/article/extreme.temperature.iran.city.sizzles.with.near.world.record.breaking.heat.of.165f/60749.htm 2015/8/2Browse. 
    21. ^ “Iranian city Bandar Mahshahr hits'incredible' temperature of 43C during Middle East heatwave”. The Independent(July 2015, 7). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/iranian-city-bandar-mahshahr-hits-incredible-temperature-of-43c-during-middle-east-heatwave-10429220.html 2015/8/2Browse. 
    22. ^ India: Calling attention to heat wavesMinistry of Foreign Affairs Overseas Safety Information (Spot Information) April 2016, 04
    23. ^ 1956 ° C recorded in 50.6 in Alwar, Rajasthan
    24. ^ Observed a temperature of 51 degrees in northern India, a new domestic recordAFP = current affairs May 2016, 5
    25. ^ "Ministry of Health announces 1435 heatwave-related deaths in France this summer”. CNN (2019-0-09). 2019/9/9Browse.

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