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Omega 3 fatty acids are nutrients that dogs cannot produce and tend to be deficient.
 

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ω-3 fatty acid

ω-3 fatty acid(Mr. Omega XNUMX Shibo,British: ω-3 fatty acid, Omega-3Also written) orn-3 fatty acids(N-3 fatty acid) isunsaturated fatty acidIn general, it is in the ω-3 position (meaning the third bond from the methyl end of fatty acid).carbon-carbonDouble bondRefers to those with.

The need for ω-3 fatty acids has been the focus of attention in human nutrition since the 1970s and 1980s.[1], The intake standard will be shown after 2000.It is relatively new in the study of nutrients.Alpha-linolenic acidCannot be synthesized in the human bodyEssential fatty acidsAnd synthesized from itDocosahexaenoic acid(DHA) is involved in the function of the nervous system.

Biosynthesis

plantas well as the microorganismInside, make a double bond at the ω6 positionΔ12-fatty acid desaturase Byoleic acidThe double bond of linoleic acid can be increased by one to produce linoleic acid.Furthermore, in plants and microorganisms, a double bond is formed at the ω3 position.Δ15-fatty acid desaturase ByLinoleic acidIncrease the double bond ofα-linolenic acidCan be generated[2].

Human capitalAnimals, includingstearic acidProduces oleic acid fromΔ9-fatty acid desaturaseHowever, since it does not have either Δ12-fatty acid desaturase or Δ15-fatty acid desaturase, neither linoleic acid nor α-linolenic acid can be synthesized by itself.Therefore, these two fatty acids areEssential fatty acidsIt has become.

Cell membraneHas liquidity,LipidAnd membrane proteins are moving.This fluidity is determined by the constituents of the membrane.for example,PhospholipidIt is affected by the degree of unsaturation (the number of double bonds) of the fatty acids that make up the double bond, and the more hydrocarbons that have double bonds (if there are double bonds, in that part).hydrocarbon(Because it bends), the interaction of phospholipids is reduced and the fluidity is increased.for exampleDHAHas an extremely high degree of unsaturation and contributes to maintaining the fluidity of the cell membrane.

Nerve cells have an intricate structure with many irregularities such as axons and dendrites, so the membrane components are extremely high.[3][Reliability required verification].

Humans use ω-3 fatty acidsDenovo synthesisAlthough it cannot be done, 18- and 3-carbon unsaturated ω-20 fatty acids can be formed from α-linolenic acid, which is an 22-carbon ω-3 fatty acid.These increased desaturations are usedDesaturation enzymeBecause they are commonLinoleic acidMandatory derived fromω-6 fatty acidConflict with.The synthesis of long ω-3 fatty acids from α-linolenic acid that occurs in the body is competitively suppressed by ω-6 analogs.[4]..Therefore, the accumulation of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids in tissues is efficient when ω-6 fatty acids are obtained directly from food or when the amount of ω-3 analogs does not significantly exceed the amount of ω-3. Is.

Health

Of the fish with high ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and the group with high intake of ω-3 unsaturated fatty acidsLiver cancerThe risk of occurrence is low[5].FishEven if you eatColorectal cancerRisk does not go down[6]..However, the risk of colon cancer is lower in the group with higher intakes of fish-derived ω-3 fatty acids and total ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids.ω-6 fatty acidAnd omega-3/omega-6 ratios are not associated with colorectal cancer risk[7]..Studies have shown that the risk of ischemic heart disease is reduced in fish-eating groups[8]No significant relationship was found in observational studies investigating the relationship between blood ω3 fatty acid levels and the development of cerebrovascular disease and in randomized trials investigating the relationship between the use of ω3 fatty acid supplements and cerebrovascular disease. There is a report to[9]..Overall, the intake of fish and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidssuicideNot related to risk.However, women with very low fish intake have an increased risk of suicide.Male non-drinkers have an increased risk of suicide in the group with the highest intake of EPA / DHA[10].. Ingestion of ω-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced aggression[11].

Nerve

The more you eat a lot of seafoodBreastmilkDHA in is high,Postpartum depressionThe prevalence of the disease was low.Transfer from the mother to the fetus increases the risk of depletion of ω-3 fatty acids, which cannot be ignored by the mother during pregnancy and childbirth, and may be involved in the risk of postpartum depression as a result.Also, the seriousness of depressionRed blood cellOf ω-6 in phospholipids insideArachidonic acidAnd ω-3Eicosapentaenoic acidThere was a significant positive correlation between the proportions of (EPA).Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the amount of ω-3 fatty acid accumulated was significantly lower in depressed patients than in healthy subjects, and the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 was significantly higher.[12].

Although reported overseas, there is little evidence in Japan as to whether intake of ω-3 fatty acids is effective in treating depression.[13].

ω-3 fatty acidsAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorderThere are reports that alleviated the symptoms of[14].Alzheimer type dementiaIt is thought that it is also related[15][16].

deficiency

Small intestineIt has been reported that deficiency symptoms such as "scaly dermatitis", "hemorrhagic dermatitis", "erythema nodosum", and "failure to thrive" appear under the condition that oral ingestion cannot be performed due to excision or brain damage. ing[17].. DHAsemen,brain,retinaIt is a major component of fatty acids contained in phospholipids.

It has been reported that deficiency of ω-3 fatty acid causes deterioration of learning ability and visual acuity.[18].

Intake standards

In 2003, the World Health Organization set an intake target of 3-1% for omega-2 fatty acids and 6-5% for omega-8 fatty acids relative to total energy.[19].

ISSFAL (International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids)[20] In 2004, a healthy daily intake of α-linolenic acid was 1% (0.7 g) of total calories, with a total of at least 2 mg of EPA and DHA for coronary artery health.[21].. The rate of conversion from α-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA is about 10-15%.[12].

Japanese food intake standardsIn (2010 edition), for menProstate cancerDue to the risk of morbidity, overdose of α-linolenic acid requires caution. For EPA and DHA, a total daily intake of 1 g or more is recommended.[22]..It has been suggested that the risk of developing prostate cancer is particularly associated with α-linolenic acid derived from dairy products and meat.[23].

Desirable intake ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids have been reported to be 1: 1 to 1: 4.[24][25].

Contained food

fish oilFood,Cod liver oil,Herring,サ バ,salmon,イ ワ シ,Cod,Antarctic krillEtc.seafoodIt is,Eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) andDocosahexaenoic acidRich in ω-3 fatty acids such as (DHA).FishAnd otherBiology Most of the DHA contained inLabyrinthulomyIt is a genus of the kind Schizochytrium Of marine products such as genusmicroorganismWhat was produced byFood chainIt was concentrated in the process of.

Vegetable oilThen, for rapeseed oil, ω-3 fatty acidα-linolenic acidSome are rich in (ALA),Canola(Canola),Soybean,In particularPerilla,Flax,AsaIncluded in etc.[26]..However, it has been pointed out that commercial tuna cans are not a useful source of ω-3 fatty acids.[27].

Animal fatAlso contains a small amount of ω-3 fatty acids supplied from the diet.In addition, α-linolenic acid is a broad-leaved plant.leaf OfThylakoidMembrane tissue (photosynthesisCan also be obtained from[28].. In factSpinach,ChingensaiSuch asGreeneryΑ-linolenic acid has been detected in vegetables.ゆえに、葉はTherefore, the leavesHerbivoreIt is a good source of α-linolenic acid.As livestock feedgrassNot very high in α-linolenic acid穀物When only linoleic acid is given, the content of α-linolenic acid in animal fat (against linoleic acid) is greatly reduced.also,Breastmilk,milkAlso contains ω-3 fatty acids, but the ratio of ω-3 fatty acids to ω-6 fatty acids depends on the mother's diet andDairy cowGive tofeedIt changes greatly depending on.

Fatty acid composition of vegetable oil

List of vegetable oils # Fatty acid composition of vegetable oilsSee.Only some vegetable oils are rich in ω-3 fatty acids.

Supplement

In 2021, Harvard Medical School claimed that omega 3 fatty acid supplements wereted people's precious money[30].

It includes fish oils, vegetable oils, as well as refined EPA and DHA products.Most of the dosage forms are gel capsules, but they are also sold as bottled liquids.In the case of fish oil, the EPA: DHA component ratio varies from 1: 2 to 2: 1.In a study comparing fresh fish with supplements, fresh fish (cultured)trout) Has been reported to be more effective in improving lipids than taking supplements.[31]..If you don't have heart disease, it's better to eat two servings of fatty fish each week or follow a healthy vegetarian diet rich in nuts, legumes, and healthy oils to spend more on over-the-counter fish oil supplements. It makes more sense than.Like all supplements, these omega 2 fatty acid supplements, EPA and DHA supplements are not FDA regulated and some contain unhealthy saturated or oxidized fats, industrial pollutants, or mercury. There is.Over the last two decades, many trials have no convincing data to suggest that omega 3 supplements can prevent the first heart attack in people at risk.If you have heart disease, you should ask your doctor about the prescription drug icosapentethyl (Vascepa), a high-dose purified EPA formulation that reduces cardiovascular risk when taken with statins.[32].

Chemical

omega-3(Orn-3) Is the carbon chainMethylIt means that the double bond appears for the first time in the third carbon-carbon bond counting from the end.Therefore, it is named ω-3.

Ω-3 fatty acids essential for humans areα-linolenic acid(18: 3, ω-3; ALA).This unsaturated fatty acid has three double bonds on the 18 carbon chains.All double bondsSithIt is an arrangement.

Many naturally synthesized fatty acids (synthesized or modified in animal or plant cells with an even number of carbon atoms) are cis-shaped so that they can be easily modified.The trans type makes the carbon chain more stable and raises the melting point.Also, when the chains aggregate in the tissue, they lack hydrophilicity.This trans form is caused by the reaction of alkaline solutions or several types of bacteria.Natural conversions in plant or animal cells rarely affect the terminal ω-3 group.However, the ω-3 compound is more brittle than the ω-6 because the double bonds at the ends are geometrically and electrically exposed.This is remarkable in the natural cis type.

List of ω-3 fatty acids

The table below lists the most common ω-3 fatty acids found in nature.

Trivial nameNumerical representationOrganization name
16:3 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-7,10,13-Hexadecatrienoic acid
α-linolenic acid (ALA)18:3 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
Stearidonic acid (STD)18:4 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-6,9,12,15-Octadecatetraenoic acid
Eikosatrienic acid (ETE)20:3 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-11,14,17-Eicosatrienoic acid
Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA)20:4 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-8,11,14,17-Eicosatetraenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)20:5 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)
Krupanodonic acid
22:5 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)22:6 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-4,7,10,13,16,19-Docosahexaenoic acid
Tetracosapentaenoic acid24:5 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-9,12,15,18,21-Tetracosapentaenoic acid
Tetracosa hexaenoic acid (Herring acid)24:6 (n-3)ALL-Are you there-6,9,12,15,18,21-Tetracosahexaenoic acid

Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Knauf PA, Proverbio F, Hoffman JF (1974). “Chemical characterization and pronase susceptibility of the Na: K pump-associated phosphoprotein of human red blood cells”. J. Gen. Physiol. 63 (3): 305-23. two:10.1194 / jlr.R055095. PMC 2203555. PMID 4274059. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R055095. 
  2. ^ Chapter I Basics for Understanding the Latest Lipid Nutrition-What is ω (Omega) Balance? " New Directions and Topics in Lipid Nutrition"
  3. ^ Tomohito Hamasaki "13:00? 13:40 Lipids and spiritAbstract of the symposium co-sponsored by Kinjo Gakuin University / Japan Society of Lipid Nutrition Chapter 6 p10 " New Directions and Topics in Lipid Nutrition"
  4. ^ Harumi Okuyama, "Nutritional biochemistry of essential fatty acids``Chemistry and Biology'' 1990 Volume 28 Issue 3 p.175-181, two:10.1271 / kagakutoseibutsu1962.28.175
  5. ^ JPHC Study Multipurpose Cohort Study on the Relationship between Fish, n-3 Unsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Liver Cancer (National Cancer Center)
  6. ^ Fish / n-3 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer JPHC Study Multipurpose cohort study (National Cancer Center)
  7. ^ JPHC Study Multipurpose Cohort Study on the Relationship between n-3 and n-6 ​​Unsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Colorectal Cancer (National Cancer Center)
  8. ^ JPHC Study Multipurpose cohort study on the relationship between fish / n-3 fatty acid intake and the onset of ischemic heart disease (National Cancer Center)
  9. ^ Cerebrovascular risk reduction due to fish intake is not derived from ω3 fatty acids Nikkei Medical Online Article: 2012.11.16
  10. ^ JPHC Study Multipurpose Cohort Study on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Relationship between Fish Intake and Suicide (National Cancer Center)
  11. ^ Golomb BA, Evans MA, White HL, Dimsdale JE (2012). “Trans fat consumption and aggression”. PLoS ONE 7 (3): e32175. two:10.1371 / journal.pone.0032175. PMC 3293881. PMID 22403632. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3293881/. 
  12. ^ a b Hitoshi Okada, Kumiko Hagiya, Shunichi Ishihara et al. "Exploratory study on the relationship between the intake of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental health centered on depression--focusing on recent research trends" " Human Science Research ”(30), 2008, pp87-96.NOT 110009595244
  13. ^ Therapeutic Guidelines of the Japanese Society of Depression. II. Major Depressive Disorders 2012 Ver.1. July 24, 7
  14. ^ Richardson AJ (April 2006). “Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders”. Int Rev Psychiatry 18 (2): 155-72. two:10.1080/09540260600583031. PMID 16777670. 
  15. ^ Oksman, M .; Iivonen, H .; Hogyes, E .; Amtul, Z .; Penke, B .; Leenders, I .; Broersen, L .; Lütjohann, D. et al. (2006). saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol containing diets on beta-amyloid accumulation in APP / PS1 transgenic mice ”. Neurobiology of Disease 23 (3): 563-572. two:10.1016 / j.nbd.2006.04.013. ISSN 09699961. 
  16. ^ Uauy R, Dangour AD (May 2006). “Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids”. Nutr. Rev. 64 (5 Pt 2): S24-33; discussion S72-91. PMID 16770950. 
  17. ^ Osamu Esaki, Shinichi Sato, Masanobu Sashino and others, "Concept of intake standards for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids"Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science," 2006, Vol. 59, No. 2, p.123-1588, two:10.4327 / jsnfs.59.123
  18. ^ Takako Maeda, Misako Takayama, Mari Sampei and others "Study on serum fatty acid and breast milk fatty acid composition of pregnant women: In particular, study on eicosapentaenoic acid"Bulletin of Tottori University College of Medical Technology" 1996, Vol. 25, p.15-24, Tottori University College of Medical Technology.
  19. ^ Report of a Joint WHO / FAO Expert Consultation Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases 2003
  20. ^ ISSFAL (English) (ISSFAL: International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids)
  21. ^ Cunnane S, Drevon CA, Harris W, et al. "Recommendations for intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy adults". ISSFAL Newsletter 11 (2), 2004, pp12-25
  22. ^ "Lipid"Japanese Dietary Intake Standards" (2010 edition)] Pp77-108
  23. ^ Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. (October 1993). "A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Institute. 85 (19): 1571-9. PMID 8105097. 
  24. ^ Tribole, Evelyn. "The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet"New York. McGraw-Hill. 2007 ISBN 978-0-07-146986-9
  25. ^ Lands, William EM "Fish, Omega-3 and Human Health" Champaign. AOCS Press. 2005 ISBN-1 893997-81-2
  26. ^ "Fifth Edition Supplementary Standard Tables of Food Composition in Fatty Acids" Fats and oils, nuts and seeds.
  27. ^ Akiko Harama, Natsuko Wakinaka, Makoto Takeda, Toru Moriguchi, "[Original paper] Commercially available tuna cans are not a useful source of omega-3 fatty acids"Lipid Nutrition," Vol. 2017, No. 26, 2, p.217-224, two:10.4010 / jln.26.217
  28. ^ Chapman, David J .; De-Felice, John and Barber, James (May 1983). “Growth Temperature Effects on Thylakoid Membrane Lipid and Protein Content of Pea Chloroplasts 1”. Plant Physiol 72 (1): 225-228. two:10.1104 / pp.72.1.225. PMID 16662966. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1066200 2007/1/15Browse.. 
  29. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database
  30. ^ Corliss, Julie (July 2021, 6). “Are you wasting money on supplements?" (English). Harvard Health. 2021/6/27Browse.
  31. ^ “Comparison of the effect of omega-3 supplements and fresh fish on lipid profile: a randomized, open-labeled trial”. Nutrition & diabetes 7 (12). (2017). two:10.1038 / s41387-017-0007-8. PMC PMC5865539. PMID 29259181. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMCPMC5865539/. 
  32. ^ Corliss, Julie (July 2021, 6). “Are you wasting money on supplements?" (English). Harvard Health. 2021/6/27Browse.

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