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waste

waste(Haikibutsu, Waste) are items that are no longer needed and are subject to disposal, and items that have already been disposed of and are of no value.

Definition of waste

Basel Convention

Basel Convention"Waste" as used in the above term means a substance or object that has been disposed of, is intended to be disposed of, or is obliged to be disposed of under the provisions of domestic law.[1].

Japanese law

Law on waste disposal and cleaning(Waste Disposal Law)Article 2According to, "waste" means "Garbage, Oversized garbage, cinders,Sludge, Manure, waste oil, waste acid, waste alkali, animal carcasses and other filth or unwanted material, solid or liquid (radioactive material and contaminated by it)Radioactive wasteexcept for[2]) ”.

The interpretation of "waste" here is that it is no longer needed because the occupant cannot use it or sell it to others for a fee. Notice of section chief[3]It is judged that the valuable material is not waste.

Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling SocietyIn, regardless of whether it is valuable or non-valuedWaste, etc.".

According to the notification of the Ministry of the Environment, waste means waste that is no longer needed because the occupant cannot use it by himself or transfer it to another person for a fee. It is said that the judgment should be made by comprehensively considering the properties, the status of discharge, the normal handling form, the existence of transaction value, the intention of the occupant, etc.[4].

  • Property properties: Satisfy the quality required for the intended use, and there is no risk of problems in the preservation of the living environment such as scattering, outflow, and generation of foul odors.[4].
  • Emissions: Emissions are systematic in line with demand and are properly stored and quality controlled before and during emissions.[4].
  • Normal handling form: A market as a product is formed, and cases where it is treated as waste are not usually recognized.[4].
  • Presence or absence of transaction value: The transaction has been transferred for a fee between the occupant and the other party of the transaction, and the transaction is economically rational from an objective point of view.In the actual judgment, regardless of the name, there is no receipt of money equivalent to the processing fee, and even if the transfer price competes with the product and various expenses such as transportation costs, it is a reasonable amount for both parties as a commercial activity. To be[4].
  • Intention of the occupant: As the intention of the occupant, which can be reasonably recognized from the objective factor, the intention to use it appropriately or transfer it to another person for a fee is recognized, or the intention to leave or dispose of it is not recognized. matter[4].
  • It means a state of being left untidy for a long period of about XNUMX days or more.[5].

U.S. law

According to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), "waste" means "waste is any waste or waste discharged from waste treatment facilities, waterworks facilities or air pollution control facilities. And sludge and other wastes containing solid, liquid, semi-solid and gaseous substances resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural business and community activities. "[6]..However, "solid and soluble substances in domestic wastewater, solid and soluble substances in irrigation wastewater, points requiring a discharge permit under Article 42 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Law, factory wastewater, which is a pollution source, or the Nuclear Energy Act of 1954. Does not include defined radiation sources, specific radioactive substances or by-products. "[6].

Chinese law

In China, "solid waste" is used as a word equivalent to "waste" in Japan. According to Article 3 of the "Solid Waste Environmental Pollution Control Law", "waste" is "utility value". There is no definition of "living waste" or "industrial solid waste", which is similar to the classification of general waste and industrial waste in Japan. In particular, it can be seen that "dangerous waste" is roughly classified into three defined in parallel.[7].

Waste disposal

Under the Basel Convention, "treatment" of waste refers to the collection, transportation and disposal of hazardous waste or other waste, including the ex post facto management of the disposal site.[1].




Waste in Japan

Classification

According to the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law (Waste Management Law), waste is first treated.Industrial wasteGeneral wasteBroadly divided into[6].

statistics

Amount of waste in the first year of Reiwa
  • Industrial waste
    • Total emissions of about 3 tons[8]
    • Recycling amount of about 2 tons[8]
    • Weight reduction amount of about 1 tons [8]
    • Final disposal amount of about 915.7 million tons[8]
  • General waste
    • Total emissions of about 4,274 million tons[9]
    • Total resource recovery amount of about 840 million tons[9]
    • Final disposal amount of about 380 million tons[9]

Landfill wasteFinal disposal siteAlthough the number of remaining years is generally increasing, the situation is still severe in the Tokyo metropolitan area, which is 2019 years (4 years nationwide) as of April 6.5.In addition, the number of final disposal sites is generally on a downward trend, and securing final disposal sites remains difficult.[10]..As of the end of the 2nd year of Reiwa, there are 1,602 final disposal sites for general waste (including 2 new facilities during the 15nd year of Reiwa, including 9 facilities before operation), and a residual capacity of 99,836 m3, 28. Since the fiscal year, it has been around 1 million m3.The national average of the remaining years is 22.4 years, and it has been around 29 years since 22.Regarding the situation of the remaining years in the metropolitan area,Capital AreaThen in 28.2,Kinki areaThen it was 19.1[11].

In addition, although it is on a downward trend, the amount of food waste is often a problem.Food waste is thrown away even though it was originally eaten in the first year of Reiwa.Food lossWas estimated to be about 570 million tons.The breakdown was 309 million tons from business and 261 million tons from households.[12].

Waste in the United States

Classification

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), waste is first roughly divided into hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste.[6].

Hazardous waste is "depending on its amount, concentration or physical, chemical or infectious nature (A) increased mortality or irreparable severe illness or part of its function. Waste or waste that gives an important factor in the increase of illnesses such as loss of waste, or (B) poses a danger now or in the future due to improper disposal, storage, transportation or disposal. It refers to a mixture. "[6]..Non-hazardous waste has a subtitle in the Resource Conservation and Restoration Law, but is not defined. It is defined as "waste that is not physical waste and is generated during the manufacturing and production process."[6].

Each state

Once the state's waste treatment plan is approved by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, the state government will be the main body responsible for establishing and managing waste treatment rules.[6]..Waste classification and guidance also varies from state to state, and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency distinguishes between commercial waste and industrial waste, but some states do not.[6].

Private consignment

Regarding waste treatment, public involvement in collection and disposal excluding planning and evaluation has diminished, and there is a strong tendency to entrust it to private companies.[6]..Due to the financial crisis and the shortage of landfill sites, New York City has closed a public landfill site and outsourced the collection and disposal of waste to a private company.[6].

Waste in China

Classification

Under the "Solid Waste Environmental Pollution Control Law," waste is roughly classified into "living waste," "industrial solid waste," and "hazardous waste."[7].

In fact, at the 2017 National People's Congress, "disseminating the waste separation disposal system" was mentioned as an important issue.[13]..In China, waste separation will be tried for the first time in 2018 priority cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Guangzhou from 46, and from 2019, municipal waste (equivalent to Japanese prefecture) and higher cities will be used for living waste. Sorting work has started completely[13].. By the end of 2020, 46 priority cities will be ready for sorting.Among them, the "Shanghai City Garbage Management Ordinance," which is said to be "the strictest sorting regulation in China," came into effect on July 7 in Shanghai.[13].

Case study in Shanghai

According to the "Shanghai City Waste Management Ordinance," household waste is "recycled resources" (cans, bottles, clothing, plastics, etc.), "harmful waste" (batteries, fluorescent lamps, etc.), and "wet waste (wet waste)" ( We will separate the garbage into four types: "garbage" and "dry garbage" (dirty paper scraps, diapers, and other garbage), and will dispose of the garbage "at the designated place at the designated time".[14].

According to the report of the city government in November 2019, the collected recycled resources were about 11 tons / day and the wet garbage (swill) was about 3 tons / day in the three months after the enforcement, October 5960. Compared to, it increased by 8710 times and 2018 times, respectively.[14]..In addition, dry waste is 14,830 tons / day (down 33% from the same month), and harmful waste is 1 ton / day (more than 10 times the same month).[14].

footnote

  1. ^ a b Basel Convention (Japanese) Ministry of the Environment, Viewed May 2017, 1.
  2. ^ Radioactive wasteIt is,Radioisotope Regulation Law,Specified radioactive waste final disposal methodBecause it is regulated byWaste treatment methodIt is out of the scope of.
  3. ^ "Points to note regarding the operation of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law". Ministry of the Environment. 2017/5/27Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Guidelines for administrative disposition (notification) (PDF)". Ministry of the Environment (September 2013, 3). 2017/5/27Browse.
  5. ^ "Proper disposal of used tires piled up in the open". Ministry of the Environment. 2017/5/27Browse.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "About industrial waste treatment in the United States”. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. 2022/4/4Browse.
  7. ^ a b Nobuhiro Fujimoto (January 1). “Waste Disposal Circumstances in Nanjing, China”. Kumamoto Gakuen News Ginkgo Namiki vol.412: p155-164. https://www3.kumagaku.ac.jp/research/fa/files/2011/11/a259d30406a00f6ec0fb5e3036063afe.pdf 2022/6/19Browse.. 
  8. ^ a b c d "About the discharge and treatment status of industrial waste (results of the first year of Reiwa)”. Ministry of the Environment (August 2022, 2). 2022/4/5Browse.
  9. ^ a b c "Discharge and treatment status of general waste (first year of Reiwa)". Ministry of the Environment (September 2021, 3). 2022/4/5Browse.
  10. ^ "Regarding the situation regarding the installation of industrial waste treatment facilities, permission for industrial waste treatment business, etc. (results in FY30, etc.)" (Press Release), Ministry of the Environment, (July 2021, 5), http://www.env.go.jp/press/109517.html 2022/4/5Browse. 
  11. ^ "About discharge and treatment status of general waste (Reiwa 2nd year)". Ministry of the Environment (September 2022, 3). 2022/4/5Browse.
  12. ^ "Announcement of estimated value of food loss in Japan (first year of Reiwa)". Ministry of the Environment (September 2021, 11). 2022/4/5Browse.
  13. ^ a b c "About the spread of the garbage classification and disposal system in China”. Okayama Prefectural Office. 2022/6/19Browse.
  14. ^ a b c "Waste separation reform and plastic regulation in China (Part XNUMX)”. International Institute for Environmental Economics (March 2020, 3). 2022/6/19Browse.

References

  • Masaaki Osawa, "Modern Garbage Problems Read in Charts," Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, 2006.

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