“Fact-finding Survey on Money Awareness” Asked by Women Aged 30 to 79 ~ “How to use money as the age increases…”
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Specialized institutions are also conducting various analyzes and considerations on the theme of intergenerational disparities in the Japanese economy, such as household wealth, the declining birthrate and aging population, the pension system, and silver democracy.
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Generational disparity(Sedai Kankakusa,British: Intergenerational inequity) refers to thepension,social welfareservices (benefits) such asTax,debtIt arises from the fact that the difference in burden due toDisparityis.The method of calculating the difference in burden for each generation and clarifying the profit and loss isgeneration accounting (en:Generational accounting),AmericaFiscal scientist Lawrence Kotlikoff et al.ExtremeLow birthrate and aging populationThis is one of the issues of concern in Japan as a society.
Japan is an unprecedented country in human history.Aging rateAre experiencing.VotersOccupySenior citizens(65 years old and over)2012is about 30%,the 2050sprojected to reach 45% by.In addition to this, the younger generationVoter turnoutIt has been pointed out that the low volatility forces politicians to implement policies that favor the elderly, exacerbating the intergenerational gap.
JapaneseNational pensionthe working generation bears the costs necessary for the benefitsPay-as-you-go systemThe method is adopted.This methodLow birthrate and aging populationIf the ratio of beneficiaries increases due to the increase in the number of recipients, the burden on the working generation will increase, and there will be a problem that it will not be possible to receive benefits that correspond to the amount of the burden.According to our calculations,Employee pension, this means a 1940birth generation and2010It is said that there will be a difference of about 6000 million yen in the difference in benefits and burdens between the generations born..
|year of birth||Pension (welfare)||Medical (Union)||Nursing care||Total||Total loss (▲)|
|1950||+ 2.00 %||▲1.20%||+ 0.20 %||+ 1.00 %|
Impact of strong yen
2007It started aroundYen recessionAnd with itDeflationIt has been pointed out that, while it places a heavy burden on the working generation, it works favorably for pensioners.. 政府,Bank of JapanIt has been pointed out that the reason why the government did not take effective measures to get out of this situation was that it feared losing the support of the elderly.
In Japan, students who are about to graduate (new graduate) in bulkBulk recruitment of new graduatesEmployment practices calledUnder this practice, if a job seeker is unable to secure a stable job when they are new graduates, it will be difficult for them to secure a stable job in the future, and they will be affected for the rest of their lives..If a company narrows down its hiring due to a recession or other reasons, new graduates that year will be at a great disadvantage for reasons not attributable to the individual.
lifetime employmentpractices also exacerbate the situation.in Japan,Permanentemployment is strictly protected (⇒Four requirements for employment) But this isNon-regular workersdoes not apply toIn a recession with no end in sight, Japanese companies are replacing new jobs with non-regular workers at the cost of protecting existing regular jobs..
The number of young people unable to find stable employment due to the prolonged recession is increasing, and 2012% of the students who graduated in 22.9 (excluding those who went on to further education) did so..
- ^ Source: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, "Population Projections for Japan (January 24), medium-fertility-medium-mortality projections."
- ^ OECD Economic Surveys: Japan 2017OECD. (2017). two:10.1787 / eco_surveys-jpn-2017-en. ISBN 9789264272187.
- ^ Reassurance reform where (XNUMX) "pension disparity" can be obtained?Lost payment?, TV Tokyo, July 2012, 7. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- ^ Wataru Suzuki, M. Masushima, K. Shiraishi, and A. Morishige (2012-01). Benefits and Burdens by Generation through Social Security (Report). Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office .
- ^ Strong yen is dividing generations in Japan CNBC August 2012, 8
- ^ Cold data on young people's employment Economics of Work vol.39, Career Connection, July 2012, 7. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- ^ Pictorial Record/Changes in the ratio of non-regular employees (by gender and age), social realities data pictorial record. Retrieved September 2012, 9.
- ^ Editorial: Non-regular employment for new graduates Time to prepare young people, Mainichi jp, August 2012, 8. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
- ^ OECD (2006-07-20). Economic Survey of Japan 2006 (Report). two:10.1787/16097513.
pension(Nenkin,British: pension[Annotation 1], Annuity) Means annually and continuouslyPaymentBe donemoneyThat is. Also, as a mechanism to guarantee the pensionPension systemIt also refers to (nenkinseido). Depending on how the system operates,Public pensionとPrivate pensionare categorized. AlsoIndividual pensionAre often classified separately from private pensions.
There are three types of pension benefits:.
- Old age benefits -When you reach a certain age
- Disability benefits -If the insured has a disability
- Survivor benefits -Benefit to survivors if insured dies
- Old-age benefits-boys with wives, ages 65 and up, contributions of insurance for 30 years or more or residence for 20 years or more
- Disability Benefits-Wife and boy with 2 children, contributions or residence for 5 years or more
- Survivor benefits-having two childrenwidow, Contribution or residence for 5 years or more
Contribution system and non-contribution system
The recipient does not pay any premiums or premiums (ContributionPension funded by general tax revenueNon-contribution pensionSay. On the other hand, the insurer bears (contributes) premiums and premiums and pays the pension established by the income.Contribution pensionThat.
|Tax method (No contribution）||Contribution system (Social insurancesystem)|
Each countryBasic pensionTax system is common in.. Japan is a social insurance method.. privateInsurance company,Trust bank,OtherCompanyContribution pensions are also adopted for pensions managed byEndowment insuranceSuch).
Old-age pension system
- Basic pension
- Pension benefits to those who meet the requirements for residence or contribution
- Minimum pension
- Pension benefited without contributions to the pension fund
- Social assistance
- Means testTarget person, pension for specific class
The average minimum pension payment for each country is about 22% of the average income, which ranges from 6% in South Korea and Turkey to 40% in New Zealand..
|Country||Basic pension||Minimum pension||Country||Basic pension||Minimum pension|
|Australia||Residence (10 years)||Japan||Contribution (25 years)|
|Belgium||Yes (30 years)||Luxembourg||Contribution (10 years)||Yes (20 years)|
|Canada||Residence (10 years)||Mexico||Yes (24 years)|
|チリ||Residence (20 years)||Netherlands||Residence (1 years)|
|Czech Republic||Contribution (35 years)||Yes (35 years)||New Zealand||Residence (10 years)|
|Denmark||Residence (10 years)||Norway||Residence (3 years)|
|エストニア||Contribution (15 years)||Poland||Yes (25 years)|
|Finland||Residence (3 years)||Portugal||Yes (15 years)|
|France||Yes (1 years)||スロベニア||Yes (15 years)|
|Greece||Residence (15 years)||Spain||Yes (15 years)|
|Hungary||Yes (20 years)||Sweden||Residence (3 years)|
|アイス ランド||Residence (3 years)||Switzerland||Yes (1 years)|
|Ireland||Contribution (10 years)||Turkey||Yes (15 years)|
|Israel||Residence/Contribution (10 years)||英国||Contribution|
|Italy||Yes (20 years)|
|*The number is the number of years of residence or payment required to receive it.|
In addition, depending on the country, subsidies such as housing, utilities, health care, nursing care, and social assistance may be provided to pensioners... Social support includes cash payments, free services and discounted rates... For example, in Austria, it partially subsidizes utility costs and housing costs..
|Housing/light||Medical||Social support||Housing/light||Medical||Social support|
|Czech Republic||Yes||New Zealand||Yes|
System of each country
Public pensions in many countries are funded by general tax revenue (Beveridge type) And the method of contribution of insurance premiums by labor and management (Bismarck type, Social insuranceMethod).. In the social insurance system, the average payment for each country is 20 years or more for the start of payment, and the average payment is 26 years or more for the full payment..
The United States of America
- 社会 保障: Compulsory enrollment Social security taxincome taxAt the same time
- Individual pension: Optional tax incentives available
- Corporate pension:Any
- Private pension:Any
Social Security BureauHas jurisdiction. All taxpayers, including income earners and permanent residents of the United States, are enrolled in the United States, and a certain percentage of labor income (2015% up to the maximum taxable annual income of 118,500 dollars as of 12.4: XNUMX%) is referred to as "Social Security Tax" Along withInternal Revenue ServiceDirect purpose tax method (payable to (IRS) (Payroll tax) So JapanNational pension insurance unpaidProblems such as are unlikely to occur. The paid social security tax is a separate accounting from the national treasury.Social security pension trust fundOperated and operated by.
Self-employed persons are responsible for all social security taxes (JapanNational pensionIs equivalent to the employer and the other half (in JapanEmployee pensionThe tax rate is 6.2%+6.2%), but there is no difference in relation to the tax rate, the annual tax ceiling, and the amount paid after retirement. For military personnel, the army bears the burden. Foreigners who stay temporarily for training (J-1) visas, etc. are exempt from the social security tax even if they earn income domestically. The social security tax is levied only on labor income, so it is not levied on trading profits on stocks and real estate and interest/dividend income, but it is levied if the occupation is stock trading, for example.
The individual pension isDefined contribution typeIRA (Individual Retirement Fund Account),401 (k)、403（b）などが代表的であり、いずれも課税繰延べ（拠出金額は所得から控除され、運用益とともに実際に口座から引き出されるまで課税されない）や運用益非課税などの税制上の優遇措置がある反面、原則一定年齢（59歳半）になるまで引き出せない（59歳半以前の生存中に引き出した場合は、引き出した額について繰り延べられていた所得税と罰金10%が課せられる）、逆に72歳以降は税引き前拠出部分とその運用益の年齢（平均余命）に応じた一定割合を強制引出しなければならない（MRD、未引出額があると50％の課税）、口座間の資金の移動に制限がある、年間拠出額の上限がある、などの制約もあるが、年間拠出額の上限が比較的高く（2022年の401（k）の年間拠出限度額は20,500ドルに50歳以上は6,500ドルの「追付き拠出」を追加可、会社のマッチなどを合わせた絶対上限は61,000ドル）、その分節税になることもあり、社会保障だけでは退職後の生活費を賄えないMiddle classIs an important retirement fund. The government is not involved in the management and operation of funds,bank,Securities companyOpen an account under the individual pension program established byInvestment trustOr individualstockIt is common to operate with the responsibility of the individual in combination (multiple accounts, multiple financial institutions are possible).
Corporate pensions are traditionally managed by companies based on pension funds contributed while employees are in office, and paid for the life of retired employees who have reached a certain age.Defined benefit pensionHowever, in recent years, huge pension payments have been made to retired employees who live longer.GMDue to such factors as the collapse of huge companies, and due to changes in the employment style of workers (repetitive job changes), there is a shift to a defined contribution individual pension that is predictable for companies and portable for workers. ..
Public employee pension
Federal governmentCivil servants, such as the staff, have a pension fund for civil servants in each state. The operation of the fund is relatively flexible,California OfCalpersThere are also funds that actively invest like this.
A public disability and survivor pension is provided for railway staff who are likely to encounter a major accident while on duty, including a retirement pension..
U.S. Forces OfVeteransForUnited States Department of Veterans AffairsFrom the amount according to the period and classpensionA pension is paid. Also, if you are eligible for a pension,U.S. Defense Management HeadquartersFor military personnel provided bymedical insuranceEligible to continue to join "TRICARE".
Purple heart chapter,Good deeds(Honorary dischargeThose who received a medal, etc. will be added to the pension amount according to the regulations, but if they receive a certain amount of punishment, the amount of payment may be reduced. AlsoDisgraceIf you lose your eligibility for pension.
Similar to Japanese "individual pension",Insurance companyThere is also a defined benefit type private (individual) pension that is sold by a private company such as, and pays a fixed amount every month for a fixed term for a fixed term or until the contractor dies for an entire life, annuity. It has the characteristics of both investment and insurance.
There are various types of annuity products, and there are two typical types of insurance payment methods as follows.
- Accumulate insurance premiums for a long time before receiving
- Payment of insurance premiums will be made at the time of contract and payment will begin immediately.
Also, regarding the payment period
- Fixed period (5 years, 10 years, etc.) specified at the time of contract
- Lifetime until contractor dies
- If the contractor dies within the first fixed period (5 years, 10 years, etc.) after receiving the payment, an extra lump sum payment will be given.
likeLife insuranceSome also combine.
Since you can receive a certain amount of money for the contract period or whole life, there is less risk to the contractor and it seems safe at first sight
- For products called "pure whole life", if the contractor dies after the start of receiving the payment, the difference between the paid insurance premium and the cumulative total amount of payment will be that of the operating company, and the survivors will not be able to receive it. High monthly payment amount)
- In case of fixed amountRising pricesWill gradually reduce the value of your payment
There are risks such as. In return for guaranteeing the payment of a certain amount of money (expected), the investment gain is low, and rather it is used for absolute (apparent) peace of mind that a class with poor investment knowledge and old age funds receives a certain amount of whole life It is said that there are many.
Annuity's operating company pays the contractor a long term based on the insurance premium paid by the contractor regardless of whether it is funded or lump-sum. It can also be seen by making installment payments. The reimbursement rate for the premium paid depends on various conditions such as the above contract period, the existence of life insurance, and the age of the policyholder. Naturally, the lower the risk (for the annuity management company), the higher the reimbursement rate. It is in.
Generally speaking, the US pension policy expects individuals to self-help efforts to save future retirement funds by themselves, which is easy to understand, has a large impact, and is easy to use. Permanent and stable tax incentives (preferential treatment). It can be said that retirees are trying to reduce their relative dependence on public pensions (social security) by encouraging individual pensions under the tax system). The exception is that veterans have a generous pension system.
President of the United StatesThe pension is linked to the amount of remuneration of ministers, but it is about 20 dollars, which is almost half of the amount of remuneration during active duty. Since the founding of the country, the presidential pension system has not existed,1958,Harry S. TrumanHas a history of being founded after suffering a hard life after retirement.
Ministry of Labor and PensionHas jurisdiction. As social insurance pensions, there are compulsory fixed-price basic pensions (state pension, State Pension) and income proportional pensions (state second pension, SPS). Are exempt from joining.
In addition, the tax was the sourceNon-contribution pensionIsExists and this isMeans testAnd reduced in proportion to income.. furtherDisability pensionAs,(DLA),(PIP), which is a non-contributory, non-means-tested public aid.
2019January,Giuseppe ConteThe regime is leftistFive-star movement OfPledgeThe reform was carried out to reduce the age at which pensions were received to 62 years old. The financial burden is2019から2021Expected to reach about 3 billion euros over the next three years, but lacks the necessary financial resources.
Has jurisdiction. As a personal numberSocial insurance number(SIN) is given.
Ministry of Human ResourcesHas jurisdiction. It is an individual funding method to the Central Provident Fund (CPF) under its control, and the employer and the employer jointly contribute to the CPF... The reserve poolmedical insuranceIt is shared with.
The first floor part is a pay-as-you-go social insurance system contributed by the employer and the employer. Although it is an income proportional pension, the minimum amount is set... Since 1948, all citizens are obliged to join, and about 2% of the tax revenue has been invested..
Swedish Ministry of Health and Social PolicyHas jurisdiction.Pay-as-you-go systemIncome-related pension (Pension insurance) And the auxiliary by means testMinimum guaranteed pensionIt is a combination of (general tax resources).. The minimum guaranteed pension must have a residence history of 3 years or more and will not be paid if the monthly income exceeds 18 yen..
Since the 2000s, the number of births in South Korea has dropped sharply.It took 157 years for France to move to a super-aging society, but there is an analysis that it only takes 27 years for South Korea, and the environment surrounding the pension system is becoming more severe.On the other hand, the reform of the pension system has not progressed, and the financial calculation of the pension revised in 2018 shows that the birth rate is 1.24 to 1.38, and the future remains optimistic. The birth rate in 2020 is 0.84, which is far below the precondition, and recovery is not expected in the future, so it is predicted that the system will collapse in the future..
Republic of China(Taiwan) Is under the jurisdiction of the Labor and Labor Insurance Bureau.National pension insurance(National Pension), employee pension (old system), and worker-work leave (2004-) exist. The old system is a transitional measure and new members cannot join..
Has jurisdiction. Composed of three compulsory national pension insurance, corporate pension, and private pension.. The national pension is split between the employer and the employer, the insurance premium in 2015 is 18.7%, and there is a reduction system for low-income earners... The age at which people started receiving benefits was 65 years old, but it is expected to be raised to 67 years old.. In addition to insurance premiums, 24% of national funding is also provided..
FranceAs of 2019, in addition to the general pension plan in which employees of private companies participateCivil servantSpecial system (see below),Agriculture:employee,self employedThere are 42 pension systems for each occupation such as persons. The amount of salary received by employees of private companies is calculated based on the average salary of the highest salary for 25 years, but civil servants calculate based on the average salary of 6 months before retirement. The period is different and complicated.
Public employee special pension system
Of the French civil servants,French railway,Paris Transport Authority,French Electricity Authority, France Gas Corporation, miners,OperaStaff have been regarded as heavy laborers. The employees of these public companies have a shorter period for paying the pension contribution than private employees, and are able to start receiving pensions under the age of 55. Naturally, the pension system cannot be maintained only for the working generation's payments, and it depends on subsidies from the national treasury, and the elimination of the special system for specified public employees has become an issue for successive governments. However, there is a great deal of repulsion from the civil servants, mainly civil servants, to the reforms, and a large-scale strike (eg:French strike (1995)) Is generated.
|National pension(1st floor)|
|No. 1 insured||1,575 million people|
|No. 2 insured||4,266 million people|
|No. 3 insured||889 million people|
|Employee pension (2nd floor)|
|Welfare pension insurance||4,267 million people|
|Civil servants, etc.||(426 people)|
|Other optional pensions|
|National Pension Fund / Defined contribution pension(401k)|
/ Defined benefit pension / Employees' pension fund
Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareHas jurisdiction. The following are compulsory enrollment in the public pension, and the universal pension has been achieved.
- Basic pension (fixed contribution type)- National pensionAs the government is in charge.
- Employee pension (income proportional pension)-Government-controlledEmployee pensionWhen,Mutual aid associationThe counselor's pension coexisted,2015It was unified into the employee pension in (27).
- No. 1 insured person-- self employedParticipants: 400 million, unemployed: 700 million, part-time employees: 600 million, others: 600 million
- No. 2 Insured-Welfare pension: 3,300 million, various mutual aid pensions: 500 million
- No. 3 Insured-No. 2 InsuredSupportspouse: 1,100
In addition, the following private pension systems exist and are tax exempt.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Koichi Hiraoka "Social Welfare Studies" Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., December 2011, Chapt.12.ISBN 9784641053762.
- ^ Minoru Morota "Banker of the Spanish Royal Family," Part 29 Kanagawa University Business and Economics, Vol. 1, No. 44, p.XNUMX.
- ^ a b c OECD 2015, p. 46.
- ^ Social Security Programs Throughout the World
- ^ Pension Watch
- ^ Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (February 2016, 2), “Cabinet quality XNUMX, No. XNUMX, Hiroshi Ogushi, member of the House of Representatives, submitted a response to a question regarding the operational status of the pension fund on the first floor in foreign countries” (Press Release), House of Representatives
- ^ a b OECD 2015, Executive Summary.
- ^ OECD 2015, p. 48.
- ^ OECD 2015, p. 49,50.
- ^ a b c d OECD 2015, p. 58.
- ^ Nobuko Katayama (2008-10). “International Comparison of Social Security Finance: Benefit Levels and Financial Resources Structure". reference (National Diet Library) 58 (10): 73-103.
- ^ 
- ^ United States Railroad Retirement Board
- ^ Ensuring your retirement savings last as long as you do 
- ^ "Mr. Obama retires to pension life What are the treatments?”. CNN (July 2017, 1). April 2018, 2Browse.
- ^ “State Pension coverage: Lower Earnings Limit and multiple jobs” (Press release), Ministry of Labor and Pension, (November 2013)
- ^ a b 2011-2012 Overseas Situation Report (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2013-03). P. 240 .
- ^ a b “British public and private pension reform”. Overseas social security research (National Institute of Population and Social Security) 169. (2009) .
- ^ OECD 2015.
- ^ a b National Institute of Population and Social Security Research 2011, p. 273.
- ^ ""Pension start 62 years old" turmoil in the Italian economy”. 2019-06-13 President Online (June 2019, 6). April 2019, 6Browse.
- ^ Report on medical and social welfare services in Singapore (Report). Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan External Trade Organization. (2014-01) .
- ^ a b National Institute of Population and Social Security Research 2011, p. 272.
- ^ “The average monthly pension of the Korean pension is 4.4 yen, which is 4.7 yen less than the welfare”(July 2014, 2) April 2014, 3Browse.
- ^ ""Korean national pension is a de facto fraud" ... The next president of the pension society is shocked”. JoongAng Ilbo (July 2021, 6). April 2021, 6Browse.
- ^ Taiwan retirement age system (Report). JETRO. (2016-01) .
- ^ Aegon, 'Pension provision in Germany: the first and second pillars in focus'
- ^ a b c d Actuarial Division, Pension Bureau (2016-08). Financial verification of the German public pension (Report). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare .
- ^ "French government concession plan to strike-supporting opera dancers”. AFP (July 2019, 12). April 2019, 12Browse.
- ^ "42 pension system, aim to unify by summer 2020”. JETRO (June 2019, 9). April 2019, 12Browse.
- ^ "Fierce opposition to president's social reform proposal, strikes one after another”. Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (November 2007). April 2019, 12Browse.
- ^ "White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare 30"Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2018, Documents .
- ^ With the unification of the employee pension system, public employees and private school faculty members also joined the welfare pension from October 2015, 10.In addition, the occupational addition portion of the mutual aid pension has been abolished, and a new retirement pension benefit has been created.However, for the period of participation in the mutual aid pension until September 1, 2015, the occupational area addition portion will be paid according to the participation period even after October 9.
- ^ Sourced from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Yomiuri Shimbun evening edition, October 2007, 10, 18nd edition, 2 pages.
- Pensions at a Glance 2015, OECD, (2015), two:10.1787 / pension_glance-2015-en, ISBN 9789264249189
- "Special Feature: 50 Years of Social Security: Significance and Challenges of Universal Insurance/PensionVol. 47, No. 3,National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, February 2011.
- HMG (UK Government) (Kenzo Kashino"New welfare contract British ambition"Tezukayama UniversityPublication 2008
- Parliamentary pension
- Corporate warrior
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- Pension # etymology
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