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💴 | Current situation regarding childcare leave for male employees.A big difference in the thoughts of my boss and wife !?


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The current situation regarding childcare leave for male employees.A big difference in the thoughts of my boss and wife !?

 
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, company support is essential for men to take childcare leave without hesitation.
 

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Reiwa 2025nd Year Equal Employment Equal Employment Basic Survey", the government aims to increase the rate of male employees taking childcare leave by 30. → Continue reading

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    Childcare leave

    Childcare leave

    Childcare leaveWhat is (Ikujikyugyo)?Raising a childIt is a leave that can be taken by a worker who works under the law.Childcare leaveAlso called (Ikukyu).Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against girlsArticle 11 prohibits dismissal and discrimination due to taking childcare leave.In this item, in Japan1991Was established inLaw concerning welfare of workers who take childcare or family care, such as childcare leave and family care leave(Act No. 3 of 76) (commonly known as the Childcare and Nursing Care Leave Act), childcare leave, measures for childcare as stipulated in the Act, and guidelines under the Act ("Childcare or family care" "Guidelines for measures that business owners should take in order to achieve a balance between the work life and family life of workers who will or will be doing" Final revision, 28 Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Notification No. 313, hereinafter " Guideline ") will be explained.[3].

    • Regarding the Child Care and Nursing Care Leave Law, only the number of articles is described below.

    Definition

    "Childcare leave" means a worker (Those who are hired every day(Excluding) means a leave of absence to raise the child pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 2 of the Act (Article 2).

    • What is a "worker"?Labor Standards ActIt is synonymous with "worker" as stipulated in Article 9, and excludes persons employed in businesses that employ only relatives living together and domestic servants.
    • A "daily hired person" is a contract-type worker who is hired for a daily labor contract period and whose labor contract ends at the end of the day.Since the employee is an employment type worker who is not familiar with the nature of childcare leave, which can be a long-term leave, it is excluded from the target workers.Even if a person is employed daily in the form of a labor contract, if the contract is in a state that is not substantially different from a contract with no fixed period, there is virtually no fixed period. As a worker employed under a contract, he / she is subject to childcare leave.
    • A "child" is a child who has a legal parent-child relationship with a worker (Adopted childNot only)Special adoptionThose who are in the period of actual custody of the person to be adopted for a period of 6 months or more, those who are entrusted to the foster parent, and those who are adopted by special adoption. A person who is to become a person or a person who is equivalent to an adopted foster parent and is entrusted to a person specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare as specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.
    • "Child-rearing" means living together and custody, and custody is synonymous with custody stipulated in Article 820 of the Civil Code.Even if they lack living together for a short period of time due to illness or travel, they are still "nurturing".

    Requirements for taking childcare leave

    To take childcare leave, it is necessary to meet the following requirements.Of the person who getsMen and women do not matter..Even if there is a family member who can actually take care of the child, it is possible to obtain it regardless of it.Depending on the officeLabor regulationsIn some cases, it has its own additional rules.

    When the employer receives a childcare leave request from a worker, the employer concernedI can't refuse my childcare leave offer(Article 6).However,Labor-management agreementThe following workers may not be allowed to take childcare leave (Article 7 of the Enforcement Regulations).

    • Workers who have been continuously employed by the employer for less than one year
    • Workers whose employment relationship is clearly terminated within one year from the date of the childcare leave offer
    • Workers with less than 1 working days per week

    The employer tells the worker that he / she has applied for childcare leave or has taken childcare leave.DismissalDo not treat it unfavorably(Article 10).

    Form of employment

    For fixed-term workers, all of the following must be met (Article 5).Even if a person is employed for a fixed period in the form of a labor contract, if the contract is in a state that is not substantially different from a contract with no fixed period, these requirements apply. Regardless of whether or not the worker is employed under a contract with virtually no fixed term, he / she is subject to childcare leave (guideline).

    1. Must have been employed by the employer for at least one year.
    2. It is not clear that the employment contract (if the labor contract is renewed, the one after renewal) will expire by the time the child is 1 year and 6 months old.
      • With the enforcement of the revised law in January 29, it will be possible to obtain an employment contract even if it is unknown at the time of application whether or not the employment contract will be continued.

    period

    Childcare leaveUntil the child reaches the age of oneCan be obtained at (Article 5).Male workersspouseIt can be obtained from the date of birth, but for children born by female workers themselvesPostpartum leaveThe period (8 weeks from the day after the birth date) is prioritized and this period is not included in the childcare leave period.However, if you are taking childcare leave on the day you reach the age of 1 and have any of the following circumstances, you can take childcare leave from the day after the day you reach the age of 1 until the day you reach 1 year and 6 months. (Article 5, Enforcement Regulations Article 3).After October 6, due to the enforcement of the revised law, childcare leave can be extended until the date of reaching the age of 29 by applying again if there are any of these circumstances when the child reaches the age of 10 year and 1 months.

    1. Licensed Nursery SchoolIf you wish to be admitted to Japan and have applied for it, but it will not be implemented for the time being for the period after the day when your child reaches the age of one.
    2. A parent of a child who is raising a childspouseIf any of the following applies to the child who was scheduled to be raised as normal for the period after the child reaches the age of one.
      • When you die.
      • When it becomes difficult to raise the child pertaining to the offer due to injury, illness, or physical or mental disability.
      • Marriage cancellationWhen the spouse who is the parent of the child who is normally raising the child related to the offer does not live with the child due to other circumstances.
      • 6 weeks (multiple births)妊娠In the case of, if you plan to give birth within 14 weeks) or if 8 weeks have not passed after giving birth.

    As a general rule, childcare leaveOnly once per worker for the same childThis can be done (Article 5), but if the father takes childcare leave until the day after the day when eight weeks have passed after childbirth, the father will take childcare leave again by the time he reaches the age of one. can do(Daddy vacation).

    • If the child is born before the expected date of birth, the starting date of "8 weeks after childbirth" of the dad's leave shall be from the date of birth to the day following the day when 8 weeks have passed from the expected date of birth. If the child is born after the expected date of birth, the period shall be from the expected date of birth to the day following the day when eight weeks have passed from the date of birth (Article 8, parentheses).It is provided from the viewpoint of protecting the expectations of workers regarding the taking of daddy leave when the expected date of birth and the actual date of birth are different.For example, if April 5st is the expected date of delivery and the child is born on March 2th, the period covered by the dad's leave will be from March 4th (actual birth date) to May 1th. (3 weeks after the expected date of delivery) If the child is born on April 25 in the same case, the period covered by the dad's leave is from April 3 (scheduled date of delivery) to June. Up to 25 days (5 weeks after the actual date of birth).Daddy leave is provided from the viewpoint of encouraging men to take childcare leave, but if it meets the legal requirements, such as when adopting a child, even women can naturally be eligible.

    If both parents take childcare leave and all of the following apply, the child1 years 2 monthYou can take childcare leave until you become (Daddy / Mom Childcare Leave Plus, Article 9-2).

    1. For a child to be raised by a worker, the worker's spouse must take childcare leave before the child reaches the age of one.
    2. The scheduled start date of childcare leave up to 1 year and 2 months is not the day after the child's 1 year old arrival date.
    3. The scheduled start date of childcare leave up to 1 year and 2 months is not before the first day of the childcare leave period that the worker's spouse is taking.
    4. The period of childcare leave for each parent must be within one year (in the case of mothers, the total of postnatal leave and childcare leave must be within one year).
      • 例えば、平成27å¹´10月1日に出生した子について、母親の育児休業を平成28å¹´9月30日(1歳到達日)に終了する場合、父親は平成28å¹´10月1日から11月30日までの育児休業を取得することができるし、それ以前から父親が育児休業を取得していた場合も同様であるが、平成28å¹´10月2日以降に父親が育児休業を開始することは2の要件に該当しないのでできない。

    厚生労働省「平成27年度雇用均等基本調査」によると、育児休業制度の規定がある事業所において、子が何歳になるまで育児休業を取得できるかについてみると、「1歳6か月(法定どおり)」が84.8%(平成26年度同調査では84.9%)と最も高くなっており、次いで「2歳~3歳未満」9.2%(同7.6%)、「1歳6か月を超え2歳未満」4.0%(同4.6%)の順となっている。

    procedure

    Requests for childcare leave must be made by clarifying the following matters and by either writing, faxing, or e-mail (Article 5, Enforcement Regulations Article 4, Paragraphs 7 and 1).When an employer makes a request for childcare leave, the employer indicates that the request has been received, the scheduled start date of childcare leave (or the date specified by the employer if the scheduled start date is specified), and the end of childcare leave. If you refuse to apply for childcare leave on the scheduled date, you must promptly notify the worker of that fact and the reason (Article 2, Paragraph 7 of the Enforcement Regulations).

    1. Date of application for childcare leave
    2. Name of the worker who applies for childcare leave
    3. Name, date of birth, relationship with the worker in the previous item, etc. related to the childcare leave request (If the child related to the childcare leave request was not born at the time of the childcare leave request, the childcare leave The name of the person who is planning to give birth to the child concerned, the expected date of childbirth, and the relationship with the worker in the previous item.Special adoptionAbout the establishment ofFamily courtIf you requestFoster parentsAndAdoptionIf you are entrusted as a person who wants to be adopted by the government, that fact. )
    4. Scheduled start date of childcare leave, scheduled end date of childcare leave
    5. If the worker who applies for childcare leave has a child who is not a child related to the childcare leave request and is under one year old, the name, date of birth and relationship with the worker ( In the case of a request for special adoption, etc., that fact.)
    6. The child who is involved in the childcare leave requestAdopted childIf so, the date on which the adoption took effect.
    7. If there are circumstances listed in each item of Article 5 of the Enforcement Regulations, the facts related to those circumstances
    8. When applying for childcare leave for a child between the ages of 1 and 1 year and 6 months, the facts listed in each item of Article 6 of the Enforcement Regulations
    9. If the spouse applies for childcare leave for a child between the ages of 1 and 1 year and 1 months, the worker who is taking childcare leave on the day when the child reaches the age of 6 That fact
    10. If any of the reasons listed in each item of Article 10 of the Enforcement Regulations occurs, the facts related to the reason
    11. If there are circumstances listed in each item of Article 19 of the Enforcement Regulations, the facts related to those circumstances
    12. In the case of taking childcare leave plus for dads and moms, the fact that the scheduled start date of childcare leave pertaining to the offer is after the first day of the childcare leave period related to childcare leave given by the worker's spouse.

    When an employer receives a childcare leave request from a worker, the day on which the childcare leave request is scheduled to start is calculated from the day following the day on which the childcare leave request is made.1 months(1歳から1歳6ヶ月に達するまでの子についての育児休業の申出をする場合にあっては2週間)を経過する日前の日であるときは、当該育児休業開始予定日とされた日から当該1ヶ月等経過日(当該育児休業申出があった日までに、出産予定日前に子が出生したことその他の厚生労働省令で定める事由が生じた場合にあっては、当該1ヶ月等経過日前の日で育児休業申出があった日の翌日から起算して1週間を経過する日)までの間のいずれかの日を当該育児休業開始予定日として指定することができる(第6条3項、施行規則第11条)。つまり、1ヶ月(1歳から1歳6ヶ月に達するまでの子についての育児休業の申出をする場合にあっては2週間)前までに申出をしないと、労働者の希望通りの期間の育児休業ができない可能性がある。

    Childcare leave benefit system

    Regarding wages during childcare leave, legallywageThe employer is not obliged to pay the wages (the obligation to pay wages of the employer during the holiday period is extinguished according to Article 536 of the Civil Code), and it depends on the work regulations of each business establishment.According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "FY27 Basic Survey on Equal Employment", the percentage of establishments that provide money to workers on childcare leave from companies or in-house mutual aid associations is 15.2% (24% in the same survey in 18.9). ), Of which, only 8.6% (10.3%) said that they would pay monthly money.

    For those who cannot receive wages due to childcare leaveEmployment Insurance Act(Act No. 49 of 116) According to the provisions of Article 61-4Childcare leave benefitsCan be paid.Since leave is a worker's right stipulated by law, it is possible to take leave by request even if there is no provision at the place of business.If you meet all of the following requirements, you can receive childcare leave benefits.

    1. A general insured person or an elderly insured person.
    2. In the two years prior to the start date of childcare leave, there are 2 months or more in which the basic wage payment days are 11 days or more.
    3. The number of working days is 10 days or less during each payment unit period (monthly break from the start of childcare leave).
    4. During each payment unit period, employees are employed at less than 80% of the wage at the start of the leave.

    The amount of childcare leave benefits to be paid is, in principle, the amount of daily wages at the start of leave x number of days paid per period covered by payment (1 month).67% (180% after 50 days from the start of childcare leave)Is.However, the total amount of wages and childcare leave benefits during each payment period (1 month) is the daily wage x number of days paid.When it exceeds 80%, the excess amount is reducedWill be paid.

    Measures to shorten regular working hours for childcare, etc.

    In addition to childcare leave, there are the following provisions regarding the handling of workers raising children.In addition, it should be notedNursing care leaveRegarding the measures that the business owner prescribed by law should take in common withChildcare leave, nursing care leave, etc. Law concerning the welfare of workers who take childcare leave or family care # Measures to be taken by the employerchecking ...

    Child nursing leave

    Workers raising preschool children are limited to 1 working days per year (5 days if there are two or more children) by requesting the employer.Child nursing leaveCan be obtained (Article 16-2).Annual paid leaveUnlike the employer, the employer cannot refuse to change the requested acquisition date (for any reason such as management difficulties, busy business, etc., the worker cannot refuse to apply for the legal child care leave. Also, unlike childcare leave and nursing care leave, employers are not authorized to change the date on which they take childcare leave. Article 16-3, guidelines).Even a person who is hired for a fixed period can take nursing leave for a child on 5 (10) working days regardless of the length of the remaining period of the labor contract.With the enforcement of the revised law in January 29, persons other than workers whose prescribed working hours per day are 1 hours or less can earn a child's nursing leave in half-day units (Rule 1).

    • By stipulating in the labor-management agreement, the following workers may not be allowed to take nursing leave for their children (Article 16-3).Even when concluding a labor-management agreement, considering the harmony with the burden of employment management at the business establishment, even if the worker has been continuously employed by the business owner for a short period of time, the number of days will be fixed. , It is desirable to be able to take nursing leave for the child (guideline).
      • Workers who have been continuously employed by the employer for less than 6 months
      • Workers with less than 1 working days per week
      • Workers engaged in work that is deemed difficult to take child nursing leave in units of less than one day in light of the nature of the work or the work implementation system
    Restrictions on overtime work

    When requested by a worker raising a child before elementary school, it exceeds 1 hours a month and 24 hours a year, except when certain requirements are met.overtime workDon't let me(Article 17, Paragraph 1).

    Late night work restrictions

    Workers raising preschool childrenMidnight laborLimitsCan be charged to the employer (Article 19).

    Restrictions on overtime work

    The employer prescribes workers who are raising children under the age of 3 and who are not on childcare leave based on the worker's request.working timeMeasures to make it easier for the worker to raise the child while working by shorteningMeasures to shorten regular working hours) Must be taken.However (Article 23, Paragraph 1).In addition, for workers raising children from the age of 3 to preschool, efforts must be made to take measures in accordance with the childcare leave system or shortening of working hours (Article 24, Paragraph 1).

    When a worker or his / her spouse becomes pregnant or gives birth, or when he / she learns that he / she is caring for his / her family, the employer will endeavor to individually inform the worker of the provisions regarding childcare leave / nursing care leave. It is supposed to be.In addition, employers are obliged to make efforts to establish a leave system that can be used by workers raising children until the beginning of elementary school (the revised law came into effect in October 29). by).The employer has established provisions for informing and encouraging employees to take childcare leave so that they will not give up taking childcare leave due to the atmosphere of the workplace where it is difficult to take childcare leave. prepare.In particular, in order to encourage male participation in childcare, a new leave will be established that can be used for childcare by workers who have preschool children.

    Stipulated in Article 67 of the Labor Standards ActChildcare timeIf requested by a female worker raising a child under the age of oneBreastfeedingThe time required for normalBreak timeIt is provided separately for securing, etc., and the measures for shortening childcare hours and the prescribed working hours stipulated in this section should be taken separately because their purpose and purpose are different. (28 No. 8 issued on August 2, 0802).In other words, measures to shorten regular working hours and acquisition of childcare hours can be used together.

    For civil servants

    The day when a child reaches the age of 3 according to Article 3 of the Act on Childcare Leave, etc. of National Public Employees, the Act on Childcare Leave, etc. of National Assembly Employees, the Act on Childcare Leave, etc. You can take childcare leave until.

    Kasumigaseki's bureaucrats said in 2015Japan XNUMX million total success planAfter that, if a male subordinate took childcare leave, it would be a plus for personnel evaluation, so the acquisition rate improved.[4]..This is the intention of the Prime Minister's Office[4].

    SDFThen, a system to hire a former SDF personnel as a substitute for SDF personnel who are on long-term childcare leave.Fixed-term self-defense officer』Was founded.

    OsakaThen,2018Until then, there were restrictions on personnel promotion for those who earned childcare leave.In addition, not only civil servants, but also businesses are said to "must not be treated unfavorably" for those who take childcare leave (Article 10 above).[5].

    Status of taking childcare leave

    According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "27 Basic Survey on Equal Employment", during the year from October 25, 10 to September 1, 26A woman who gave birth during her tenureOf these, the percentage of those who started childcare leave by October 27, 10 (including those who have applied for childcare leave) was 1% (81.5% in the same survey in 26), and that of women. The rate of taking childcare leave for fixed-term contract workers is 86.6% (73.4%).On the other hand, among the men whose spouse gave birth during the same period, 75.5% (including those who have applied for childcare leave) have started childcare leave by October 27, 10 (same as above). 1%), and the rate of male fixed-term contract workers taking childcare leave is 2.65% (2.30%).There is a big difference between men and women, and in Japan todayVery low rate of male employees taking childcare leaveことが、女性の就労や待機児童等の子育て支援問題の原因の一つと目されている。育児休業の取得期間をみても、平成26年4月1日から平成27年3月31日までの1年間に育児休業を終了し、復職した女性の育児休業期間は、「10か月~12か月未満」が31.1%(平成24年度同調査では33.8%)と最も高く、次いで「12か月~18か月未満」27.6%(同22.4%)、「8か月~10か月未満」12.7%(同13.7%)の順となっている。一方、男性は「5日未満」が56.9%(同41.3%)と最も高く、Less than one month exceeds 1%..According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's 28 Gender Equality White Paper, the percentage of men in their 30s to 40s who are in the child-rearing period is the percentage of employees who work 60 hours or more per week as the reason why the rate of male employees taking childcare leave is extremely low. Is higher than others,SevereLong working hoursIs the problem.

    According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "FY27 Basic Survey on Equal Employment", the percentage of establishments with childcare leave system provisions is 5% for establishments with 73.1 or more employees (26% in the same survey in 74.7), and establishment scale. The percentage of employees with 30 or more employees is 91.9% (94.7%), and the larger the scale, the higher the percentage of establishments with regulations.In particular, it is 500% for establishments with 100 or more employees.By industry, the percentage of establishments with regulations in the complex service business (100%), electricity / gas / heat supply / water supply (95.3%), finance, and insurance (93.6%) is high.According to the same survey, the percentage of establishments that have systems such as measures to shorten the prescribed working hours for childcare is 61.3% (same rate as the same survey in 26), and the introduction status of various systems (multiple answers). ), 57.8% of "short working hours system" (26% in the same survey in 57.9), 53.2% of "restriction of overtime work" (26% in the same survey in 54.6), "start / end of work" "Advance / advance time" was 30.4% (26% in the same survey in 20.7).

    However, these surveys do not include women who retired before giving birth to their first child.Under the Childcare Leave Law, childcare leave is available for both men and women.Workers' rightsThe employer must take a leave of absence upon request from the worker.However, in the "28 Gender Equality White Paper"The percentage of female workers who continue to work before and after childbirth has not changed, And.In the same white paper, the number of those who answered "agree" or "somewhat agree" to the idea that "husbands should work outside and wives should protect their families" is decreasing in the long run, but in 26 In the year, it was 43.2% for women and 46.5% for men, and it is said that there are many ideas that husbands and wives share work and family life.[Note 1].

    In addition, the employer has the idea that "taking childcare leave is only a nuisance to those who work in the same workplace and is a great loss to the manager." Based on that idea, management risk There are business owners who have implemented an implicit personnel system that forces married, pregnant, and child-bearing women to retire in various ways, and to be demoted and reduced in salary.Maternity harassment).Under such an employer, even if the woman who got married, pregnant, or gave birth continues to work in the workplace of such a personnel system, it is impossible to balance work and childcare, so such a personnel system There are also cases of resigning or changing jobs in order to protect the interests of oneself and children, giving up on the workplace.As a result, in Japan, compared to before marriage / pregnancy / childbirth and after the child is less burdened with childcare in the upper grades of elementary school and junior high school students, the child is in the lower grades of elementary school The employment rate is low (M curve).

    In addition, the problem of discriminatory treatment due to childcare leave was initially recognized as a problem only for female employees, but as childcare began to be shared by couples, it was also possible for male employees who took childcare leave. Cases of companies conducting discriminatory and retaliatory relegation personnel have emerged (patanity harassment).[6]).Not to mention the idea of ​​labor in Japan, the fact that there is a risk of retaliation by the company and that it is not a big problem is one of the major reasons why it is difficult for men to take childcare leave. ..

    Other

    Employees using the property-building tax-exempt pension savings, property-building tax-exempt housing savings, and worker property formation promotion system can suspend their payment only during the period of childcare leave.Those who plan to take childcare leave must take childcare leave at the same time they take childcare leave (neglect the procedure or start childcare leave).LaterIs not allowed).

    General housing makerSekisui House Co., Ltd. The2019From (first year of Reiwa)9/19ToDay to think about childcare leaveAsInstituteJapan Anniversary AssociationRegistered for an anniversary[7]..Sekisui House is actively working on childcare leave for men, such as "Declaration of complete acquisition of childcare leave for male employees of one month or more" and "Ikumen White Paper".

    1965,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public CorporationIntroduced a trial of childcare leave (up to 3 years) as a measure to prevent female technical staff from leaving their jobs.After that, there were about 3 users in 1700 years, so1968Full-scale introduction from May[8].

    Take childcare leave

    In some cases, fathers who took childcare leave rarely raise children.Take childcare leaveIs called.For example, according to a survey conducted in 2019, one in three fathers who took childcare leave had less than two hours of housework and childcare per day.[9].

    Job change activities during childcare leave

    June 2022, "A male employee of the company is on maternity leaveCareer changeDoing activities and never going to work after childcare leaveretirementThere are many cases of doing this. "TwitterBecame a hot topic above[10]..According to the lawyer, it is not against the purpose of the childcare leave law, andFreedom of choiceFrom this point of view, there is no legal problem.However, it was pointed out that changing jobs in anticipation of retirement after childcare leave may be an "abuse of the system."

    Besides Japan

    • SwedenIn Japan, fathers and mothers can take a total of 8 days of parental leave before the child turns 480, and 8% of their income is guaranteed during the leave.The country also guarantees the right to return to work.As a result, there are only 2% of full-time housewives in this country.
    • 2020 year 2 month,FinlandAnnounced a policy to double the childcare leave of the husband to about 2 months, the same as the wife[11].
    • AmericaSince there is no maternity leave or childcare leave system in the country, it was necessary to go to work immediately after giving birth depending on the workplace.[12]..As a countermeasure, companies are obliged to provide a place and time for milking during the Barack Obama administration, and some states have fines for violations.[12].

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ According to the White Paper, the number of active generations who support one elderly person is decreasing due to the declining birthrate and aging population, and in order for Japanese society to develop sustainably,The active generation has to play many roles by themselves, not by choosing between "work" and "family life".It is also necessary to consider that the number of cases will increase, and the key to that is to create a society where long working hours and uniform working styles can be changed to lead a professional life that suits each individual's circumstances. It is said that it will be realized.

    Source

    1. ^ Susumu Noda "Legal Significance of the "Vacation" Concept and Vacation Policy: Taking a Vacation "As a Vacation""The Journal of Japanese Labor Studies, Vol. 625,Labor Policy Research and Training Organization, December 2012, NOT 40019394013.
    2. ^ Tomoko Ikuko “Holidays, vacations and holidays"The Journal of Japanese Labor Studies, Vol. 657,Labor Policy Research and Training Organization, February 2015.
    3. ^ (日本語) Kyushu language version << High-ranking space and time >>, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGmzayrdN_Q 2022/5/21Browse. 
    4. ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “What does 99% of taking childcare leave mean? NHK | WEB special feature". NHK News. 2022/5/23Browse.
    5. ^ "Personnel system not subject to promotion such as childcare leave "Review instructions" Mayor of Osaka”. Sankei WEST / Sankei Shimbun (March 2018, 3). 2018/3/13Browse.
    6. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). “What is Patanity Harassment?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2022/4/27Browse.
    7. ^ Anniversary registration certificate awarding ceremony was held at Otemachi Sankei Plaza in Tokyo on "Day to Think about Childcare Leave" (September XNUMXth), and the anniversary registration certificate was awarded to President Yoshihiro Nakai of Sekisui House Co., Ltd. it was done.Japan Anniversary Association
    8. ^ Childcare leave system Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation "Asahi Shimbun", March 5, 1968, morning edition, 43th edition, page 3
    9. ^ "The actual situation of "take only childcare leave" and the "seven rules" of childcare leave as seen from the survey of 508 moms whose husbands took childcare leave-Focusing on "quality of childcare leave" in the flow of mandatory male childcare leave-". PR TIMES (September 2020, 1). 2022/6/30Browse.
    10. ^ "A man on maternity leave is changing jobs → Is it ant to return to work immediately? Discussion on SNS Incandescent ... The lawyer's view is". J-CAST News (September 2020, 7). 2022/7/10Browse.
    11. ^ Kyoto Shimbun February 2020, 2 morning edition
    12. ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Knowing the pain of "milking", the worries of returning moms | NHK | WEB special feature". NHK News. 2022/4/27Browse.

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