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“I wanted to change the stereotype that headphones must be colorful to make a statement.
 

Released on August 3 in a total of three neutral colors August 8, 16 Apple Japan, Inc. … → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    Fixed concept

    Headphones

    Headphones or headphone(British: headphone (s)),Earphones or earphone(British: earphone (s))It is,Playback device,Receiving machineOutput fromelectoronic signals,ear(eardrum)Pronouncing body close to(speakerSuch)UsingSound wave(Audible sound)ToconversionToElectroacoustic transducerA combination of equipment.

    Overview

    Headphones in general(headphone)And earphones do not have a clear division common to the whole world, and both are continuous, but there is a division according to technical standards.

    audioAs usual, there are large differences in performance, quality, and expressiveness for each product.This is because the design is changed according to the application.For example, even if you take only monitor headphones, "for studio monitor" "Minus onefor""LocationThere are products tailored to each[1]When it comes to listening, it is designed in every way according to the expected taste.

    Technical definition

    Electronic information technology industry standardHas the following definition[2]..In addition, the electronic information technology industry standard andJapanese Industrial Standard, General Incorporated Foundation [3]Then, it is written as "headphone" and "earphone".[2][4].

    earphone
    Earphones are "electroacoustic converters that convert electrical signals into acoustic signals and are used acoustically close to the ears" (Electronic Information Technology Industries Standard JEITA RC-8140C 3 (1)).[2].
    headphone
    Headphones are "a combination of one or two earphones and a headband or chin band" (Standard 1 (2)).[2].
    headset
    What is a headset? "Sounds the wearer's voice.Microphone"Headphones with built-in" (Standard 3 (3))[2].
    Ear set
    What is an ear set? "Sounds the wearer's voice.Microphone"Earphones with built-in" (Standard 3 (4))[2].

    In addition, Japan in the pastNHKThe standard does not distinguish between earphones and headphones, and those with a headband and a shape that can be applied to both earsBinaural headphoneAnd furtherstereoMold,monauralWas divided as a type[5].

    Technical classification

    Since the technical definition due to the difference in shape was explained in the above "Technical definition", in this section as well, we will first explain the classification according to the difference in shape, and then follow the method of transmitting sound to the human outer ear. Explain the classification, and finally the core part#Classification by the principle of the converter(Note that the difference in the principle of the converter explained at the end has the greatest effect on sound quality, and is actually the most important difference).

    Classification by overall shape

    Ear cover type (headband type to lightweight open air)

    The ear cover shape is a shape that largely covers the ears and creates a sufficient cavity when worn.[2].

    • Headband type
      A headband is placed on the head. Also called "overhead type". Until the 1970s, the style of wearing headphones was limited to the form of the headband.[6]..It adheres well to the ears, and many of the closed types do not easily leak sound.However, it is easy to be shunned because it is bulky when carried and the hairstyle is disturbed.There is also a foldable type.
    • Lightweight open air
      It was a very lightweight model released in 1979, and it became an opportunity to create a culture of taking music outdoors.[6].


    Intraconca type (in-ear type, inner ear type)

    The intraconca type is used by fitting it into the concha cavity, and is designed so that the acoustic output hole is near the ear canal.[2]..The one that fits in the ear canal cavity was developed in 1982 and was also called the in-ear type, and later became so popular that it occupied most of the headphone market.[6].

    Supra Conca type

    The Supra Conca shape is designed to be used on a ridge around the concha cavity.[2].

    Ear-mounted type (neckband type)

    The ear-mounted type is used by placing it on the outside of the ear and placing it on the earlobe.[2].. It was released in 1997 and is commonly known as the neckband type.[6](SonyFirst adopted in the MDR-G1997 released in 61).A method in which the headband, which is usually overhead, is located behind the neck.SennheiserAlso sells this type of headphones.

    The advantage is that the headband does not hold down the head, so you do not have to worry about the hairstyle breaking even if you wear it, and you can wear a hat.It doesn't get in the way while exercising.The disadvantage is that it is tightly tightened when worn to prevent the headphone body from falling off, and the headband may get in the way if you are wearing a muffler or hooded clothing.

    Auricle type (ear hook type, ear hanger type, clip type)

    The pinna hook type is designed to be used by hanging it on the ear.[2]..Also called ear hanger type[6]..There is also a model in which the cord is stored in the housing, which is extremely compact and convenient to carry, despite the large diaphragm area compared to the inner ear type.However, since it is hooked on the helix, it is difficult to adhere to the concha cavity and sound leaks easily.If you use it for a long timeAuricleMay cause pain.There are many products that emphasize fashion, such as those in pastel colors and those with plated accents.

    Insertion type (canal type)

    Insert earphonesExternal auditory canalUsed by inserting into (ear canal)[2].. The ear canal insertion type released in 1999 is commonly known as the canal inner type (canal type).[6]..Canal inner type (canal type) became mainstream from around 2002[6].

    Many of them are closed type due to their structure, and their sound insulation performance is relatively good, so you can enjoy music even in places with a little loud noise.Whether it fits your ears or not depends on the individual, and it greatly affects the sound quality and fit.Therefore, the ear canal insertion part is a removable part (earpiece), and many products come with multiple parts of different sizes.If the part to be inserted into the ear canal is made of rubber and has a large friction, the headphones are harder to come off from the ear than the inner ear type.Although it has high sound insulation from the outside, it has the disadvantage that body sounds such as one's snorting, vibration when walking, or the rubbing sound of a cord are significantly amplified depending on the product and individual differences.[7], There are also products that have measures against the rubbing noise of the cord.In recent years, it has been sold one after another by each manufacturer.In addition, depending on the person, the degree of sealing constantly fluctuates due to the movement of the temporomandibular joint due to the opening and closing of the mouth, so that the volume may fluctuate unpleasantly when used while talking.Therefore, especially when it is used hands-free such as on a smartphone, or when singing while listening to music, it may be very difficult to hear or it may make you feel sick.It has been pointed out that the sound insulation is high and it is extremely difficult to hear the sound of the outside world, so it is difficult to notice the approach of a car etc. and it may endanger the user himself / herself.[8].

    Classification by acoustic connection with the ear canal

    Acoustic junctions with the ear canal are classified into open and closed types.[2]..The structure of headphones can be roughly divided into two types according to the difference in the principle method of reverse phase sound processing, and each has the following characteristics.

    Open type (open air)
    The back of the sounding part is open.It is a type that diffuses and processes 180 ° phase-inverted sound waves (opposite phase sound) generated from the back side of the diaphragm in an infinitely wide space.So-called speaker box (enclosure), It is a rear open (dipole) type.In principle, only one thin diaphragm can block the outside sound, so the outside sound can be heard well.Generally, the treble is good and the extension is not muffled, but the bass is a little weak.This is because the reverse phase sound of the bass is diffracted better than that of the treble, so that it wraps around more on the front side and cancels the positive phase sound of the bass more strongly.In order to obtain clear and strong bass, it is necessary to improve the sound insulation of the part that separates the front and back of the sounding part such as the ear pad.Another drawback is that the sound leakage is large.
    Closed type
    The back of the sounding part is sealed.It is a type that internally attenuates and extinguishes the reverse phase sound generated from the back side of the diaphragm.So-called speaker box (enclosure), It is a closed type or a bass reflex type.Unlike speakers, headphones cannot have a sufficient volume (space) on the back, so if the sound generator is weak, the movement of the diaphragm is restricted, and a jammed sound with less bass (muffled sound). It is easy to become.For this reason, the dynamic type uses a strong magnet for the sounding device, or is compatible with the bass reflex type.Since it has high sound insulation, it is preferably used when it is important to block external sounds.Since it often blocks the sound of the headphones themselves, it is used for headphones used in public places, and (microphoneSince the headphones are close to each other, unnecessary monitor sounds tend to be picked up.) It is also used regularly for monitors such as vocal recordings.

    If you make it ideally like headphones for hearing measurement, both open type and closed type will have "same sound".Generally speaking, the "sound tendency" is intentionally created.for exampleSennheiserThe open-type headphones emphasize the bass,audio-TechnicaSealed headphones tend to sound with emphasized treble, which is mostly due to the different ideas of each manufacturer, that is, the different customer needs of each manufacturer.Since computer simulation has been incorporated into headphone design, sound trends have been fine-tuned to suit customer needs.Also, only the sounds of the representative models of each manufacturer are taken up, and it is often thought that they are "manufacturer's habits", but in reality, even if they are from the same manufacturer, the sounds are almost completely different depending on the model. So, in many cases, you can't understand the tendency of sound without listening to it.In addition, sound insulation and sound leakage are not necessarily high because they are sealed.This is because, for example, there is a "semi-open type", but it is classified as a closed type.

    Classification by the principle of the converter

    In the converter principle,PiezoelectricClassified into shapes, shapes, shapes, etc.[2].

    Dynamic type

    dynamicspeakerWith the same structure asmagnetIn the coil (voice coil, voice coil) in which voice current flows in the magnetic field created byLorentz forceOccurred and attached to the coilDiaphragmIt is a method to vibrate.The dynamic type can be designed to make the Lorentz force linear with respect to the current, and when there is no current, no force is generated in the coil and the support of the vibration system can be softened, so low distortion and a wide reproduction frequency band can be achieved at the same time. It is an excellent method.Due to its principle structure, it is also suitable for inexpensive mass production, so it is now the most common method for headphones.[9].

    The world's first dynamic headphones1937,GermanyMade by Eugen Beyer.Even nowbeyerdynamicIs one of the major manufacturers.

    ImpedanceIs generally about 16 to 70Ω, but there are also 300Ω and 600Ω for professional headphones.[10][11]..There is no clear standard due to the design concept of the manufacturer, but the ones that exceed 32Ω are considered to have high impedance.[12], Built in the headphone amplifier according to the impedance of the headphone by switching the switchAttenuatorThere are also products that connect to.

    The higher the impedance, the lower the actual output volume tends to be, even with the same volume without changing the device.[11]..Therefore, the ones for portable use are generally low impedance up to about 64Ω.[13]..High-impedance headphones are less susceptible to external influences from connected devices such as amplifiers and cables.[12], Low output portable devices may not be able to demonstrate the original capabilities of headphones due to insufficient driving force.[14]..The impedance of the headphones is specified by the IEC to indicate the impedance when 1 (kHz) alternating current is applied. If it is a typical dynamic type, it is R + jX, so the frequency is lower than this. At low frequencies (for example, when direct current is applied, only the pure resistance component R is obtained), it becomes high at high frequencies.

    Piezoelectric type

    thinPiezoelectricBy sandwiching it between two metal plates and applying audio voltage to it.Piezoelectric effect(Piezo effect) Is a method of generating vibration.Since the impedance is too high to match with a normal amplifier, it is necessary to use a dedicated device to operate it.As of 2021, the manufacturers that are producing are inferior to the dynamic type in terms of distortion and reproduction frequency band.Radius(Doburube) only.PiezoelectricRochelle saltIf so, crystal type, piezoelectricceramicIf so, it will be a ceramic type.

    Magnetic type

    A method in which an electric current is passed through a fixed coil attached to a magnet to change the attractive force of the magnet and vibrate an iron piece that also serves as a diaphragm.Since the attractive force is non-linear, distortion is likely to occur, and it is necessary to firmly support the vibration system so that the iron pieces are not attracted to the magnet, which has a drawback in principle that the frequency band is narrowed.

    The simplest and sound qualityvoiceIt is often distinguished from headphones because it is the bare minimum for recognizing information.Generally, it is a one-ear monaural earphone, in which case a rounded opening is inserted into the ear canal for several millimeters.It is easy to fall off because it is only supported at the entrance of the ear canal.

    Balanced armature type

    It is almost the same as the magnetic type, but while the magnetic type uses the iron piece directly as a diaphragm, this is an iron piece (armature,Armature) Is transmitted to the diaphragm with a thin rod (drive rod) to vibrate.A structure similar to that used for individual listening to television and radio until dynamic speakers became widespread.[15] It has become.

    Compared to the dynamic type, the attractive force is non-linear, so distortion is likely to occur, and it is necessary to firmly support the vibration system so that the iron pieces do not attract to the magnet, so there is a drawback in principle that the frequency band becomes narrower. be.However, since it is easier to miniaturize than the dynamic type, the ear canal insertion type requires miniaturization rather than sound quality.hearing aidIt is often used for such purposes.

    In-ear monitorIn the high-end type, products have been developed that have some improvements in principle, such as narrow frequency bands, by dividing them into dedicated drivers for each band such as low frequency, mid frequency, and high frequency.

    Electrostatic type

    Also called capacitor type or electrostatic type[16]..Place a thin conductor film (vibration film) in the immediate vicinity of the dorsal pole (stator).DC voltage on the vibrating membrane (biasWhen a voltage) is applied and an AC voltage of voice is applied to the back electrode, the vibrating membrane vibrates due to the change in electrostatic force.Normally, two dorsal poles are prepared and a vibrating membrane is placed between them (push-pull method).Make a hole in the back pole to allow air to flow.Since the electrostatic force linear with respect to the voltage is generated almost uniformly on the entire surface of the vibrating membrane, the strain is low and the strain is low.Frequency characteristicIt has the feature that it is less likely to cause harmful effects.The electrostatic type requires a high voltage and is not a resistance load, so a dedicated amplifier is required.

    First commercializedStaxIs a company specializing in the manufacture of electrostatic headphones and dedicated headphone amplifiers (at the company).Ear speakerNotation)[16].

    Crystal type

    In the first place, it utilizes the inverse piezoelectric effect of Rochelle salt.Rochelle salt is a substance with a positive piezoelectric effect, and the crystal earphones are crystal as they are.MicrophoneIt also becomes.Rochelle salt expands and contracts due to the electric field.Because of this, high input impedance can be used to generate sound with weak power, so the initial stageOre radioIt was an indispensable earphone in such cases.Until recently, it was manufactured for learning materials, but for Rochelle saltHygroscopicityIn recent years, most of them are ceramic type even if they are called "crystal (earphone)" because of the difficulty in durability. As of 2021, no manufacturer manufactures earphones and microphones using Rochelle salt.

    Connection with audio equipment

    Wired method

    Headphones are usuallyPhone plug (and phone jack)It can be connected to audio equipment using (a type of connector).for exampleWalkman,iPodSuch asDigital audio player,Media player,Mobile phone-Smartphone,CDplayer,computer,Component stereo.

    The connection terminal is a stationary typeComponent stereoIn the case of, originally exclusively with a diameter of 6.3 mmStereo plug (connector)However, in the connection to portable audio and small stereo devices that appeared after that, a 3.5 mm stereo mini plug (connector) is often used, and in some cases, even smaller dedicated terminals are used. There are some.Also, in order to support both mini plugs and standard plugs, many headphones come with a conversion plug from the beginning.

    For some of the wired headphones,D / A converterSome are built-in and can be connected with a digital terminal (digital audio cable). In addition to playing from a DVD player without using an amplifier, you can connect it to a computer sound card or on-board digital terminal, or use a computer.USB terminal,iPhone OfLightning terminalThere are products to connect to.

    Wireless system

    As of 2018, in order to physically separate the headphones (listener side) and the audio equipment that were connected by the cable,FM modulationAtanalogtransmission,Bluetooth,Wi-Fi,InfraredSuch asWireless communicationThere is also a cordless (wireless) version using.Such a type is equipped with an electronic circuit that demodulates the audio signal and requires power supply, so it is on the headphone side.Primary batteryOrSecondary batteryWill be built-in, and the weight or volume tends to increase.

    Bluetooth headphones(Bluetooth headphones) AndBluetooth earphonesThis is a kind of wireless communication that does not use wires (cords) to connect to playback equipment.BluetoothIs used.Use by pairing connection.There is a merit that the cord is not entangled and is refreshing.On the other hand, there are the following disadvantages because it uses wireless.

    • Sound skipping occurs due to interference etc. depending on the radio wave condition[17]
    • Audio compressionIt uses technology and is disadvantageous in terms of sound quality.To be clear, the sound quality is poor (the sound quality is so bad that people who are particular about sound quality can't stand it)
    • Delays occur due to data compression processing in the process of wireless communication[18] Therefore, if you use it when playing a video or playing a game, there may be a gap between the video and audio.
    • ChargingThere is a need to
    • Wireless earphones are easy to lose.

    Precautions for use

    Causes deafness

    If you use headphones at a loud volume, you may damage your ears.DeafnessMay cause.It may be short-term, but1th 100DecibelLong-term deafness just by listening to the above sounds (only) for 15 minutes or moreIt is said that the possibility of becoming is considerably high.Deafness caused by headphonesHeadphones deafness(It is also called "noise-induced hearing loss" in the sense that the volume heard with headphones is too loud).Hair cells in the deepest part of the ear, the part that converts sound waves into electrical signals for nerves[19]A part of the row where is lined up is destroyed.Hair cells do not regenerate, so if you repeat listening at a loud volume, the destruction of hair cells will gradually "accumulate" and the number of destroyed hair cells will increase steadily.Deafness caused by loud sounds will not heal for the rest of your life (be careful, as destroyed hair cells never heal, unlike easily healed skin scratches).

    A miserable musician and artist who loses his hearing, which should be an important commercial tool, in the middle of his career by raising the volume of headphones too much (and also raising the volume of monitor speakers too much on the stage). There are endless cases.Also, even if you are not a musician, if you are a young person and have a habit of listening to music with earphones at a loud volume, if you continue to do so for a few years, there is a high probability that you will have considerable deafness.What happens is that you mess with the volume and raise the volume in search of volume stimulation. → When the volume exceeds a certain level (without even noticing it), the auditory nerve temporarily causes mild paralysis (that is, short-term deafness) → (subjectively) It feels as if the sound has become quieter. Thinking about it, I just messed with the volume and raised the volume more → The degree of deafness increased more and more .... A vicious cycle easily occurred, and even if I inadvertently listened to it at a loud volume for several tens of minutes, the damage (healing for a lifetime etc.) No damage) accumulates in the deepest part of the ear.

    If ordinary bigspeakerWhen I was listening to music, people around me noticed something and said, "Hey! Hey! It's funny, is it okay ?? It's abnormally loud! You should turn down the volume." It will stop, but if you listen with earphones or headphones, people around you will not notice it even if it is abnormally loud, it will be left unattended, and no one will stop it, so it will produce disastrous results. It tends to be.

    Therefore, when using headphones or earphones, never try to increase the volume steadily in search of "stimulation" of the volume.When listening with earphones or headphones, it is safe to "(always) consciously listen at a low volume".

    Headphones deafnessSee also.

    It may be difficult to hear outside sounds and cause a traffic accident.

    Also, if you use it while driving or exercising, there is a high possibility that external sounds will be blocked and you will not notice the surrounding situation.Traffic accidentIs more likely to cause.

    In particular, the canal type produces sound in terms of shape.EarplugTherefore, it has the characteristic that it is difficult to hear outside voice, which easily leads to an accident.

    Because of such danger, many municipalities prohibit wearing earphones or headphones while driving (four-wheeled vehicles and motorcycles are of course prohibited, and bicycles are also light vehicles and are driving. Do not wear earphones, especially both ears.)[20].. (It should be noted that while driving, it is better to realize that "if you do not hear the sound, you will be involved in an accident", but in reality, "a person outside the problem who does not hear the surrounding sounds will cause a traffic accident". good.)

    Ear canal mycosis, etc.

    With long-term use of earphones and headphonesExternal auditory canalWhen the humidity stays in your earsMoldOtomycosis of the ear canal (otitis externaCauses a type of)[21].

    Also, especially in the case of the canal type, if the earpiece is loosely attached, the earpiece part may remain in the ear canal when removing the main body, and in the worst case手術It will also be taken out with.

    Deterioration of pad

    The pad part that touches the ear is the materialPolyurethaneIs affected by sweating and body temperatureHydrolysisHowever, it deteriorates to pieces within a few years.Replacement pads are commercially available for some products, so it's a good idea to replace them when they deteriorate.[22].

    Comparison with stereo speakers

    The difference in the playback experience using headphones and stereo speakers is the sound image.PositioningAnd it is a sense of reality.

    In the first place, stereo is a reproduction method devised for the human auditory system, which allows the brain to "calculate" the difference between the sounds that reach the two ears and specify the position of the sound source.

    Stereo is geometric, that is, there are many concrete methods, but for example, after ideally recording the sound from one sounding body with multiple ideal microphones, the sounding body is removed, exactly the same as each microphone. If the ideal speaker is placed in the position and the sound pressure is exactly the same as when recording, the sound field can be reproduced exactly the same.This is due to exactly the same sound, and does not utilize the human illusion as in the pseudo-stereo described later, so the sound from each speaker is recognized as a natural sound for humans, and individual differences (especially sound image). There is little deviation).

    Headphones, on the other hand, have a sounding body in the immediate vicinity of the eardrum, which is a reproduction method that cannot occur in nature. It varies greatly depending on the individual.Even when listening to the exact same recording material using the exact same headphones, some people feel that there is no difference when compared to the speakers, while others feel that the sounds are disjointed and cannot be heard. ..

    The former, the localization obtained when using stereo speakers is called "out-of-head localization", and the localization obtained when using headphones is called "in-head localization". Normal stereo material is called "out-of-head localization", that is, by speakers. I made it with the idea of ​​listening.

    Therefore, a well-set stereo speaker reproduces an excellent sense of localization and a sense of realism.However, this is not the case if the set is not good, and the sound quality and experience are greatly affected by the placement of the speakers and the surrounding environment.Also, at the listening point, if you do not play back so that the sound pressure is the same as when recording, you will not get the same level of realism, which may cause problems with neighborhood noise, and how to build a listening room. There's a problem.In addition, a solid stereo speaker = a speaker close to the ideal speaker is expensive, and it may exceed 100 million yen.

    On the other hand, headphones have long been devised so that the headphone localization is close to the speaker's in-head localization so that the same realistic feeling as the speaker can be obtained (the same applies to the new type of headphones described later). However, as mentioned above, it is still difficult to absorb large individual differences, so it has not been realized even as of 2014.However, headphones are characterized by being able to be used for general purposes regardless of ambient conditions, and being relatively inexpensive and easy to obtain satisfactory sound quality.

    In particular, the pseudo-stereo sound source in a record or the like makes it sound as if the sound image is localized at an arbitrary point on the straight line connecting the speakers by simply changing the volume on the left and right, that is, it uses the illusion of a human being. ..Therefore, this also requires distance from the device, echo in the room, etc., and is often not suitable for headphone playback.

    For this reason, it is said that headphones can be used to feel a sound field that is close to the actual sound field, similar to stereo speaker playback.Binaural recording) Sound source, etc., sounds as if you were thereThree-dimensional soundEtc. have also been announced.Although its effect is limited so far, it has gained a certain degree of popularity and is often used for recording so-called natural sounds such as forest sounds.

    New headphones

    Surround headphones

    Since conventional headphones generally have the feeling that the sound is in the head, there may be a sense of discomfort when watching a movie.But nowDolbyUsing surround technology such asSurroundHeadphones have been developed and are gaining popularity as a convenient surround environment.With many surround headphonesInfrared,Radio waveIn many cases, the cordless system is also used.In 1998, Sony released the first 5.1ch surround headphones MDR-DS5.1, which can reproduce 5000ch surround even with ordinary headphones.Since then, Dolby has developed a "Dolby Headphone" with similar functions.Since this technology is aimed at 5.1ch playback, it is necessary to use it together with Pro Logic II etc. for stereo audio.

    Quake,Counter strikeRepresented byFPSと 呼 ば れ るComputer gamesIn the genre of, it is important to detect the whereabouts and movements of the enemy from the noise in the game.In this respect, even cheap headphones are superior to the 6-speaker surround system.Headphones have an advantage over speakers, both for knowing the direction of sound and for listening to small sounds.

    Also, for surround headphonesstereoReproduce surround using the characteristics of human hearing from the environmentVirtual surroundThere are headphones and real surround headphones with multiple speakers on the left and right, just like normal surround speakers.In both cases, the sound localization is less clear than stereo headphones due to the characteristics of the headphone product itself, optimization for multi-channel such as games, music, movie sound sources, etc., which are the sources, and the surround and virtual surround functions of sound devices, etc. The impressions tend to vary depending on the application, usage environment, and user.The former is lighter in body, but may require USB or an external surround module.The latter tends to increase in weight due to the large number of speakers, and because the signal line for each channel is required and the cable is thick, the cable is hard and difficult to handle, but in an environment with a multi-channel output environment such as 5.1ch or 7.1ch. If so, there are products that can be used with only the headphones themselves, regardless of whether they are audio or personal computers. As of 2013, there is no clear difference in quality or price between them, and there are differences depending on the usage environment and usage, and the combination of sound sources such as each game and movie.

    Noise canceling headphones

    Opposite to noisephaseBy adding an appropriate amount of the electric signal of the above to the sound source signal, a sound having a phase opposite to the noise is generated, and the noise is canceled to some extent.It has a built-in microphone for picking up ambient noise and an amplifier for amplifying noise signals, and a separate battery is required for this purpose.iPodIt has been gaining popularity in recent years with the spread of such products.2006ToPanasonicAnd SonyDigital audio playerNoise canceling headphones are now included as standard with some of them.

    The noise reduction rate of noise canceling headphones is about 20 dB, which is far short of about 30 to 40 dB of general noise earplugs.In particular, noise canceling headphones are not good at reducing noise in the high frequency range in principle, and the reduction is generally performed only in the low frequency range.Although the noise cannot be completely offset in this way, some effect has been recognized for low-pitched noise in vehicles such as railways and automobiles.In the case of a model that cannot bypass the noise canceling amplifier, the noise signal component (his noise) contained in the output of this amplifier may be anxious in a sufficiently quiet environment.

    Bone conduction headphones

    Headphones that transmit music (or calls, wireless communication, etc.) to the auditory nerve and recognize it as sound by vibrating the skull near the auditory sense and letting it resonate with the cochlea through the bone without going through the eardrum.

    Since each manufacturer does not block your ears, you can listen to the surrounding sounds with your ears and at the same time listen to music (or calls) from the headphones, so it is safe to use outside and you can talk with the surroundings. It appeals to what can be done naturally.

    In addition, since it does not directly enter the ear canal or block the ear, it reduces the burden on the ear and reduces fatigue compared to conventional headphones, and may cause problems such as labyrinthitis and deterioration of hearing function. Sometimes referred to as low[23][24].

    Major manufacturers / brands

    Now

    Past

    • Japanese flag Aiwa(Current:Sony marketing):2002Was absorbed by Sony and was discontinued in 2008.
    • United States flag Imation: In 2007TDKAcquired the recording media sales business of TDK Life on Record, and manufactured and sold it under the "TDK Life on Record" brand, but withdrew in 2015.
    • Japanese flag Toshiba: Development and manufacturing are mainly subsidiariesToshiba LEE TradingWas done, but now it is discontinued.

    Footnotes/references

    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ Sony website ""MDR-Z1000 / EX1000" development secret story Studio monitor MDR-Z1000 | Developer interview, Retrieved August 2013, 8.
    2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "JEITA RC-8140C Headphones and Earphones". Electronic Information Technology Industry Association. 2021/4/17Browse.
    3. ^ "Japan Technical Communicators Association". www.jtca.org. 2021/11/18Browse.
    4. ^ "Foreign word (katakana) notation guideline 3rd edition”. Japan Technical Communicators Association. 2021/1/11Browse.
    5. ^ BTS6141 Japan Broadcasting Corporation.
    6. ^ a b c d e f g "Yukio Tono "Headphone Technology Trends"”. JAS Journal 2013 Vol.53 No.6 (November issue). 2019/1/20Browse.
    7. ^ "Sony "Walkman E series" with high-performance headphones and good sound". BCN ranking. BCN (September 2007, 6). 2010/4/2Browse.
    8. ^ "Canal type headphones". Chiezou 2013. Koto bank. 2013/8/11Browse.
    9. ^ Driver unit(audio-Technica)
    10. ^ ASCII.jp: Try "Sound Blaster ZxR", an essential item for sound quality (2/3)
    11. ^ a b "Headphone impedance”(Japanese). Denon Official Blog (September 2018, 6). 2021/6/10Browse.
    12. ^ a b "What is the "performance" required for headphones and earphones?”. Japan Audio Society. 2021/6/10Browse.
    13. ^ The 2nd Basics of Earphones About Earphone Terms | Japan Management Consultants Association
    14. ^ About the need for a headphone amplifier(Fujiya Avic)
    15. ^ "No.31 Mobile Music and Speaker Technology”(Japanese). TDK Techno Magazine. 2021/6/10Browse.
    16. ^ a b "What is an ear speaker?”(Japanese). STAX (September 2018, 3). 2021/6/10Browse.
    17. ^ Causes of skipping in Bluetooth earphones and countermeasures --- radius official column
    18. ^ About Bluetooth, its sound quality and delay --- Denon Official Blog
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    21. ^ "Mold in the ear? What is ear canal tomycosis?”. Mainichi Shimbun. 2019/6/12Browse.
    22. ^ Shinobu Kaijo (March 2021, 3). “Headphone pads are tattered ... the cause”. PHILE WEB (Ongen Publishing). https://www.phileweb.com/review/column/202103/10/1231.html 2021/3/13Browse. 
    23. ^ "May 2019, 05 (Tuesday) How to prevent "smartphone deafness"?”. NHK. 2021/1/11Browse. “If you use“ bone conduction ”earphones, you can easily listen to them without raising the volume excessively, so it may be effective as a preventive measure against deafness. ”
    24. ^ "Increased ear troubles due to "use of earphones" in telework?Asked the otolaryngologist who posted the signs of danger and what to do about them”. FNN Prime Online Editorial Department. 2021/1/11Browse.

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