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📊 | Large-scale food hall in the redevelopment area on the north side of Osaka Station, supervised by the British "timeout"


Photo "Time Out Market" opened its first store in Lisbon in 2014.We also have stores in 1 cities in North America and Dubai.

Large-scale food hall in the redevelopment area on the north side of Osaka Station, supervised by "Time Out" in the UK

 
If you write the contents roughly
The total area of ​​the redevelopment area is about 9 m1150 including the city park.
 

On May 5, Mitsubishi Estate and others announced the English information media "Time Out (...)" in the redevelopment area "Umekita Phase 19" on the north side of Osaka Station. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

park

parkWhat is (Kouen)?publicIs resting orplayTo enjoyReleaseWas donePlace(region).ThereforepublicHigh sexGroup-組織Often provided and operated by.The target place isthe purposeAs suitable forMaintenanceIs done, but the originalNATUREStatusIn some cases, it is prioritized to keep.

Historicallygarden,amusement parkIt is a concept that overlaps with or embraces.

The park has the following:

Semantics and concepts

Park as a jargon

The park is intended for public uselandHowever, we will secure land and improve the facilities.ConstructionIt is roughly divided into parks and regional parks that specify areas and maintain qualitatively by regulation.Children's amusement park, Also under the City Park LawBlockParks, animal parks, city parks, forest parks, etc. belong to commercial parks, and national parks and national parks belong to regional parks.

Land use planningStudyLandscaping"Park" used as a technical term in such fields is EnglishPublic park(Public space) Translation [Note 1]so,Green spaceIt is a form of. Where the word "park" has been known historically, the vocabulary "Fu Chung Park" can be found in the book "Rakuyo Meienki" in the Northern Song Dynasty.Yasuto NomaIn "Ideal Gardens and Parks" (Taisho 12), "The Rakuyo Meienki of Li Gakunon is a description of the garden at that time. Etc. are famous. "However, there is no mention of the terms Fu Chung Park or Park.after thatTeizo NiwaMentioned this in "The Source of Japanese Park" (collected in the July 36 issue of "New City"). It can be understood that (the garden of the Fu Chung public hall) is not the same as (the open garden). It is a thing and cannot be translated as a so-called (park) precedent. "The Chinese book "Rakuyo Meienki" has already been quoted in the Tokugawa era essay "Happy Yushokanto" (7), but there is no commentary on Tokugawa Park or the park itself.Going back further in the Chinese eraYasuhiko MaejimaIn "The Park in Tokyo, Its 90 Years of History" (Showa 38), (1) "North Wei Book" Volume 19 Nakakei Akira 12 Wang Cheng wrote "Matamei Glue Defense Award Punishment Law Table Reduction Park Noji and No Measures" It says "poor mouth", and (2) Li Yanshou of the Tang Dynasty, Volume 18 of the same book "Northern History". It has already been pointed out that the terms (park) are used, such as "Omotesando Park Nochi and beyond."

However, all of them are old and it is impossible to infer the contents of today's parks.

At the same time, in the Edo period, in Tsuwano, Shimane PrefectureWashibara HachimanguIt was discovered that there was a dedication amount in which the term "park" was used, and it became a problem, and Yasuhiko Maejima "Tokyo Park History (13)" ("City Park" No. 16, It will be well known through Yoshinobu Yoshinaga's "The Origin of the Park" ("Tokyo Municipal Weekly Report", Showa 33).Although it is mentioned in considerable detail in Niwa's "The Source of Japanese Parks" mentioned above, Saburo Kimura's "Questioning the Reconsideration of the Discussion on" Parks vs. Green Space "in Japan" ("Landscaping Magazine", 17 (51), 5) "But It is very doubtful that such an example of a small clan in a remote mountainous area could have set a precedent for the civilization route of the new government in the trend of civilization (eg, haircut decree Meiji 1988). In other words, the term park today must be investigated and viewed as a new word that arose from the process of absorption of Western civilization in Japan. " It's on the street. It is the record of Ambassador Iwakura's visit to the United States and Europe and Kimura that the thoughts such as Park or Garden were most accurately and quickly transmitted to Japan. Terms such as: Hanazono), Square (Amusement Park), Common (Konmon) are used, and there are some descriptions that are of particular interest to Park. The purpose of the training is natural, natural, and artificial. Artificial Niseiru. Tenshin Nomi wo Lost Helito. New Testament Katsumi Matayuki wo Soshiri, Fuchu no Hito Ha Noyama wo te (Park) Tosult lol Funari. ) Suru land Nari. The people's inheritance Lazarkoto every two times, etc. ”, the correct concept of what Park is is grasped in the mind of the party, and there is a public park ( (Garden) In other words, it is said that the concept of Public Park was also acquired, and the expression "Kouen" rather than the expression "Park" is conspicuous in the same "Circular Record", which is evidence of this.

The concept of modern parks in the West

The concept of "park" isUnited KingdomCivil societyIt was formed at the same time as the establishment of.GoodEnvironmentEnjoyright,walkSuch asmotionRight to doCitizenNatural rights ofCitizenship), And the Forest ActForest hunter(gamekeeper) Was the king's private who kept the citizens awayhuntingGarden (Park) The opening of the forest to the public is the beginning of the public park.

米 国Park means Public park because there was no king in.On the contrary, the hunting groundGame parkCall.

World parks

List of major world parks

Asia

People's Republic of China
Republic of China (Taiwan)
South Korea
Thailand
Singapore

North and Central America

The United States of America
Canada

South America

Brazil

Europe

United Kingdom
Ireland
France
Italy
Germany
Netherlands
Spain
Norway
Vienna
Poland
ウクライナ
Russia

Africa

Oceania

Japanese park

Modern history of parks in Japan

Japanese parks were opened after the Meiji era.Before this,Edo PeriodToSendaiJosaien (Sakura no Baba)1695/(8th year of Genroku) CurrentHeraoka Park) Etc.(I.e.Exists and planted ornamental trees in the same way as the shrines and templesFreak show,Shooting,ChayaEtc. were bustling with the opening of stores.

After entering the Meiji eraKobe OfForeigner residence amusement park(1868/(XNUMXst year of the Meiji era)) and Hokkaido Pioneer History Kairakuen (1871/(Meiji 4), does not exist),Yokohama OfYamate Park(1870/(Meiji 3)) existed.Immediately after the beginning of the Meiji era, the ones were exclusively for foreigners in the settlement, and were not parks for the Japanese people.

Park maintenance by the decree of the Daijo-kan

in Japan,1873/(Meiji6 years)1/15"Meiji 6ProclamationIn "No. 16"

"SanfuWo beginning, people's congestion area Nishite, ancient nokatsu ward masterHistoric siteA place to see the crowds up to the ground {TokyoNi Taeha KinryuyamaSensoji Temple, ToeizanKaneiji Temple境内No kind,京都Ni TaehaYasaka,ShimizuNo precincts,ArashiyamaNo, sote shrines and temples precinctsPublic landNo.} Previously high-excluded land for two genus cells.PrefectureNiote right estate selection, the business situation huge interrogation,図 面To AizoMinistry of FinanceHesitation — Declaration No. 6 of the Daijo-kan in 16

And decidedSuperior decreeBy oldShrines and templesThe beginning of the building park system was to requisition the land and make it a park.1873 in this proclamation3/25The first 5 parks in Japan have been officially designated1887/By about (Meiji 20), about 80 parks had been set up nationwide.[1][2].

Park opened by the decree of the Daijo-kan
Park namePrefecture nameMunicipalityDate of establishment
Hakodate ParkHokkaidoHakodate1879 (12th year of Meiji)
Urawa Park KairakuenSaitamaSaitamaUrawa-kuDecember 1874 (Meiji 7)
Ueno ParkTokyoTaitoMay 1876, 9
Asakusa ParkTokyoTaitoMay 1886, 19
Shiba ParkTokyoMinato-kuMay 1873, 6
Asukayama ParkTokyoKitaMay 1873, 6
Fukagawa ParkTokyoKotoMay 1873, 6
Kairakuen (Tokiwa Park)IbarakiMito(Designated March 1873, 7)
Hakusan Park15 /NiigataNiigataChuo1873 (6th year of Meiji)
Shiroyama ParkGifuTakayama1873 (6th year of Meiji)
Ogaki ParkGifuOgaki1873 (6th year of Meiji)
Sumiyoshi ParkOsakaOsakaSuminoe Ward1873 (6th year of Meiji)
Hamadera ParkOsakaSakai CityNishi-wardDecember 1873 (Meiji 6)
ItsukushimaparkHiroshima
East Park (Higashi Matsubara Park)40 /FukuokaFukuoka CityHakata WardMarch 1876
Hasuike Park41 /SagaSaga City

It has been a scenic spot since the Edo period and was opened as a park in the Meiji period.Matsushima,Amanohashidate,Aki no Miyajima(Three Views of Japan) AndDaimyo gardenIsKairakuen,Kenrokuen Garden,Korakuen(Three famous gardens in Japan) And other parts of the park1919/(Taisho8 years) Old enactmentPreservation method for natural monumentsAs "famous Naru Park and Garden"Scenic spotWas designated as.

Even with the promulgation of the City Park Law, Daijo-kan's officials in the 6th year of the Meiji era have not been abolished and are still alive.In the past, the law for establishing parks includes the establishment of the Tokyo City Ward Amendment Ordinance, special city planning projects under the Special City Planning Law, and parks under the Shinto Plan.Under the City Park Law, parks that existed on state-owned land before the enactment of the law will be loaned free of charge to the local public bodies that are the managers.National property lawThe above is an ordinary property.

Natural park (regional park)

Enactment of National Park Law

World wideNational parkThe momentum of designation has increased, and in response to this, the oldNational Park Law 1931/(Showa6 years), the regional park started,1957/(Showa 32)Natural Parks ActWas taken over by.

Regional parkNatural Parks ActRepresented by a natural park based onCountryOrLocal governmentRegardless of the title of the land in a certain area, the area is designated as a park and due to restrictions on land use, prohibition or restriction of certain acts, etc.NATURELandscapeThe main purpose is to preserve.

In addition, national parks including the sea, national parks,National parkUnderwater parks have been designated at XNUMX locations for the purpose of protecting underwater fish resources.Marine park is an excellent underwaterLandscapeIt is a district designated by the government to protect the landscape and make good use of its landscape.

City park (building park)

Legislation has been delayed for a long time for commercial parks.1951/At that time, the Ministry of Construction notified each prefectural governor of the park facility standards.At this time, the conditions and regulations for the facilities in the park were established.

1956/(Showa 31)City Park LawSystematized and established the park maintenance standards.

City parkCity Park LawLand that falls under Article 2 and Article 11, Paragraphs 1 and 2 of the Town Planning and Zoning Act.広 場,flower bed,Sandbox,Botanical garden,Zoo, Outdoor stage,Pool, Exhibition hall,Stand,Parking LotThe site is equipped with "etc."

The city parks stipulated in the City Park Law are as follows.

  1. "National Park" For wide-area use and for setting up as a national commemorative project.
  2. "Urban parks set up by local public organizations" Block parks, neighborhood parks, district parks, general parks, athletic parks, wide area parks, etc.

Strictly speaking, a park is a park that is represented by a city park based on the City Park Law. ,City Park LawIt is set up and managed by the national government, prefectures, and municipalities based on the above.City planning-related departments such as local governments have jurisdiction over city parks and specific district parks stipulated by the City Park Law.

Previously, facilities that could be installed in the parkWCIt was limited to rest areas, disaster warehouses, etc. Under the revised City Park Law, which came into effect in June 2017,Licensed Nursery School,School club, Elderly welfare facilities have been added, making it easier to open restaurants[3].

Old as similarMinistry of Health and Welfare Jurisdiction,Child Welfare ActChildren's amusement park based onplaygroundreference),Employee pensionThere are pension parks by the government and parks based on the regulations of municipalities (see "Parks other than city parks" below).In addition, ○○ amusement park (amusement park) And those who call themselves XX Park are mostly corporate-owned, with some exceptions.

Neighborhood unit core park

  • Block park (formerly called a children's park)
    A standard park of 250ha used by people living in a block with a radius of about 0.25m.
  • Neighborhood park
    A standard 500ha park used by people living in the neighborhood with a radius of about 2m.
  • District park
    A standard park of 1ha used by people living within walking distance of about 4km radius.All over the countryCentral ParkThere are many parks of this kind.

City trunk park

  • General park
    A park intended for comprehensive use by people throughout the municipality.
  • Sports park
    A park intended to be used by people throughout the municipality for exercise.1951/According to the park facility standards ofAthletic fieldAnd the sports park in the draft standard of the green space plan are separated.As a result, the site area of ​​the physical education and exercise facilities, excluding the bleachers, will be an athletic park if the total area is less than 50%, and an athletic field if the total area is 50% or more.

Large park

A park intended for use by a wide range of residents living in multiple cities, towns and villages.


Special park

Scenic park,Zoo park,Botanical park,Historical park,GraveyardTo say.Botanical gardens and zoosMuseum methodIn the definition of the basic law of Japanese museums, the sameSocial educationIt is also positioned as an institution.In the botanical park, as a recent measure, there is a green counseling center for the purpose of raising awareness of greening of urban residents and restoring knowledge of planting, and contributing to the promotion of urban greening.Teaching material gardenThere is an urban greening botanical garden with a (sample garden).Historical parkaboutTop 100 historical parks in JapanSee also.GraveyardIsLaw on graveyards and burialsA tomb specified in Article 2, Paragraph 4, that is, a group of land that includes a collection of facilities for burying corpses or burying burnt bones, and refers to facilities that also have the function of a static park.Under the jurisdiction of TokyoTama cemetery,Yahashira Cemeteryand so on.

National park

National parkIs a park intended to be used by residents of multiple prefectures.NationalSo usuallyMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismManagement and operation.In addition, as a measure in recent years, the development of auto campgrounds has been actively promoted mainly by the national government (national parks) and local governments (large-scale parks). We are proceeding with the improvement of the environment in Japan.

Buffer green space

BufferGreen space TheAir pollution,noise,vibration,StenchEtc.PollutionPrevention, mitigation orComplexZones, etc.disasterThe purpose is to preventGreen spacePollution, disaster source area and residential area,Commercial areaPlace where it is necessary to separate and cut off, etc. according to the situation of pollution and disaster.

Urban green space

It is a green space provided mainly for the purpose of preserving and improving the natural environment of the city and improving the urban landscape, and the area of ​​1ha or more per location is set as the standard.However, if there are good forests in the existing urban area, etc.Green treesIf a green space is to be provided in order to increase or restore greenery in the city and improve the urban environment by planting trees, the scale shall be 0.05ha or more.

Urban forest

A city park whose purpose is mainly to protect the habitats or habitats of animals and plants, such as forests.It is placed for the purpose of forming a good natural environment for the city.

Green Road (Green Road Park)

Green pathIs in the event of a disasterEvacuation routeSecuring, urban life in urban areasSafeTree-planting zones and tree-planting zones provided to communicate with neighboring neighborhoods or neighborhoods for the purpose of ensuring sexuality and comfort.Pedestrian roadOrBicycle roadA green space mainly composed of.Each urban facility (park, school, shopping center, etc.) with a width of 10 to 20 m as standardStation squareEtc.) are arranged so as to connect with each other.

National park

National parkIt is,Ministry of the Environment Installation LawBased onMinistry of the EnvironmentA park maintained and managed by.Imperial Palace,Shinjuku Gyoen,Kyoto GyoenWith 3 placesChidorigafuchi War Memorial Cemetery.

Classification of parks by measure / business

Specific district park (country park)

City planning areaIn certain towns and villages outsideRuralfishing villageA park aimed at improving the living environment of the city.Arrange based on an area of ​​4ha or more.ThirdNational comprehensive development planIn response to the purpose of the local settlement plan of the inhabitants in a certain agricultural, mountainous and fishing village area outside the city planning areaculture,SportsIn order to meet the demand for urban facilities and improve the living environment, subsidies have been provided since 4 for parks of the size equivalent to district parks (standard area 1990ha) in urban parks.

Disaster prevention park

What is a disaster prevention park?EarthquakeUrban area caused by火災It will be developed to protect the lives and property of the people in the event of a secondary disaster such as, etc., and to strengthen the disaster prevention structure of the city in metropolitan areas, etc.Wide area disaster prevention base, Evacuation site,Evacuation routeIt is said that it is a city park and a buffer green space that has the role of.

Secured in the cityOpen spaceHas a role of improving safety as an evacuation site for urban disasters and a role of preserving the urban environment, but urban parks and green areas also have a disaster prevention function, and many have been designated as evacuation sites. Has been, butDisaster prevention town development #Disaster prevention parkAs you can see, the city parks that have the highest disaster prevention function among the city parks that play a disaster prevention roleMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs promoting maintenance.

Disaster prevention parks are divided into the following five types according to their scale and function.

  1. A city park that functions as a wide-area disaster prevention base.Wide area park, etc.
  2. A city park that functions as a wide-area evacuation site.Urban core parks, wide area parks, etc.
  3. A city park that functions as a primary evacuation site.Neighborhood parks, district parks, etc.
  4. A city park that functions as an evacuation route.Green road, etc.
  5. A buffer green space that blocks the oil complex zone and the general urban area behind it.

Furthermore, in addition to this, city parks (block parks, etc.) that have the function of familiar disaster prevention activity bases are also referred to as "disaster prevention parks, etc."In the event of a life-threatening emergency such as a disaster, these disaster prevention parks will be utilized in cooperation with disaster prevention related facilities and will be operated based on regional disaster prevention plans and disaster recovery plans.

Park type and specific role
Park typeMain role
Wide area park (large-scale park)Wide-area evacuation for the purpose of final evacuation site, relief activities for injured people, restoration / reconstruction, etc., wide-area disaster prevention bases such as emergency vehicle bases and heliports
Urban core park (general park / athletic park)Front-line bases for injured rescue and relief activities, regional disaster prevention bases that protect the lives of evacuees, relays for transporting supplies, etc.
City park (neighborhood park / district park)Emergency evacuation sites for neighboring residents, evacuation gatherings, wide area evacuation relay points, etc.
Green road, etc.Guidance site leading to a safe evacuation site
Buffer green spacePurpose of preventing and reducing damage caused by explosions, etc.

Peace park

Memorial park

It is a park that is set up to commemorate some event, and is often called "○○ Memorial Park", but even if the name does not have the word "commemorative", most large-scale parks such as city parks In many cases, a park is set up to commemorate something.

Forest Park

Natural Ecological Observation Park (Urban Ecology Park)

In the city due to the decrease of the natural environment due to the progress of urbanizationWild birdOpportunities to come into contact with small animals such as wild birds昆虫The need to get close to them is increasing year by year, and small animals in the cityオ ア シ スA park that aims to bring nature back to the city and develop a base where humans and living things can come into contact with each other because it is necessary to conserve and create a high-quality green space environment.

Citizen's Forest-Citizen's Forest

Fureai Park

As part of the development of a city park that responds to an aging society, this park will be developed as a city park that is designed for both the elderly and children to enjoy, from core parks to large-scale parks.In addition to the normal park functionGateballA multi-purpose open space where you can play simple ball games will be set up.

Regional Revitalization Base Park (Resort Park)

Former factories / warehouses and resort areas of industries that are trying to transform their industry.By developing a city park by a local public body and developing a resort facility integrated with it by actively utilizing the vitality of the private sector, it has a good environment and landscape, is open, and has a low price. The purpose is to improve the resort facilities that can be used in.

It consists of the following three areas that are related to each other.

  1. City park area (area where the core city park of the resort park is maintained)
  2. City planning park area (Area of ​​city planning parks excluding city parks, where highly public private facilities are developed through special projects)
  3. Private facility area (area that promotes the development of other private facilities)

Square park

Traffic park

Traffic parkChildrenIt is a city park set up for the purpose of letting children acquire traffic knowledge and traffic morals along with the sound play of the park.traffic lights,crosswalk,road signSuch,道路There is a facility (course) that imitatesTraffic rulesIt is a mechanism that you can also learn.AutomobileAnd children'sTraffic accidentIs big社会 問題In response to the background that has become1962/(Showa 37) Issued According to the traffic park installation and operation guidelines,1963/(Showa 38) Japan's first traffic park in November Hyogo Prefectural Nishimuko Park(HyogoAmagasaki, Transferred from Hyogo Prefecture to Amagasaki City in April 2012) was established.

Odori Park

100m roadIt is a large-scale long and narrow city park that is built facing such things, and naturally these parks have the impression that they are "widely built pavements" rather than "parks".Odori Park(Sapporo),Odori Park(横 浜 市),Hisaya Odori Park(Nagoya city)and so on.

Preserved green space and public green space

Preserved green space is a system that designates forests, trees, etc. as preserved green spaces in order to conserve greenery, and each local government, etc., targets those that meet the conditions.Public green space is a system designated as open green space in order to utilize greenery, and a contract is signed between the land owner and local government for the use of land for private vacant land that is idle in the city planning area. The facility will be tied up and maintained, and after the maintenance, it will be set up as a city park.It can be classified into a children's park type that can be used like a children's park and a citizen's forest type that provides a place for forest recreation using existing forests.

Health Sports Park, Wellness Park

Established a green fitness park (health exercise park) under the 4th Five-Year Plan for the Development of City Parks (5, Ministry of Construction), and then a local public organization will develop it as part of the 1986th anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's reign. About the establishment outline of the commemorative health exercise park In 60, the Ministry of Construction created a vibrant longevity and welfare society as a commemorative health exercise park for the 1986th anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's reign at <Showa XNUMX, Ministry of Construction, Metropolitan Government Greenery XNUMX>. A city park that has been developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Welfare so that all people, including the elderly and people with disabilities, can carry out health promotion and leisure activities according to their life stages.The main facilities include a multipurpose open space where you can perform simple exercises such as jogging and gymnastics on a daily basis, and facilities related to health exercises.A total of more than XNUMX health sports parks have been designated and maintained.

Other parks

There are the following types of construction parks related to other ministries, local governments, etc., due to the following projects.

River park (river environment improvement project, dam lake activation environment improvement project)

River parkIs generallyRiver law(Law No. 39 of 167) A park set up in the river area specified in Article 6, Paragraph 1.River law"River improvement project" to improve environmental revetments, murmuring waterways, walking paths, etc. and "River use" to optimize and promote river water surface use in the river environment improvement project It is installed in "promotion projects" etc., but most of themCity Planning Act(Act No. 43 of 100) Prescribed in Article 11, Paragraph 1Urban facilityIn many cases, it is the one excluding.Of the river areas, the project to improve (make a park) around the dam is mainly to improve the site around the dam lake / reservoir caused by the completion of the dam construction project and make it into a park, but this is also a city park. In most cases, it does not.

Coastal environment improvement project

Fisheries AgencyIn the environmental improvement project under the jurisdiction of the government, we will improve the coastal environment in order to harmonize with the national land conservation and use it as a resting place for the people, and at the same time, improve the comfortable use of the beach and protect the living environment in the hinterland. The purpose is to contribute to.

Port environment improvement project

oldMinistry of TransportIn the environmental improvement business under its jurisdiction, in addition to the "port pollution prevention measures business" for sludge dredging in the sea bay and the "waste treatment facility maintenance business" for the purpose of waste treatment, green space maintenance and improvement of the marine environment / nature There is a "port green space maintenance project" for the purpose of regeneration.Logistics activities in the harbor With the aim of coping with the deterioration of the harbor environment due to the concentration of production activities and providing a place of relaxation for the citizens as a "green harbor", green areas and open spaces in the harbor from 48 We are implementing a port environment improvement project to improve such things.From the following year, we started to develop green spaces, open spaces, plants, rest areas, etc. at 64 ports such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Naoetsu with a project cost of 58 billion yen.In addition, as a project for the conservation of the harbor environment, we are also engaged in harbor pollution prevention measures project, waste treatment facility maintenance project, etc.

Maritime park

Maritime parkIs a general term for parks set up and under the jurisdiction of the port bureaus of prefectures and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, etc., which are set up in port facilities.Prefectural governments usually make park commercialization plans, and in some casesLocal government law(Act No. XNUMX of XNUMX) In accordance with the provisions of Article XNUMX-XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX, necessary matters regarding installation and management shall be established and operated.As a nameBeach park, Wharf Park, Sea Fishing Park, etc.

Harbor green space

Port lawRefers to a park developed as a port environment improvement facility based on Article 2, Paragraph 5, Item 9-3.According to local government ordinances (such as the Port Green Space Ordinance), secure disaster prevention base green areas, evacuation green areas, green open spaces, waterfronts lost due to landfill, restoration of animal and plant habitats, and employment of workers in coastal areas. In many cases, maintenance is being carried out according to the characteristics of the region, such as improving the environment and the living environment of the residents.also,PortWith the cooperation of private businesses located in the port, the port manager rents the site to develop a hydrophilic green space, and responds to changes in the port environment due to the concentration of logistics activities and production activities at the port. At the same time, it aims to provide a place of relaxation for the citizens as a "green port". It was institutionalized by the revision of the Port and Harbor Act in 1973 (Showa 48).

Sabo environment maintenance business

Within the designated sabo area under Article 2 of the Sabo Law, in mountain streams such as areas with excellent natural and social environments, the living environment is created by ensuring harmony with the natural environment and securing green and waterside spaces. The purpose is to regenerate a good mountain stream environment suitable for the surrounding local environment by improving or improving the landscape and hydrophilicity and restoring the ecosystem.Of the sabo works carried out by the prefectural governors, those that are deemed to require the improvement of the mountain stream environment in particular, and those that fall under each of the following items will be converted into parks. The project cost per project is 1 million yen or more.

  • Those that require special environmental improvement in sections that are not directly damaged by sediment flow
  • The mountain stream environment is extremely poor compared to the surrounding urban environment
  • Areas that have an excellent natural and historical environment and are related to the regional plan, and the mountain stream environment is significantly inferior to the surrounding environment and the plan.

Rural park / agricultural park

Rural park/Agricultural park TheMinistry of Agriculture It is in the policy of the rural living environment infrastructure improvement project under the jurisdiction.

"Ikoi Village"

oldMinistry of Labor Jurisdiction.Built all over the countryWorkerRecreational facilities for.

Country of children

Country of childrenIs oldMinistry of Health and Welfare Jurisdiction.

"Fudoki no Oka"

Fudoki no Oka TheAgency for Cultural AffairsIs in charge.The area around the archaeological site is maintained around the representative archaeological sites of the region, and there is a magnificent museum that houses and displays the reserves excavated from that region. It is built like a park, but it is a place of relaxation. Rather, it takes the form of a place to learn the history of the region.Some places are registered as historical parks, but many are not registered as parks.

It is a place of relaxation where you can think of ancient romance while touching the ruins left by our ancestors in nature.

Historic park

Agency for Cultural AffairsCultural property preservation business (Historic siteSpecial project cost for utilization such as national treasury subsidy), park developed by special project for utilization of historic sites, etc.In order to be designated, it is essential that the ruins receive national historic site designation.

Hometown Park

Promotion of the development of city parks in rural areas and the development of facilities such as community villages and agricultural and forestry experience facilities as central facilities with the cooperation of the local community and cities, and by utilizing these facilities, residents of urban and rural areas A park that promotes contact.

Hometown Sosei Park

oldMinistry of Home Affairs JurisdictionOldness and creation business-Furusato CreationFundIt is built by the community development promotion project and the regional comprehensive project.For example, in the leading project of the support project, in Niigata Prefecture, the "Fukushimagata Ecological Garden Development Project"FukushimagataWe have restored the natural environment that is about to be lost, and created a park where many people can interact with nature and learn about it.Dam Park is a part of the wide-area cultural area tourism route (Yasugi City, Hirose Town, Yokota Town, Nita Town, Daito Town, Yoshida Village) project under the theme of "Myth and Iron" promoted by the Ministry of Autonomy. There is.

Railroad park

Shopping park

HokkaidoAsahikawa OfHeiwa Shopping Park,Sendai cityIchibancho XNUMX-chome Shopping Park, Ichibancho Ichibancho Shopping Park (Ichibancho (Sendai City)See), but these arePedestrian road.

Olympic Park

Pocket park (vest pocket park)

Originally in New YorkPaley ParkIn the sense of an open facility to be set up on a fairly small site like Space.In addition to renting private land as well as public land, it may be installed mainly for road facilities such as bus stops, and it may also be installed when the planned road site is temporarily developed.Although the scale is considerably smaller than that of a general park, it is an attractive and relaxing space in areas with few open spaces such as the city center.

For further information, please read Pocket parkSee.

Air Front Oasis

A park near the airport.Air Front OasisSee.

Parks other than city parks

"Parks other than city parks" refers to prefectural or municipal parks or green spaces other than city parks, and includes facilities equivalent to the park facilities provided by the local government in the parks or green spaces.The local government has enacted park regulations and park regulations enforcement regulations, and stipulates that it refers to park facilities stipulated in Article XX, Paragraph ○ of the Act.Most of the park facilities that have "Koen" or "Hiroba" at the end of their names are of this type.In addition, rooftop parks, etc., which were set up at purification centers, etc. when there was no three-dimensional park system, are set up by taking such measures.

"Shukugawa Park" was also decided as a city planning road, so the official name isShukugawa riverbed green spaceAnd

Parks on private land or corporate management

There are no penalties for calling yourself a park, even if it is privately owned.Therefore, it is in Fukushima prefectureHanamiyama ParkThere will also be something like.Also corporate managementGora ParkThere is also something like.

Park design

The general flow until the design proposal is made is as follows: 1. Acquisition after boundary survey of the planned park site, 2. Topographic survey of the planned park site, 3. Consultant in charge of design (usuallyLandscape consultant) Selection and decision, 4. Contractor and site reconnaissance and input of residual conditions, 5. Preparation of primary maintenance plan, 6. Local explanation of the neighborhood association, etc. (conducted by local government officials), 7. Local briefing session Instruct the changes made by, 8. Understand the explanation of the correction plan, 9. Construction briefing session (conducted by the local government official and the contractor), 10. Start the construction, etc.

Before creating the primary maintenance plan in (5) above, we will conduct an independent on-site reconnaissance in order to understand the site conditions, and conduct hearings on the historical climate unique to the site and reflect it in the design.In addition, since the recent planned site is a complicated terrain, it is difficult to understand by just displaying the drawings, and in many cases it is necessary to make a model or give a presentation such as a sketch in order to ask the residents for understanding. In many cases, it is created voluntarily without being instructed by the city.

In addition, even in the creation of parks through partnerships and workshops, the consultant in charge is willing to attend and work at the residents'meeting, which is judged to be in the precondition adjustment stage, support for maintenance plans by residents, park tours, and planning meeting. conduct.Architectural consultantWhen they are involved, they usually make models and make presentations such as sketches, but they are also well-learned about biological materials such as plants and are very interested in a new area of ​​public landscaping. There is a tendency.

Park construction

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismSupervised civil engineering workAccumulation standardThen, the park construction is "the construction related to the development and maintenance of parks and green spaces, and the following constructions. Site construction work, garden plaza work, tree planting work, turfing work, flower bed work, shade shelf work, bench work, pond. Works, amusement facilities, sports facilities, and similar works. "

Park Foundation

As an organization related to parks in JapanPark Foundation(Koenzaidan, English name: Parks and Recreation Foundation).

In 1974, the predecessor Park Green Land Management Foundation was established, and on April 2012, 4, the name was changed to "Park Foundation".

Since the foundation was established in 1974, it has been managing and operating national parks and managing city parks throughout Japan.Through this, with Japanese parksRecreationWe have been trying to improve the service.

In addition, there is a park management and administration research institute, which is a research institute for parks.In addition to technological development related to the management and operation of parks and green spaces, we are also engaged in the training of specialists based on the actual trends in the world, and the dissemination and enlightenment activities of flower and green culture.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Yozaburo Shirahata wrote in his book "Beauty of Gardens, Heart of Landscaping" that the word "park" in Japan is a new word that was born around the 3rd year of the Meiji era by translating Public GARDEN literally.

Source

  1. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs 2012, p.24
  2. ^ 1873 (Meiji XNUM X) yearMeiji era chronology (clouds on the slope)
  3. ^ "Nursery school in the park" is possible nationwide Amendment law passed``Tokyo Shimbun'' evening edition March 2017, 4

References

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