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Traditionally, especially in food supermarkets, we have considered offering "as cheap as possible".
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The name of the supermarket is "MarketA coined word coined to mean "a store that exceeds the traditional market" by synthesizing "super", which means "exceeding", with "market", which means "(ichiba)". However, it became a noun as the supermarket business expanded.
Rather than specializing in specific items, it is customary to have a wide range of products, and in a narrow sense, it refers to stores that mainly sell groceries and daily necessities, but in JapanGeneral supermarket, Food supermarkets, clothing supermarkets, etc., often refer to self-service general stores.
In Japan, when this format was born, it was also called "SSDDS" or "self-department store".
(Detail is#SSDDS / Self department storereference)
First half of the 20th century
the 1910s,米 国Leading the retail industryGrocery storeChainThe Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A & P)So, A & P had many stores in the sales form called "economy store"...In the sales form of the economy store, the customers who come to the storecounterIt was a method of ordering from a clerk over there, and the clerk took out the product from the shelf or warehouse and handed the product in exchange for the price...This type of sales is a method found in high-end jewelry stores, but it was also common in food sales at that time...Many foods and products are not packaged according to the size that consumers purchase. In that case, the clerk needs to separate and package them according to the customer's order, which is highly dependent on the labor force. It was a form (JapanSmallButcher shopThis is still the method used today).
Therefore, as a new sales form, the sales floorセ ル フ サ ー ビ スHas appeared.The origin of self-service is1916To the United StatesentrepreneurClarence SandersTennesseeMemphisGrocery store that sells food and daily necessities opened inPiggly WigglyIs said to be.. He1916ToTennesseeMemphisOpened the first store in..Clarence Saunders' self-service is focused by putting customers directly into the warehouse so they can pick up and choose their own products.cash registerIt is a sales form that pays with, Many about the ideas he introduced in the storePatentGot..Self-service was originally a method for saving labor on the store side, but it was also a system that stimulated the curiosity of customers because they could get their own products...The Sanders store was a huge successFranchiseStarted to deploy. A & P tooCanadaとThe United States of AmericaSucceeded in a similar manner inthe 1920sToNorth AmericaIt became well known throughout.Early grocery stores didn't sell meat or vegetables,Fresh produceA grocery store that also sellsthe 1920sBorn around.
The founder of modern supermarketsKrogerWas an employee ofMichael J. CullenIs said to be.Smithsonian MuseumAccording to sources such as Michael J. Cullen, the form of modern supermarkets in the United States (or food supermarkets for large ones and food markets for small ones) is1930March 8ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クQueens OfJamaica DistrictIn 6,000Square feet(560Square meter) FreegarageThe store that started with is said to be the first.. this"King kullen"(King Kullen, "King"キ ン グ コ ン グThe slogan is "Pile up high and sell cheaply", and a large warehouse a few blocks away from the city center is used as a store to provide a large parking lot, which is unprecedentedly low. Products are now sold at a price.1936When Karen died, King Kullen had 17 stores open.
the 1930sToKroger,Safety wayThere is also an existing grocery chain such as, and initially resisted Karen's idea,World DepressionThe economy is depressedconsumerBecame low-priced, so eventually those chains had to switch to the supermarket system as well..1937TocasterWithShopping cartWas developed, and customers began to shop more..
Late 20 century
Second World WarLater,SuburbAs the development of residential land progressed, supermarkets became more widespread in the United States and Canada.Many North American supermarkets are in the suburbsShopping centerInNuclear storeWas built as.Many supermarket chains are regional and nationwidebrandis not.Kroger is known throughout the United States, but has a number of regional brands (Ralphs, City Market, King Soopers, etc.) under its umbrella.In canada Loblaw , Sobeys Is known as a national brand, but the stores it operates are under various regional brand names.
the 1950sSupermarkets are often a perk to customersTrading stampCame to be issued.Recently, we have issued "membership cards" and "club cards" exclusively for each store, and "Point serviceIs being carried out.Generally, when a card is scanned at the time of payment, the cardholder can receive a membership discount for a specific product in many cases.
In addition, motorizationByPrivate carThe culture of going shopping was bornParking LotA large-scale supermarket equipped with is established.In this way, supermarkets, which have realized high profit and high sales through mass display of products and discounts, and have opened many stores through chain development, have gradually become more influential in the distribution industry, and so far.Manufacturer,WholesalerHas become a strong voice in the pricing power that he had.
Due to the spread of supermarkets, small-scale fresh food and general stores and traditional storesShopping districtEtc. decreased.
Competing with other retail formats
Independent supermarkets of supermarkets tend to focus on consumer-led criteria, while large supermarket chains tend to focus on commodity economic profit-seeking criteria such as merchandise display and turnover. Has been..However, mass retailers (WalmartEtc.) and large discount stores with membership (such as)CostcoWith the advent of these traditional supermarkets, there is also a tendency for these traditional supermarkets to lose price competition and lose market share..
Traditional supermarkets have introduced new differentiating strategies, such as setting up display areas for organic and high-end foods, to compete with mass retailers and large discount stores with membership...In the United States, we are also changing the food assortment and layout according to the consumer group in which we live, such as areas with many Asian immigrants and their descendants and areas where many Hispanics live..
Competition with e-commerce
In the United States, it has been pointed out that consumers are moving away from supermarkets and that EC (electronic commerce) sales of food products are increasing..
Supermarket in Japan
1950s: Grass Creation
The first time the name "supermarket" was used in Japan1952ToKeihan Electric Railway OfdistributionDepartment (current "Keihan The Store")ButOsakaOldKyobashi StationIt is a store "Keihan Supermarket" that has been opened in Japan.However, this store is a face-to-face sales type and does not incorporate the self-service that is characteristic of supermarkets.Also, a U.S. military shop (PX) Has adopted self-service, but it was not a store open to Japanese consumers (however,KinokuniyaYou will actually see and know the self-service method here).
The next time the self-service supermarket format was introduced for the first time in Japan1953In 11 monthKinokuniya TokyoMinato-kuAkasaka Aoyama KitamachiXNUMX-chome Jingu-mae Station (currentOmotesando Station) It is a store that opened nearby..Kinokuniya (founded in 1910) opened a self-service store at Japan National Cash Register Co., Ltd. (currently)Japan NCR) Was instructed..NCR Japan handles cash registersNCRAlthough it is a Japanese corporation, (Vice President) and (General Manager of Planning and Management Department) are people who focused on modernizing the Japanese retail industry based on the modern retail business management movement in the United States, as well as selling their own registers. rice field.
However, the Kinokuniya at the beginning of the business is small in scale (40 tsubo) and handles only fruits and vegetables.It is a luxury storeThree fresh foodsOpened in Kokura, Fukuoka Prefecture on March 1956, 3, in terms of mass-selling various food products including (fruits and vegetables, meat, fresh fish) at low prices, "MaruwaThere is also a view that "food center" is "the originator of supermarkets"...In addition, in February 1956Yawata SteelOne of the distribution offices of the Purchasing Association (a membership retail organization as part of employee benefits) is incorporating self-serviceAlthough it is not a for-profit organization open to all, Has been evaluated as having contributed to the spread of the self-service method.
Late 1950s-1960s: Early Expansion
President Maruwa was invited to work to guide and disseminate the same business format, and he said, "Housewife storeA supermarket will be established..As a background, at that timeConsumer cooperativeThe growth of Yoshida is perceived as a threat to small and medium-sized retailers, and Yoshida's experience of recording amazing sales with high sales efficiency is the experience of advanced small and medium-sized retailers andJapan Specialty Store AssociationHave been noticed by members.. At the end of 1958, the "Housewife's Shop" movement had expanded to 27 stores nationwide, but in August 1958 it was split over the policy..
The "Japan Self-Service Association" was established in March 1958 (the first chairman was Tokuo Masui of Kinokuniya).[Annotation 1].. In December, the association said, "A supermarket is a general grocery retailer that uses a self-service system under independent management and has annual sales of 12 million yen or more." "Definition of a supermarket" To announce.. In 1962, as an organization for joint purchasing and information exchange, the All Japan Supermarket Management Association (the first chairman wasAwaji Housewife's ShopNishioka Shigeru. In 1972All Japan Supermarket Association) Was established.
There was instability in the new business format, supermarkets, which was ridiculed as "it can be made quickly and disappears quickly"..1964 Tokyo OlympicsAfter the end, the supermarket industry, which was centered on small and medium-sized enterprises, suffered from financial difficulties and was forced to go bankrupt one after another.NichiiIs a successful example of avoiding this crisis with the underwriting of capital increases by business partners and the cooperation of banks.
1970s-1980s: Large-scale Retail Store Law and supermarkets
Since the latter half of the 1960s, as supermarkets have become larger and more integrated, conflicts with local small retailers have also started to occur... In 1973Large-scale retail store lawWas enacted (abbreviated as "Large-scale Retail Store Law", enforced in 1974), and interest adjustments were made when "Large-scale retail stores" including large supermarkets entered the market... "Large-scale retail store" is said to have a store area of 500 square meters or more.
First in 1973Oil shockOccurs.Consumer anxiety manifested itself in the form of buying up oil-related products and toilet paper in supermarkets (Toilet paper riot).June of the same year,SantokuCGC Group (CGC Group) brings together mid-sized and small and medium-sized supermarketsSisicy Japan) Is established..With the goal of stable supply (the business conducted during the group's establishment was urgent import of shortage products after the oil crisis), Joint purchasing and joint development of original brands will be undertaken.
Since the 1990s: Deregulation
At the end of 1980,US-Japan structural consultationLarge-scale Retail Store Law from the United StatesNon-tariff barriersIt was pointed out thatDeregulationWill proceed. The Large-Scale Retail Store Law was amended in 1991 (enforced in 1992), the type boundaries of "Large-scale Retail Stores" were revised, and the Commercial Activity Coordination Council (Commercial Cooperative) was abolished... In 1994, the operational standards of the revised Large-scale Retail Law were relaxed, the opening of stores with a store area of less than 1000 square meters was liberalized in principle, and regulations on the number of closed days and closing times were relaxed..the 1990sFrom the second halftobacco-Alcoholic beveragesSuch aslicenseHandling of goods, open for a long time (from 9:10 to 20:24 to 24:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX, some are open XNUMX hours a day[Annotation 2]) ・ The sales floor area has increased and the number of new store openings has increased.1996からDaieiIs the first in the Japanese supermarket industry on a nationwide scaleNew YearStarted business.After that, other companies, mainly major supermarkets, began to operate on New Year's Day.
In 1998Large-scale retail store location lawWas enacted (abbreviated as "Large-scale Retail Store Location Law", enforced in 2000), and the Large-scale Retail Store Law was abolished... In 1999, as an industry group of food supermarketsJapan Supermarkets Association(The first chairmanlife OfShinji Shimizu) Was established.. In 2009, the Japan Self-Service Association and the National Supermarket Association of Japan merged, and the current general incorporated associationNational Supermarket AssociationBecame.
On the other hand, the Large-Scale Retail Store Location Law changes the focus from protecting small and medium-sized retailers to preserving the living environment, and the hollowing out of central urban areas in local cities has become more serious... In 2006, the Large-scale Retail Location LawCity Planning Act-Central city activation method(Town development 3 methodAmendment (collectively referred to as), Adjustment will be made.
In the case of Japan, the sales floor area is 300m2About 3,000m2There are several systematic types up to this point.For large ones, in one storeGroceries,Daily necessities such asConsumer goodsFromClothing-Consumer electronicsFor up toDurable consumer goodsComprehensive supermarket that handles evenGeneral Merchandise StoreWas opened mainly in the city center, but recentlyGroceries,Daily necessitiesSupermarkets that handle up toSuburbMany stores have been consolidatedShopping centerIn many cases, the store is opened in.
The sales composition ratio of groceries is 70% or more, and the number of stores is the largest among supermarkets.
It is basically located near a residential area, and the frequency of visits is expected to be two or three times a week.With the goal of supporting daily life with the main focus on handling fresh food, it is said that the product lineup will be such that you can live for a week with only the products in the sales floor.Among similar formats with low profits and high sales, it is a format in which competition for bargain sales with competitors is particularly fierce.the 2000sSince then, an increasing number of products have been open for a long time, specializing in food products including fresh foods.
SuburbLarge-scale stores of the typeSuper supermarket Also known as (SSM), it is equipped with an in-store bakery, a kitchen for prepared foods, an in-store eating and drinking space, etc., and is now selling foods that only need to be finally heated and offering meal solutions such as salad bars.By stocking ingredients that are difficult to obtain in general at such stores,the 1980sIt spread rapidly after thatMasses OffoodThere is also a desire, and it is gaining popularity by offering these at a low price.
Large-scale retail store location lawThe small stores below the regulated sales floor area are showing a certain degree of prosperity because they are deeply rooted in urban areas and areas with many residential areas where store opening regulations are strict.On the other hand, price competition is difficult due to management strength.convenience storeThere is also a part where it is difficult to make a clear difference.At the homes of young people and the elderly, instead of buying fresh food, you can use ready-made lunch boxes and prepared foods.Half boardIs increasing, and competition with convenience stores with better location conditions is also occurring.
Since the mid-2000s, it has been difficult to secure large-scale locations and properties due to the return of the residences of residents in the Greater Tokyo Area to the center of the city and the aging of the entire population. The number of supermarkets in the store area continues to increase, and it is called a "mini supermarket."
On the consumer side, although the store is near the home like a convenience store, the product price is not as high as the convenience store, and although it is the main selling product, there is an assortment of products similar to general supermarkets, etc. On the store side, the number of stores and sales are increasing because it is easy to open a store and it has the advantage of being able to serve the above-mentioned urban consumers as customers with a small initial investment and labor costs.
Many stores are open until midnight according to the lifestyles of city dwellers.Due to the limited area of the store, many stores do not have a kitchen, and most of the meat, fish, bento boxes, and delicatessen items are delivered from the factory.
Most of the products are clothing, and the sales composition ratio is 70% or more.Originally, clothing stores, etc. arrived at this type of business in the process of increasing size (as an example).UNIQLO,Shimamura), Many have become general supermarkets by increasing the sales floor area.
There are no departments with a composition ratio of 70% or more, and the product lineup covers three or more departments, such as Japanese-style superstores and pseudoDepartment storeWas also called.Also, since Sears, JC Penny, etc. in the United States are called his GMS (General Merchandise Store. "M" is not marketing), it is sometimes called by the same name, but in the case of the United States, food Since it is not treated, it is different from the one in Japan.Rarely referred to as a "general supermarket," but in many cases "General supermarketIs used.Fukuoka City was the first in Japan to adopt this format and start operations.Unido(Currently merged with Daiei).
It uses a multi-story building and has a large store area.It handles a wide range of products, and it is a busy store for big shopping and bulk shopping on weekends rather than daily shopping. Before the 1990s, many large suburban stores were seen, and many have some tenants such as restaurants.
the 1990sSince then, it has been a leader in the supermarket industry.DaieiHowever, business performance begins to deteriorate, and general merchandise stores are declining.The main backgrounds are the rise of specialty stores specializing in one field and the thin product lineup due to the fact that they handle everything.An anchor store of a community shopping centerSuper centerWe also propose total fashion coordination, which is the core store of regional shopping centers.General Merchandise StoreThere is a move to switch to.
インターネットThe business form of accepting orders at the store and delivering them on the same day mainly from general merchandise stores to consumers in the trade area has begun.
List of supermarkets in Japan
SSDDS / Self department store
SSDDSEnglishIt is an abbreviation of "Self Service Super Discount Department Store", which translates literally to "a department store with a discounted rate by self-service".
It was also called "self-department store" for short.It had the same product lineup as the department stores so far, and it was selling at a bargain price by adopting self-service.
SSDDS is also a distribution term.Both words were before the generalization of supermarket terminologythe 1960sIt is a term used around that time.
- "The birth of a supermarket in the 30's of the Showa era and the "housewife's shop" movement ─ Focusing on Hideo Yoshida and Isao Nakauchi ─"Social Science," Vol. 44, No. 1, 2014,2021/8/17Browse.
- List of supermarkets in Japan
- Cold chain
- Chain store
- General supermarket
- Department store
- Cash register
- Deposit machine
- Fresh produce
- Daily food
- Super woman(Japanese movie)
- Net supermarket
- Hyper market
- Specific building --Regulations on environmental hygiene, etc. applicable to large-scale supermarkets in Japan
- Mobile supermarket
- Private brand
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "NEW BALANCE vol.85". 2019/5/8Browse.
- ^ https://www.google.com/patents?id=UnZhAAAAEBAJ&dq=Clarence+Saunders
- ^ https://www.google.com/patents?id=dPdNAAAAEBAJ
- ^ https://www.google.com/patents?id=HjBBAAAAEBAJ&dq=Clarence+Saunders
- ^ https://www.google.com/patents?id=2dd5AAAAEBAJ&dq=Clarence+Saunders
- ^ Strasser, Susan Never Done: A History of American Housework Holt Paperbacks, 2000.
- ^ Anonymous, "The place where supermarketing was born," Mass Market Retailers 19, no. 9 (17 June 2002): 172.
- ^ Ryan Mathews, "1926-1936: entrepreneurs and enterprise: a look at industry pioneers like King Kullen and J. Frank Grimes, and the institution they created (Special Report: Social Change & the Supermarket)," Progressive Grocer 75, no. 12 (December 1996): 39-43.
- ^ a b c d (3) Structure and trends of food distribution in the United States Retrieved June 2021, 10, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
- ^ a b Intensifying competition Amazon and Wal-Mart expand their business in their areas of expertise Nikkei Cross Tech, viewed October 2021, 10.
- ^ Kazuko Seoka 2014, p. 8.
- ^ a b "There are various theories about Japan's first "supermarket"”. Nippon Broadcasting System (February 2018, 9). 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g "The story of Hideo Yoshida, who founded the first supermarket in Japan". Diamond chain store (September 2020, 2). 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ Kazuko Seoka 2014, pp. 1, 6.
- ^ Kazuko Seoka 2014, p. 6.
- ^ a b c d Kazuko Seoka 2014, p. 2.
- ^ Kazuko Seoka 2014, pp. 1–2.
- ^ a b c d e f "Association history”. National Supermarket Association of Japan. 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f "Association overview”. National Supermarket Association of Japan. 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ a b c d e "Large-scale retail store law". The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika). 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ a b c "Large-scale retail store law". Encyclopedia mypedia. 2021/8/16Browse.
- ^ a b c "CGC Group Information”. CGC Japan. 2021/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Association overview”. Japan Supermarkets Association. 2021/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Association history”. Japan Supermarkets Association. 2021/8/17Browse.
- ^ "General merchandise store, why is it sluggish? --Pushed by specialty stores, mass closure”. Nikkei Biz Academy (December 2015, 12). 2016/10/7Browse.
- ^ "For the CUSTMORS Daiei Group 35 Years Record" P.81 Daiei History Compilation Room 1992 (not for sale)
- Japan Supermarkets Association ――Composed of supermarkets with a food sales composition ratio of 50% or more in principle.
- General Incorporated Association New Japan Supermarket Association ――Composed mainly of food supermarkets that adopt a self-service method.
- Monthly food commerce --Supermarket management magazine