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💴 | Kishida Cabinet approval rating, why there is a gap between polls and investors


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Kishida Cabinet approval rating, why there is a gap between polls and investors

 
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In addition, it was confirmed that the Japan-US partnership will strengthen cooperation such as semiconductors, decarbonization, and supply of mineral resources.
 

It was reported that the Kishida Cabinet's approval rating was the highest since the inauguration of the government. Approval rating 68.9 in FNN's telephone poll ... → Continue reading

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resource

resource(ShigenIt is,A human OfLife,industryIt means something that can be used for various activities such as.

In a broad sense, it is all areas that can be used by humans, and in a narrow sense, it is used for various activities.Place of origin.

Overview

そのEtymologyIs the Chinese "resource" devoted to the English resource.[1]

Various natural resourcesTourism resourceslikePhysical resourcesWhen,Human resourcesThere is.Furthermore, as a resource that can be economically investedEconomic resourcesThere is also a division called.

Since resources are considered to be available for human activities, what is recognized as a resource depends on the time and society, and until now it was just a mere resource.garbageEven if it was supposed to be a resource, it will be used as a resource with the development of technology, and conversely, even if it has been used and recognized as a resource, it will no longer be a resource as society changes.[2].

Natural resources

NATUREConfigure available resourcesNatural resourcesThat is.Natural resources地球It has existed since its birth, and although it is in huge quantities, it is by no means inexhaustible, and there are only a limited number of items that can be easily mined and used.Industrial revolutionSince then, humankind has established an industry by squeezing and utilizing all resources, but it is said that those resources will be exhausted in the near future.In the future, it is expected that economically inefficient development will be required due to great difficulties such as searching for resources on the seabed and undeveloped land.For this reason, "If you throw it awayGarbageAs the catchphrase, "If you divide it, it's a resource," indicates that it's a resource.RecyclingThere is a movement to actively promote.

In addition, although various resources are indispensable for human life and industry, they are not evenly distributed on the earth, but are unevenly distributed in a certain area, and are limited to water, oil, rare metals, etc. Over resources戦 争-ConflictHas happened in many cases.

Below, we will introduce the types of natural resources and the problems surrounding them.

Water resources

WedIs the most closely related resource for human life and industry[3]..Water itself is enormous on earth[Need explanation]Although there are quantities, 97% of them are seawater, and about 3% of the remaining 70% of freshwater.Polar regionsSuch asiceberg,GlacierIs[4], Actually usually available freshwaterRiver,(I.e.,groundwaterIt is only about 1% of the total.In addition, water is a resource with a large amount of abundance among regions in the world, and the distribution and flow rate of rivers differ greatly.[5].

In assessing the world's water resourcesWater cycleIt is important to clarify the amount of freshwater resources that can be updated by[5].

Water is also essential for wild animals and plants, due to the decrease in water.EcosystemIs also being destroyed.for example,Aral SeaThen, the area is drastically reduced due to the large intake of water in the inflowing river.SalinityRise and most animals, including fish, died[6].

Domestic water

It is said that the amount of water that a person needs in a day is 2L to 3L (it is not necessary to take everything as a drink), but in actual life, a lot of water is used for daily life such as washing and cooking. It is necessary, and it is said that at least 20L of clean water is required per person per day.As an example, the amount of water used per person in Tokyo is about 250L.[7]..Securing sufficient water is indispensable for the formation of cities, and since ancient times, cities have been formed in places where water can be obtained, and various efforts have been made to secure stable water.Ancient romeWaterworks network andAqueductIs an example.Water networks are currently in place in many countries, including river and lake water and groundwater.Water purification plantIt is supplied after being filtered and disinfected.

However, there are many areas where sufficient water is not yet secured.Those areasMiddle EastRegion and northAfricaIn many cases, it is originally a dry area, but in additionDesertificationThe amount of water resources per capita is decreasing due to the progress of the water resources and the increase of the population.In that case, unclean water such as muddy water must be used, or foodstuffs, dishes, clothes, etc. are not sufficiently washed, which is a cause of illness.In addition, the fact that the water source is far away and that a lot of time must be spent on acquiring and transporting water every day is also a factor of poverty.

Agricultural water

Although there are some differences depending on the product, agriculture generally requires a lot of water, and river water and groundwater are used in many areas.However, it is prone to drought or inappropriate in arid areas.IrrigationSoil salts are sucked up near the surface of the earthAccumulation of saltIn some cases, it became impossible to cultivate.

In addition, the large intake of water upstream of the river due to the clearing of agricultural land reduces the amount of water flowing downstream, for example.Chugoku OfYellow RiverThen, in the dry season, the current breakage in the lower reaches of the river can be seen.In rivers that flow through many nations, the interests of countries located upstream and downstream over water conflict with each other.damThere are many cases of disputes over the construction and water intake of.Euphrates RiverOver water intake(I.e.(I.e.Conflict andNile RiverOver water intakeエチオピア-スーダン-EgyptConflict etc.

In the use of groundwater,America,Great planes OfCenter pivotIrrigation by method,(I.e. OfQanatThe use of groundwater using groundwater is well known, but there are also problems such as a drop in groundwater level and depletion due to excessive intake of groundwater, and groundwater contamination by pesticides and chemical fertilizers.

Industrial water

Some industrial water is used as a raw material for producing liquor, beverages, ice, etc., but many are used for cleaning in the production process of products, and water is used in all industries. There is.The dyeing and paper industry are known as industries that require a lot of water.In factories, using tap water is expensive, or in order to avoid chlorine contained in tap water, groundwater is often used, and in areas where factories are concentrated, excessive pumping of groundwater causesGround subsidence, Water pollution due to wastewater and industrial waste,StenchSuch asPollutionWas widely seen.

Due to these pollutions, many developed countries (especially urban areas) have tightened restrictions on groundwater intake and water pollution, and although some problems have been resolved, factories have moved to less regulated developing countries. In addition, as developing countries prioritize development over the environment, there are increasing cases of pollution of rivers and lakes due to inadequate regulation, and there is great concern about living, agriculture, or economic development in developing countries. It is a factor.

Efforts to address water shortages

Efforts are also being made to solve these water-related problems.

Regarding the handling of international disputes, the countries concerned have signed some kind of agreement to negotiate the amount of water intake, and international organizations are also used.In addition, various water-saving devices have been developed through technological development, and in agriculture.Drip irrigationIs being carried out, or regulations are being tightened and more advanced wastewater treatment is being carried out.In addition, seawater is also used to create a shortage of water.Saudi ArabiaIn oil-rich nations such as, seawater is produced by burning oil.distillationAnd produce water.orReverse osmosis membraneUsedDesalinationHas also been put into practical use.In addition, water-saving campaigns are being carried out in various countries around the world, and there are many products that claim to save water due to the growing awareness of water-saving.However, in any case, it is difficult to solve the problem sufficiently due to the cost problem and the balance with economic development.

Mineral resources

Mineral resources-copper-bauxite-uraniumMineoil-coalCan be effectively usedmineralIs.There are veins all over the world, and they are mined by various methods.地下Also called a resource.Mineral resources that are low in yield but useful areRare metalIt is called.Oil, coal,Natural gasEtc.Fossil fuelAlso called.

Also, iron and copperaluminumThe basic metal that is produced and consumed in large quantities, such as, is called a base metal.Fri,SilverIsPrecious metal,nickel,ク ロ ムIsRare metalCalled.

Metal resources

Most of the metals such as iron and aluminum are widely used.地殻It exists in, and in a sense, it can be said to be everywhere.For example, it is not impossible to extract gold from seawater.But with current technology, common rocks andseawaterThe cost of recovering resources from Japan is too high to be economically viable.There, the resources are gatheredDepositDigging,OreTheSmeltingBy doing so, you are getting the necessary metal.Water, atmosphere, andCrustal movementEtc. are involved.For example, in the current major iron deposits, iron in rocks is washed away into the sea by rain, etc., and oxygen generated by photosynthesis and iron in seawater combine to form iron oxide and settle on the seabed. It is believed to have appeared on the ground.others,Hydrothermal deposit-Submarine hydrothermal depositSee also.So, for example, without themMoon surfaceIt is difficult to obtain various metal resources (however, it depends on how economically it is considered).

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels, as the name implies, are the remains of living things, coal is plants, and oil is oil.planktonIt is believed that the remains of this kind have been metamorphosed over the years under the influence of earth pressure and geothermal heat.However, there are some disagreements about oil.

Petroleum, which is a liquid, is more advantageous than coal for transportation and has a large calorific value per volume.In many developed countries, petroleum is the main energy source.Crude oil priceThe use of coal is being reviewed due to the rise in coal, and it is still an important energy source, especially in coal-producing countries.Also, although coal emits more carbon dioxide, it was confirmed.Recoverable reservesLooking at the above, coal has more reserves than oil and is distributed all over the world, so it can be said that it is a more stable energy source in that respect.

In addition to being used as fuelSynthetic resinIt is also used for production such as.

Other mineral resources

diamond,corundum(sapphire-Ruby), etc.jewelryNot only as that硬度From to industrial usePolisherIt is also used as such.others,エ メ ラ ル ド,Aquamarine,crystal,Turquoise,JadeRare and beautiful things such as, have long been regarded as having high valueDecorationsIt has been used for such purposes.alexandrite,TanzaniteEtc. were discovered relatively recently.In mining, large-scale mining using machines such as diamonds is also carried out, but there are also areas where mining is carried out manually.

Other,limestone,quartz,Phosphate rockAnd so on,cement,Glass,semiconductor(silicon),fertilizerIt is used for the production of various things such as.

mining

When mining resources, whether or not the mining is economically feasible is a very important issue.Whether or not the deposit is established as a mine depends on factors such as the price of the resources obtained and the cost of mining, that is, the location of the vein and the amount of resources contained in the ore obtained from the vein.

Even if there are deposits, the mine may be closed if the cost exceeds the profit.Conversely, even a mine that has been closed once or a deposit that has been left unattended because it has not been able to generate sufficient profits can be mined if the price of resources rises.In general, when resources decrease and prices rise, the development of resource-saving technologies, the search for new deposits, the development of mining technologies, the use of low-grade resources, etc. are promoted, resulting in an increase in recoverable reserves.Receivable yearsGrow.However, there is no doubt that resources are finite, and it is difficult to predict how long they can continue to be used.

If resources are in shallow formationsOpen pit diggingHowever, if the stratum is deep or if it exists on the seabed, the cost of mining will increase.In addition, the content of resources required for ore deposits differs greatly when developed as a resource.For example, iron is required to have an iron content of at least 25%, and high-grade iron ore has a content of 65%, while gold has an average gold content of 0.0005%. About (1000 g of gold for 5 kg of ore).

Mineral resources are unevenly distributed in various places, but rare metals are particularly unevenly distributed and are indispensable for the current industry, but their output is small and their supply is unstable.As a major rare metal producing country,South Africa,Chugoku,Russiaetc.

When mining mineral resources, the risk of accidents is high, for example.Work injury insuranceThe insurance premium rate is also set high.Many accidents have occurred so far, such as cave-ins, fires, and explosions.In addition, environmental destruction due to mining is also a problem.In addition to the destruction of nature caused by digging mountains, harmful substances flowing out of mines are also a problem.Ashio Copper Mine Poisoning CaseThere is.

For details on each resource, seeoil,coal,Natural gas,,copper,aluminum,lead,zinc,Tin,magnesium,manganese,uranium-nickel-ク ロ ム-tungsten-molybdenum-cobalt-manganese-vanadium-platinum-Fri-Silver-DiamondSee also.

Forest resources

森林As a resourceJapanese cypress,Cedar,Oak,Paulownia,Pine,cheekSuch aswoodIs used.WoodSpecific strengthExcellent in variousBuilding,Furniture,Tools,ShipIt has been used for a long time in the manufacture of such products.AlsoaircraftIt is also used in, for example, a British military aircraft of World War II.MosquitoIs mentioned.

However, in order to obtain sufficient strength of wood, it is necessary to dry it thoroughly, and it is necessary to pay attention to the direction and humidity of the wood when using it.Also as a firewood charcoal materialfuelUsed for or woodpulpAsPaper industryIt is also used for.Today, wood is rarely used as fuel, especially in developed countries, but until coal and oil were used, forests were a major fuel source and food source. In many areas, trees have been cut down, trees have been planted, and animals and plants have been hunted and collected.

So far, residential land development and road construction due to population growth, conversion of forests to agricultural land and ranch to increase food production, excessiveSwidden agricultureDue to logging, air pollution, acid rain, etc.deforestationHas been done.Reforestation takes a long time, and once the forest is destroyed, the soil tends to flow out and recovery is difficult.In addition, the destruction of the ecosystem due to the over-cutting of trees with high commercial value and the decrease of forests has become a problem, and it is known as high-grade timber, for example.mahoganyDecreased significantly as a result of over-cuttingConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and FaunaTransactions are restricted by (Washington Convention).

In recent years, not only the value as a timber supply source for forests, but also the water source recharge function (Green dam), Ecosystem conservation function, air purification function, carbon dioxide absorption function, etc. are also attracting attention.Forest bath,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt is also used in the form of.

in Japan,forestrySevere working environment and forestry workersAgingAbandoned due to lower timber prices due to intensifying international competitionPlantationThe devastation of is also a problem.The timber self-sufficiency rate in Japan has been around 20%.

Japan's per capita forest stock is about one-sixth of the world average[8].

Forest resources are one of the few renewable resources compared to other natural resources, such as deforestation and deforestation.DesertificationAgainst the progress ofTree planting activitiesForest protection activities such as are also carried out.

Fisheries resources

What is a fishery resource?ocean,River,(I.e.Collected fromseafoodIt is a marine product such as.It has been practiced for a long time to collect these and make them edible, and there are many in Japan.Shell moundHas been discovered.In the past, these marine products were once thought to exist indefinitely, but in recent years, overfishing due to population growth and the pursuit of abundant food, reclamation of rivers and oceans, construction of dams and embankments, etc. Many species are declining in various regions due to water pollution and deforestation, which is a source of nutrients.also,mercury,DioxinsToxic substances such as fish and shellfishBiomagnificationIs also recognized, and sustainable use and environmental conservation are required.

Currently, there are regulations on water pollution and fishing methods (in principle, fishing methods that use poisons and explosives to kill anything other than the target fish and destroy the ecosystem are prohibited). As an international initiativeUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United Nations High Seas Fisheries Agreement,International Whaling ConventionThere are also multilateral treaties such as the Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Resources in the Western and Central Pacific Oceans, and the conclusion of fishery agreements between countries.also,Aquaculture,Cultivated fishery, Fattening and other techniques are also being researched and developed for various fish and shellfish.fryIs also being released.

However, there are still many challenges to be resolved due to conflicts of interest among countries, difficulty in investigating and conserving fishery resources, illegal fishing, increasing food demand, and desire for development.Responsible fisherySee also

Submarine resources

70.8% of the surface area of ​​the earth is the sea, and on the seabedoil-Natural gas-methane hydrate-Manganese noduleResources such as are sleeping.These are called undersea resources.Until now, it was difficult to use due to the water pressure, but with the development of technology, there is a movement to develop resources that sleep on the seabed.But the question of who it belongs to the resources that sleep on the high seas, and in which countryExclusive economic zone(EEZ), which country owns the island, etc.territorial disputeThere are many areas with this, and it is often an international conflict (尖 閣 諸島,Nansha Islands (Spratly Islands)Conflict over).

In addition, there are many technical and economic problems, and the actual use of seabed resources is currently being carried out.United Kingdom-NorwaySuch asBeihai OilfieldIs typical, and Britain overcame the economic crisis with this development.

Although there are various problems, the existence of abundant energy resources and mineral resources has been confirmed on the seabed of Japan's territorial waters and exclusive economic zone (EEZ).[9](Detail is"Japanese submarine resourcesSee).

Marine resources

Marine resources include marine resources and marine resources, but other substances secreted by marine organisms are also known as the ecology of marine organisms is understood.MedicineIt has been found that it may be applied to such applications, and research is underway.

Genetic resources

What is a genetic resource?geneWith the widespread recognition of the usefulness of genetic information, genetic information has come to be considered as a kind of resource.Also called a genetic resource.Selection of useful varieties and multiplication of varietiesBreed improvementIs something that has been done,Genetic engineeringThe value of genetic information has become more recognized when it becomes possible to artificially recombine genes with the development of.Many of the genes of various organisms have their own unique functions, and are used for medical treatment, pharmaceutical production, and breeding of agricultural products.

All organisms may carry useful genes and cannot be completely restored once they are lost.However, there are animals and plants that are extinct due to environmental destruction, and even if they are the same species, they may have unique genes depending on the population in the area. Will be.An example of this isMedakaSee also.Gene pollutionTo preventGenetic diversityIs required to maintain.

Convention on biodiversityIn, one of the purposes is to distribute the profits generated from the use of genetic resources fairly and equitably.Intellectual propertyThere are conflicts of interest between developed countries seeking to strengthen their genetic resources and developing countries claiming their rights to their genetic resources, and there are also ethical issues in the actual use of genetic information.

Tourism resources

TourismResources are tourism for the purpose of recreation and sightseeing.TravelHistorical and culturalheritage,NATURE, Entertainment facilities, etc.Areas with these(I.e.Is called.specifically,city,fort,Palace,Shrine,Temple,(I.e.,Grave,garden,(I.e.,森林,river,waterfall,,Desert,Museum,Museum,Zoo,Theme park,Spa,buildingOrcityOf itselfLandscapeIt is very diverse and exists all over the world.regionaltraditional culture,FestivalCan be said to be a kind of tourism resource.

As the economy develops and leisure activities are emphasized,tourismHas developed and tourist destinations have been developed all over the world, but there are also harmful effects such as environmental destruction due to the increase in tourists, deterioration of the living environment in the area, and cultural transformation.

Radio resources

Radio waveCan be assigned due to increased use offrequencyIs running out, so we may consider available frequencies as one of our resources.

Human resources

Including human production capacity such as labor force, technical ability, and creativity as resources,Human resources It is called (Human resource).Human resources are referred to by focusing on various factors such as population, education level, and the number of professional engineers.In the sense of being a person with advanced technology and ability,Human resourcesAlso called.Human resources are needed for all activities, but like other resources, they are finite and often compete for resource allocation.

Human resources are indispensable for the development of economy, culture, and technology, and basically,Education,Learning,経 験The value can be increased by such means.Therefore, in many countriesCompulsory educationSet, national and publicUniversityOpening奨 学 金System setting,libraryVarious learning support is provided, such as the installation of.

However, financial problems such as education costs and living expenses while receiving education are not completely solved, and in addition, it is difficult to teach creativity and originality.Furthermore, the effects of education and learning are greatly influenced by the motivation of those who receive it.For example, if society is rigid or closed, or under a corrupt dictatorship, it will not be possible to take advantage of it when it is educated, leading to a decline in learning motivation and the outflow of brains.In this way, the development of human resources is not easy, and it is a major issue in each country.

Economic resources

It is an economic production resource in a broad sense, including physical and human resources.Labor, land, raw materials, time, etc.Goods,value,capitalWords such as are also used.Social resources,Cultural capital,Human capital,Social capitalThere are also terms such as.

Information resources

Information and materials stored in some way so that they can be used when needed.[10]

Allocation of resources

How to allocate each resource and what to produce depends on the economic system, and the purpose is different depending on the country and the times.In addition, in the allocation of natural resources or the allocation of profits from natural resources, the interests of the producing country and the consuming country are likely to conflict, and in general, the developing countries that are the producing countries and the developed countries that are the consuming countries. There are often conflicts over resource ownership, mining rights, prices, etc.

Since the colonial rule, it has the resource majors, that is, the mining rights and production facilities of oil fields and mines, and controls the market.Multi national companyOn the other hand, in the 1970sResource nationalismUplifted, in many countries oil fields and minesnationalizationWas done.But thenCommodity futures marketDue to the establishment of new energy sources, the increase in emerging resource countries, the development of alternative energy sources, and internal conflicts of interest.OPEC,OAPECTraditional resource exporters such as have reduced their influence on prices.

Means of resource allocation

Purpose of resource allocation

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[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ Kanenori Masui (ed.), 2012, "Japanese Genhiro Dictionary", Minerva Shobo ISBN 978 – 4623063246
  2. ^ "Resources and technology"Paper Pa Gikyo Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 7, Pulp and Paper Technology Association, 1955, pp. 266-266," two:10.2524 / jtappij.9.266, ISSN 0022-815X, NOT 130003689167.
  3. ^ Tanaka 2009, pp. Preface.
  4. ^ Tanaka 2009, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b Tanaka 2009, p. 13.
  6. ^ Norikazu Matsuoka, Hiroshi Tanaka, Michiaki Sugita, Yuji Murayama, Akira Tezuka, Yuichi Onda (eds.), 2007, "Global Environmental Studies-30 Chapters for Investigating, Analyzing and Diagnosing the Global Environment", Kokon Shoin ISBN 978-4-7722-5203-4 pp. 52-53
  7. ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks Bureau[Broken link]
  8. ^ Forestry Agency Compiled Forest and Forestry White Paper 20 Edition
  9. ^ NHK Special The Sea of ​​Zipangu-A Huge Resource Sleeping in the Deep Sea--- NHK Masterpiece Selection (Video / Still Image) NHK Archives
  10. ^ Japan Society of Library and Information Science, Glossary Editorial Committee (ed.), 2013, "Library Informatics Glossary 4th Edition", Maruzen Publishing ISBN 978 – 4621087749 “Decantatore 108” (Presenze grafiche).

References

  • "Future of Resources" edited by the Resources Research Council of the Science and Technology Agency, Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau (1998) ISBN-4 17-210255-7
  • Toshimichi Iiyama "Introduction to Global Mineral Resources" University of Tokyo Press (1998) ISBN-4 13-060723-5
  • Sugita, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Tadashi (2009). Hydrological scienceKyoritsu Shuppan. ISBN 978-4-320-04704-4 

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