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📢 | The new "Thymesia Cloud Version" from Team17 is a Ubitus cloud game ...


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Team 17's new work "Thymesia Cloud Version" is a Ubitus cloud game...

 
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Users can enjoy the AAA gaming experience on a variety of devices (terminals) such as smartphones, tablets, game consoles, smart TVs, mobiles, or PCs with broadband connections.
 

Ubitus Co., Ltd. (Ubitus), the world's leading cloud gaming technology provider, has... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    device (terminal)

    Broadband internet connection

    Broadband internet connection(Broadband Internet,English: Broadband Internet access; BIA) Is capable of high-capacity communicationインターネットRefers to connection services.

    米 国Federal Communications Commission(FCC) defines broadband as downlink 2021Mbps / uplink 11Mbps from November 100.[1].. on the other hand,(English editionAccording to the (GAO) interview, even a small business needs a minimum of 100 Mbps downlink / 25 Mbps uplink.[2]In addition,Electronic Frontier FoundationHas issued an opinion that the speed should be increased to about 100 Mbps for both uplink and downlink.[3].

    In Japan, uplink / downlink 30Mbps is defined as ultra-high-speed broadband (#Definition of speedreference).

    Broadband antonymNarrow bandAnd the narrow band has a low capacityDial-up connection,ISDN,PHSMeans such as.Low capacityADSLEtc. are also called narrow bands[4].Between broadband and narrowband is called

    Outline

    the 1980sHigh-speed lines have high line charges and connection charges (512 yen or more per month), communication speed of 1.5 kbps to 6 Mbps, XNUMX Mbps to tens of Mbps in special casesDigital line(Optical fiber),large company,computersRelationCompany, Even more advancedUniversity-ResearchIt was used by the institution.

    Other corporations/organizations and individuals, etc.analogtelephone linemodem,ISDNLow bandwidth (several tens to 128 kbps)Dial-up connectionWas using the service.

    the 1990s, ExistingTwisted pair cableCommunication lineUsing,soundHigh, not a voice signalfrequencyAnd communicate with high-band electric signalsDSLAndCable TV Ofcoaxial cableCommunication service usingDOCSIS) Was developed.

    the 2000sThe optical fiber can be directly or indirectly led to the user's home.FTTH-FTTAlso started laying.Broadcast on optical fiberOptical broadcastingAppeared and competed with cable TV, and cable TV graduallyFTTHConvert toTelecommunications carrierCATV operatorThe difference was filled.

    the 2010sIntroduced a 10Gbps service for home use by FTTH.Also, slow ISDN and ADSL have been announced to be terminated due to maintenance cost issues.[5][6],Digital cable TVAlso the coaxial cable equipment is aging[Note 1]Goes on[7][8][9]Instead, optical lines became widespread.

    the 2020sThe optical line is scheduled to be a universal service.

    the term

    Broadband originally meant a wide frequency band.For example, even before the generalization of home-use data communication, cable TV companies were able to provide services beyond cable TV broadcasting by using a broadband communication system (broadband communication system).

    Then in the 1980sEthernet2.0 is here,coaxial cableHas come to be used for data communication as well, but with a narrow band baseband coaxial cable, only half-duplex communication of up to 50 Mbps was possible.[10]On the other hand, wideband broadband coaxial cables enabled full-duplex communication of up to several hundred Mbps.[10].

    In 1988, wideband and high speed centered on optical fiber(English edition (B-ISDN) specification ITU-T Rec. I.121 is now available[11],TraditionalTwisted pair cableThe central narrowband, slow ISDN became known as the narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN).[12]..In this I.121, broadband ISDN is defined not by the width of the frequency band but by the speed of transmission speed.[12]After that, the line with high communication speed was called broadband, and the line with low communication speed was called narrow band.

    Later, it is said that US cable TV companies began to use the term broadband for Internet connections.[13].

    Definition of speed

    The speed called broadband is increasing year by year.In early Internet connections, speeds below broadband ISDN (156Mbps or 622Mbps) as well as narrowband ISDN (1.544Mbps or 2.048Mbps)[12]) It was also called broadband at the following speeds.

    For example, the United States in 1999Federal Communications Commission In the (FCC) report FCC 99-5Dial-up connectionBroadband was defined as "downlink 200kbps or higher" that exceeds the speed of[14]However, the report also stated that in the future, technological evolution would "we would consider today's broadband to be a narrow band."[14]..Since then, the definition of broadband has been accelerated in the United States as declared:

    FCC broadband definitionAfter February 1999[14][15]After February 2010[16]After February 2015[17]After February 2021[1]
    Actual descent speed200kbps or more4Mbps or more25Mpbs or more100Mbps or more
    Actual ascending speed200kbps or more1Mbps or more3Mbps or more20Mbps or more

    On the other hand, in Japan, it is said that "512kbps or more" has come to be called broadband in the private sector.[18][19]But in 2001e-JapanIn the strategy, the term broadband is not used, and the one suitable for music download is "high-speed Internet access network" (speed not specified), and the one suitable for large-capacity video download is "ultra-high-speed Internet access network" (30Mbps-100Mbps standard). Stipulated[20][21]..The "ultra-high-speed Internet access network" in the e-Japan strategy at that time was premised on optical fiber, etc.[20]However, a few years later, ADSL and CATV Internet have reached a nominal speed of 30 Mbps or more due to the increase in speed.

    After that, in the "Next Generation Broadband Strategy 2006" in 2010, 30Mbps or more for both uplink and downlink was defined as "ultra-high-speed broadband".[22], In 2010, "Path of Light", ultra-high-speed broadband became simply called "broadband".[23]However, even at that time, the definition of speed remained at the nominal speed.

    When the corona disaster spread and telework and distance education became widespread in 2020, the quality standard of broadband became a problem at the "Study Group on the Ideal Broadband Infrastructure" to consider the universal service of broadband.[24]..However, as of February 2022, 2, the draft quality standard for wired broadband continues to indicate the conventional "upstream / downlink nominal speed of 2 Mbps or higher" as a provisional form.[25].

    Major broadband formats

    Wired broadband

    There are two types of broadband access line provision services, one that uses its own network and one that rents another company's network.There are also services that use both the company's own network and the networks of other companies.The main optical access line provision services using the company's optical fiber network are as follows:

    The regions and maximum speeds of major optical access line providers are as follows (maximum speeds are only part of the region):

    providerHokkaidoTohokuKantoKoshinetsuTokaiHokurikuKansaiChugokuShikokuKyusyuOkinawa
    Communication system
    NTT system(FLET'S Hikari1Gbps[s1]10Gbps[s2][28]1Gbps[s1]10Gbps[s2][29]1Gbps[s1]10Gbps[s2][29]1Gbps[s1]
    KDDIsystem (au Hikari-Commufalight)1Gbps[s3]10Gbps[s4]1Gbps[s3]10Gbps[s5]1Gbps[s3]No1Gbps[s3]1Gbps[s6]
    Sony system(NURO light10Gbps[30]No10Gbps[30]No10Gbps[30]No10Gbps[30]2Gbps (Hiroshima / Okayama)No10Gbps (Fukuoka / Saga) [30]No
    Power system
    Optage(eo lightNoNoNoNoNo10Gbps (Fukui)[31]10Gbps[31]NoNoNoNo
    Energia(Mega Egg)NoNoNoNoNoNoNo1GbpsNoNoNo
    STNet(Pikara lightNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo10Gbps[32]NoNo
    QTnet (BBIQ)NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo10Gbps[33]No
    CATV system
    JCOM (J: COM NET Hikari)1Gbps[34]1Gbps (Sendai)[34]10Gbps[34]NoNoNo10Gbps[34]1Gbps (Shimonoseki)[34]No1Gbps[34]No
    TOKAIsystem[s7]No10Gbps (Sendai)[s8]10Gbps (Kanagawa)[s9]1Gbps (Nagano)[s10]10Gbps (Shizuoka)[s11]NoNo10Gbps (Okayama)[s12]NoNoNo
    CCJsystem (NCT light-CTY light-CNS light-JCV Hikari)NoNoNo10Gbps (Niigata)[s13]10Gbps (Mie)[s14]NoNoNoNoNoNo
    CNCIsystemNoNoNoNo10GbpsNoNoNoNoNoNo
    ZTV (ZTV Hikari)NoNoNoNo1Gbps (Mie)No10Gbps (Kyotanba Town)[35]
    1Gbps (Other)
    NoNoNoNo
    Azumino TVNoNoNo10Gbps (Nagano)NoNoNoNoNoNoNo
    San'in Cable VisionNoNoNoNoNoNoNo10Gbps (Shimane)[s15]NoNoNo
    Okinawa Cable NetworkNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo2Gbps[s16]
    Railway system
    Tokyusystem[s17] (Shinagawa Hikari-It's com Hikari)NoNo10Gbps (Shinagawa)[36]
    2Gbps (Tokyo / Kanagawa)
    NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
    Kintetsusystem[s18] (K Broad Hikari)NoNoNoNoNoNo10Gbps[37][38][39][s19]NoNoNoNo
    Hanshin Electric Railwaysystem (Baycom light)NoNoNoNoNoNo1Gbps (Hyogo / Osaka)NoNoNoNo
    providerHokkaidoTohokuKantoKoshinetsuTokaiHokurikuKansaiChugokuShikokuKyusyuOkinawa
    1. ^ a b c d FLET'S Hikari Giga Family / Giga Mansion
    2. ^ a b c FLET'S Hikari Cross
    3. ^ a b c d au Hikari Home 1 Giga / Mansion Giga
    4. ^ au Hikari 10G
    5. ^ Chubu Telecommunications"Commufa Hikari 10 Giga Home"
    6. ^ Okinawa Cellular Phone"Au Hikari Chura Home" "au Hikari Chura Mansion Giga"
    7. ^ Not only "TOKAI Cable Network" but also "TOKAI Cable Network"Sendai CATV""Atsugi Isehara Cable Network""L sea buoy""Toko Channel Shizuoka”And so on.
    8. ^ Sendai CATV"Cat Vi Hikari 10 Giga"
    9. ^ Atsugi Isehara Cable Network"Ayu Net Hikari 10G"
    10. ^ L sea buoy"Hikari de Net 1G Course"
    11. ^ TOKAI cable networkas well as the Toko Channel Shizuoka"Hikari de Net 10G"
    12. ^ Kurashiki Cable TV"Hikari 10G Service" (planned)
    13. ^ N.C.T."NCT Hikari 10G" (Joetsu Cable Vision"JCV Hikari" is up to 1Gbps)
    14. ^ Cty W"CTY Hikari 10G Course" andCable net suzuka"CNS Hikari 10G Course"
    15. ^ Marble Net 10G Course
    16. ^ Hikari Nirai
    17. ^ "Cable TV Shinagawa""It's Communications""Izukyu Cable Network"including.
    18. ^ "Kintetsu Cable Network"(KCN) as well as the affiliated"KCN Kyoto""Komadori cable""TV KishiwadaIncluding.
    19. ^ Komadori cableArea is up to 1 Gbps

    Wireless broadband

    Wireless broadband lineMobile communication network/Mobile Wireless Access It is popular mainly in (MWA).For this4G(LTE-Advanced-WiMAX 2.1) And5G(Including WiMAX 3 and XGP 4.0) exists.Mobile broadband linesMobile broadbandIt is called (Mobile broadband).For the main providers of mobile broadband in JapanNTT DoCoMoKDDI (au) andSoftbankRakutenThere is.

    Nominal maximum speed of Japanese mobile communication network
    MWA serviceStandard maximum valueNTT DoCoMo auSoftbankRakuten Mobile
    4G maximum reception speed3Gbps1.7Gbps[40]1Gbps[41]838Mbps[42]?
    4G maximum transmission speed1.5Gbps131.3Mbps[40]112.5Mbps[41]46Mbps[42]?
    5G maximum reception speed20Gbps4.9Gbps ​​(5G SA)[43]4.2Gbps[41]3.0Gbps[42]
    3.7Gbps ​​(5G SA)[w1][44]
    ?
    5G maximum transmission speed10Gbps1.1Gbps ​​(5G SA)[43]481Mbps[41]298Mbps[42]
    444Mbps (5G SA)[w1][44]
    ?

    Mobile communication networks have limited capacity, so the public無線 LANData offload to[45]..Also, on iOS 11 or later(English editionIt is also possible to automatically send data that cannot be handled via (public) wireless LAN to the mobile communication network due to the function.[46][47][Note 3]..In the public wireless LAN service of the mobile companySIM cardMany of them support the EAP-SIM authentication method using[49].

    Nominal maximum speed of Japanese public wireless LAN
    Public Wi-Fi serviceStandard maximum value[w2]d Wi-Fi (NTT DoCoMo) au Wi-Fi SPOT[w3] (ouch)Softbank Wi-Fi spot[w4]
    11n maximum communication speed600Mbps[w5]72.2Mbps or more[50]150Mbps or more[51]Maximum speed unknown[52]
    11ac maximum communication speed6.9Gbps[w6]?433Mbps or more[51]Maximum speed unknown[52]
    11ax maximum communication speed9.6Gbps[w7]??Maximum speed unknown[52]
    1. ^ a b As of August 2022, only Kamiochiai 8-chome, Chuo-ku, Saitama City, Saitama Prefecture
    2. ^ It is the maximum value in one connection, and the total capacity of the dual band / triband / quadband Wi-Fi master unit can exceed this (Archer AX1 etc.).
    3. ^ Wire and wirelessUQ CommunicationsUses Wi-Fi network
    4. ^ oldBB mobile pointAlso exists.
    5. ^ In the case of 40Mhz 64QAM 4x4MIMO (half for a 2x2MIMO smartphone)
    6. ^ In the case of 160Mhz 256QAM 8x8 MIMO (2/2 on a 4x1 MIMO smartphone)
    7. ^ In the case of 160Mhz 1024QAM 8x8 MIMO (2/2 on a 4x1 MIMO smartphone)

    We also used wireless for broadband for fixed linesFixed wireless access(FWA) exists.This involves installing a fixed antenna outside the house or near a window to send and receive to and from the base station. There are short-distance and long-distance FWA.The consumer standard developed for long-distance fixed wireless access has a width of 4.9Mhz in the 20Ghz band.High output wireless LANIEEE 802.11j has a maximum communication speed of 54 Mbps and is for fixed use of the same band and width.WiMAXHas a low maximum communication speed of 74.8 Mbps, and for high-speed access lines, it is mainly IEEE 4.9j / n in the 802.11 GHz band (100 Mbps or higher).[53]), 18GHz band, quasi-millimeter wave band, millimeter wave band, etc.Fixed micro lineIs used.By using a repeater, wireless transmission over a longer distance is possible, and it is mainly used as a backup access line or relay line when the optical fiber is cut due to a disaster (wired laying on remote islands is extremely difficult. It may still be used as the main line in some areas).

    Offshoreaircraft"High-throughput satellite" (HTS; high-speed and large-capacity) for broadband for ships in the open seaCommunication satellite[54])bySatellite internet accessIs used.For thisIntelsat"GX Aviation" "Fleet Xpress"[55],(English edition"Exede In the Air"[55],Space xof"Starlink"SKY Perfect JSAT"JSAT Marine" etc. exist.In addition, communication satellites are also the last line of recourse for international communication when international lines such as submarine cables are cut off due to accidents, disasters, incidents, etc., especially only one submarine cable is connected.トンガThere are more opportunities to play an active part in an island country like[56][57].. HoweverSpaceHigh-speed satellite communication that transmits and receives to and from requires a parabolic antenna, which is difficult to miniaturize, so its use is limited.AtmosphereCan be placed in and sent and received with a smaller antennaStratosphere platform (HAPS) is also being considered.

    In addition, wireless broadband has a slower uplink speed than optical fiber connection, and its stability is lower depending on atmospheric conditions and building conditions.Telemedicine,Telework,Distance learningWill be disadvantageous to[3][58]..It is also said to be vulnerable to congestion.[59].

    In order to improve the connection stability in the building, draw a wired line to the inside of the house and close it to the terminal無線 LAN Ofaccess point(Wi-Fi spot) AndLTE OfFemtocellNeed to be installed.Also spread the radio waves with linesLeaky coaxial cable There is also (LCX), which is used indoors and in tunnels.[60].

    Expanding the use of broadband

    Broadband Internet connection is provided on a flat-rate basis from the beginning and can be used without being aware of communication charges and time zones, which has brought about a major change in the Internet usage pattern with its widespread use (although, likewise).FLET'S・ Narrowband flat-rate services such as ISDN were also provided in advance).

    Always connectedI made the most of thatIP phone-Internet phone, Because it became possible to send and receive large amounts of data in a short timeCloud computing-Via internet connectionstorageAccess to (offsite data storage), broadbandVideo on demand-IP broadcastNew services such as video broadcasting such as (IP TV) have become possible.

    Web browsing

    Web pages are already centered on rich content on the premise of broadband. For example, as of August 2022, 8, the median value (1% tile value) for desktop sites is about 50MB, and the 2.3% tile value is about 75MB. 4.6MB, 90% tile value is about 8.9MB[61].On the other hand, web pages load more than 2 seconds and it feels tedious.[62], It is said that the bounce rate increases when it exceeds 3 seconds[63], Simple calculations are not possible due to delay loading and rendering time, but a sufficiently fast communication line is required for comfortable viewing.

    Call (IP phone, IP videophone, video conference)

    Calls using IP communication (VoIP-IP phone) Is low quality in the era of ADSL and low speed FTTHSecondary phoneHas appeared.In the early days of VoIP, only calls were made between IP terminals, but since the phone number 2002 was assigned to an IP phone in November 11 (050 IP phone), it is possible to make and receive calls with general subscriber phones even with VoIP. Became[64].

    After that, high quality using broadbandPrimary phoneWith the advent of IP phones, the use of telephone numbers with the same area code as general subscriber phones was approved, and IP phones became widespread ().Hikari phoneSuch).Since primary telephones have network quality regulations, they are mainly paid services that use the priority communication function within the closed IP network (non-Internet).

    It has been a long time ago to connect IP phones to general subscriber phones and IP phones of other companies.Public switched telephone network (PSTN) has been used, but from January 2021, IP telephone operators will exchange telephones with each other as IP.[65]From 2024 to 2025, it is planned to switch to IP network telephone exchange for general subscriber telephones.[65]However, the charges remain pay-as-you-go.

    On the other hand, using the non-priority communication InternetInternet phone(Voice communication / voice chat)SkypelikeP2P communicationFree calling services have become popular, and "" that keeps them connected has become common due to the constant connection of broadband.

    Broadband has also generalized not only one-to-one but also many-to-many calls (group calls, conference calls). Even on SNS, "ClubhouseVoice SNS such as "" has appeared, and short-text SNS "TwitterBut the voice conversation function "SpacesHas appeared.

    Videophone / video conference

    Videophones using IP communication were early VoIP standards (H.323,SIP), For example, in 2004, NTT introduced the IP videophone terminal "Fletzphone".[66][67].

    Also on the internet phone mentioned aboveSkypeMany of them are compatible with videophones.

    According to NTT Group's announcement, the fatigue of online meetings isSound qualitysaid to be influenced by[68]But sound quality depends not only on physical microphones and earphones, but also on compression codecs.The sound quality standards for compression codecs includemean opinion score (MOS), etc., but basically a codec with a high compression rate has a low sound quality, so a wider and stable line band is required for high sound quality.

    Broadcasting (optical broadcasting, IP broadcasting, simultaneous TV distribution)

    Broadcasting by broadband is also performed, but the capacity of broadcast data on normal broadcast waves is enormous as follows:

    Broadcast typeDigital terrestrial broadcastingBS digital broadcasting110 degree CS digital broadcastingCable television broadcasting
    Number of physical channels4023[Note 4]26[Note 5]51[Note 6]
    Per physical channel
    Maximum bit rate
    Approximately 16.8Mbps (Full Seg) +
    About 312kbps (One Seg
    About 100Mbps[Note 7][69]About 38Mbps[Note 8][71]

    Therefore, re-transmission via the Internet is inefficient, and re-transmission by another method is the main method.However, the cost of terrestrial digital broadcasting transmission equipment is rising.[72]Since 2021, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications has been considering a broadband alternative to difficult-to-view broadcasts.[73].

    Optical broadcasting and internet retransmission

    Communication optical fiber (in optical line)Optical communication) And broadcasting optical fiber (Optical broadcasting) And multiplexing (Optical WDM communication) Is being integrated.In addition, a service provided by two cores, one for optical communication and the other for optical broadcasting, without multiplexing (eo optical TV).[74]Etc.) also exists.

    In the optical broadcasting method, a broadcasting wave modulation method in which a broadcasting wave is modulated and mounted on an optical fiber (SKY PerfecTV! Premium Service Hikari(FLET'S TV), etc.) and IP multicast method (IP multicast method) that sends broadcast data from a closed network by IP transmission of optical lines.Hikari TVEtc.) is the mainstream[75].

    In the broadcast wave modulation method (RF optical transmission), normal broadcast wave pass-through is performed.Specifically, after converting the broadcast wave into an optical signal, it is distributed by an optical splitter and used in each house.Optical line terminatorIt is in the form of returning to the electric signal on the coaxial cable, and after returning to the electric signal, it can be viewed using a general TV tuner.For broadcast wave modulation, in addition to pass-through signals, it is for set-top boxes for traditional cable television broadcasting (CATV).Transmodulation signalIs also being multiplexed[76]..Since the optical fiber has a very wide band, it is possible to always provide all the broadcast signals shown in the above table at the same time without affecting the data communication in the broadcast wave modulation.

    In the IP multicast method, priority communication in a closed IP network is generally used, andIPv6Of the protocolMulticast listener search (MLD) allows the required broadcast data to be sent only to the required recipients.[77]..In the part of the passive optical network (PON) branched by the optical splitter, the multicast LLID can be used to allow multiple subscribers' optical network units (ONUs) to receive single data at the same time.[78]..A general TV tuner cannot be used for viewing, and it is dedicated.Set top boxEtc. need to be used. In the IP multicast method, the bandwidth is compressed by priority communication, so the video is recompressed, and the communication speed required for viewing it is, for example, 1 Mbps per channel for HD broadcasting on "Hikari TV".[79], 4 Mbps per channel in 1K broadcasting[79]..There is also a set-top box equipped with a triple tuner, and the communication capacity several times that is used per set-top box.[79].

    Some broadcast receivers that can be used for these methods are for home networks.DLNAWith connection methodDTCP-The combination of IP communication enables home IP retransmission of broadcasting.With the advent of DCTP + (DTCP-IP 1.4), it has become possible to retransmit broadcasts via the Internet.

    Mobile broadcasting

    For mobile terminals, 5G Broadcast is a universal broadcasting standard for mobile terminals that uses radio waves.[Note 9]However, 5G broadcasting is still in the examination stage overseas and has not been widely used.[80][81]Also, in Japan's own standard, ISDB-TOne SegBroadcasting was widespread, but it is not compatible with XNUMXSegiPhoneWith the advent of XNUMXSeg, the reception rate of XNUMXSeg has decreased.[82].

    Therefore, simultaneous distribution via the Internet has become important for public broadcasting.[82].

    Simultaneous delivery on the Internet

    Non-priority communication and one-to-one communication (Unicast) Is also appearing as an IP unicast simultaneous distribution service via the Internet.Many of these methods can be viewed with a general Web browser (dedicated).App or Application or Sakurabook AppThere is also).

    In 2007, the P2P-based broadcast reception software "PXNUMXP-based broadcast reception software" was researched and developed with the support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.Key Hole TVWas broadcasting TV broadcasts at the same time.[83]..After that, in 2010, the simultaneous radio broadcasting service "radikoIn the 2020s, a simultaneous distribution service for television broadcasting also appeared.

    In 2020, NHK will release a TV simultaneous distribution service with SD image quality (1.5 Mbps).NHK PlusBegins in all days[84], It was made 2022 hours in April 4[85]. Also,Private broadcastingAlso from April 2022 "TVerIs scheduled to be broadcast simultaneously on TV.[86].

    Video on demand

    #Actual communication speedSee below.

    OS and applications

    For general information equipment, the OS (OS), which is the basic software for operating the equipmentoperating system) Is installed, and in addition, application software suitable for various purposes (Application software) Has also been introduced, but as the software becomes more sophisticated, the capacity of downloads and updates is increasing.

    Android TVTV andBD recorderIn, it is possible to update the firmware by "broadcast download" using the broadcast wave of terrestrial digital broadcasting and BS digital broadcasting (engineering serviceHowever, other information devices basically require software updates via the Internet.

    Most of the common software is for distributionContent delivery network(CDN, content delivery network) is adopted, and although high-speed and efficient download is possible even with large-capacity software, the capacity of the OS is large even with CDN, and the download can be done to general networks. Influencing[87][88][89][90]..As a result, access line services that have been sped up by separating OS updates have also appeared (OCN light"IPoE Advance"[91]Such).

    Game

    Generally, game lines have lower latency than speed (LatencyLow) and stability ((English editionIt is important that it does not occur.Some home routers have a QoS feature that prioritizes gaming packets[92]However, the effect does not extend to the access line[Note 10], On a narrow bandwidth shared access lineQueue(queue) Causes delay and packet loss due to timeout.Therefore, broadband is also important for low latency and stability.

    In addition, speed itself is becoming more important year by year in game applications.Enriching the gameDownload contents While the increase in (DLC) has increased the capacity per game to over 1GB,storageIn, the loading time is shortened by speeding up rather than increasing the capacity (PlayStation 5,Xbox Series X / S, Windows PC DirectStorage API, etc.), the opportunity to download is increasing when replacing games.

    Online storage, online backup

    Microsoft OneDrive,Google drive, Apple iCloud OS standard such as Driveonline storageServices are emerging.

    Actual communication speed

    Bandwidth is not guaranteed for consumer broadband linesbest effort(Best effort), and there are various bottlenecks because the line is shared on the way.[93].. As of 2021, around 30% of users are experiencing problems with the effective speed of the Internet.[94], The problem of effective speed affects not only video distribution but also web conferencing[94].

    The FCC defines 100 Mbps downlink as broadband, and Japan defines 30 Mbps downlink as ultra-high-speed broadband, but the recommended communication speeds for actually watching 4K video with on-demand video distribution are as follows:

    On-demand video distribution serviceYouTubeNetflixHuluU-NEXT
    Recommended connection speed for 4K video (Mbps)20[95]25[96]16[97]15[98]

    Therefore, if two or more people in the same household each watch 4K video, 30 Mbps will be insufficient (the average number of Japanese households as of 2020 is 2.27).[99]). Alsooptical disk OfUltra HD Blu-rayIn, video of 82 Mbps or more is possible, and the bit rate lower than that is the mainstream for online distribution videos as of 2022.

    In addition, the communication speed required for live video distribution with 4K resolution is as follows:

    Live video distribution serviceYouTube LiveAWS Elemental Media Live
    Recommended Bitrate for 4K 30fps Video (Mbps)13~34[100]
    Recommended Bitrate for 4K 60fps Video (Mbps)20~51[100]25 and over[101]

    Live video distribution has a higher frame rate than general movies (24fps), it is difficult to perform advanced compression using a high amount of processing due to the need for real-time encoding, and the bit rate is redistributed for the entire video. Since (multipath encoding) is also impossible, the required bit rate tends to increase.

    Optical communication speed

    Number of access line branches,Provider (ISP) Network termination device (in the case of PPPoE) that is the boundary withVirtual fixed communication provider The boundary with (VNE)Network / network interfaceLine capacity (for NNI; IPoE), in ISP or in VNErouterProcessing capacity and line capacity,backboneThe line capacity ofInternet exchangeExchange ability etc.bottleneckTherefore, even if the maximum communication speed is advertised, the actual communication speed will be low.

    Diagram of Passive Optical Network (PON).Square A, Square B, Square C, and Square D are 1: 1 unicast packets, and Circle V is a 1: XNUMX multicast packet.
    Diagram of Passive Optical Network (PON).Square A, Square B, Square C, and Square D are 1: 1 unicast packets, and Circle V is a 1: XNUMX multicast packet.

    In the consumer FTTH service, the line bandwidth is shared among subscribers, for example, NTT's "FLET'S HikariIn the access line, a maximum of 1 branches (about 32 Mbps per branch) including spares for a 1 Gbps contract and a maximum of 30 branches (about 10 Mbps per branch) including spares for a 64 Gbps contract are used. 1Mbps), and the bandwidth will be shared between subscribers (shared access method).[93]..The average number of branches was 2016 branches in NTT East and 11.8 branches in NTT West at the end of 7.0, but it has deteriorated to 2020 branches in NTT East and 14.4 branches in NTT West at the end of 7.9.[102].

    Of the optical access line that sandwiches this optical splitterPassive optical networkIn (PON) multiplexing, there is also a mechanism called WDM-PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON) that does not share a band, but according to a 2010 Atlantic Engineering Group estimate, WDM-PON is the current time division multiplexing. It is said that it costs about twice as much per contract as GPON of conversion (TDM).[103]..Therefore, TWDM-PON (TDM M-PON, which is a combination of TDM and WDM ((English editionEtc.) have been formulated, but as of 2022, they are not yet widespread. As of 2021, NTT has an all-photonics network (APN) concept, and plans to stop time division multiplexing and introduce one wavelength per person in the future.[104].

    In the FTTH service for business use, a single star (directly connected to the core wire) method that is directly connected without sharing an access line (without using an external optical splitter) is also used.[105]..Previously, even for home use, the early "B FLET'S New Family Type" adopted the single star method.[106]..As of 2019, the useful life of optical fiber is 20 years for fictitious sections, 28 years for underground sections, and 21 years for submarine sections.[107]However, according to an interview with NTT East as of 2005, 7% of optical fiber disconnections occur in the closure that houses the external optical splitter.[108], NTT East continues to emphasize failure at closure connections[109].

    Also, network termination equipmentInternet service providerBandwidth is being shared by more subscribers within the network.[93]..For example, NTT East's PPPoE connection uses a large number of PPPoE network termination devices, with 20 Gbps shared by 1 sessions for C-1,600 network terminators and 10 Gbps shared by 16,000 sessions for E-type network terminators. (1kbps per session)[110][111]..On the other hand, this bottleneck does not exist because the IPoE connection does not use the PPPoE network termination device and shares a small number of large-capacity gateway routers as a whole.[112][113].

    Also, the communication speed is in the houseLocal area network It can also be affected by the quality of (LAN) communication equipment and cables, and radio / electromagnetic conditions.In the house無線 LAN(Wi-Fi) Equipment can be replaced by yourself because no qualification as a wireless operator is required.[114], Replacement of home LAN wiringElectrical workerIt is possible to do it by yourself because you do not need the qualification of[115]However, it is not progressing, and the "Internet Traffic Study Group" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications is scheduled to carry out "implementation of enlightenment activities for improving the communication environment in apartment houses and homes".[116].

    Japan's optical communication speed is deteriorating year by year, ranking third in the world in the 2010 Akamai survey.[117]From the state, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun survey in 2019 shows that the nighttime speed of Japan has fallen below Southeast Asia.[118]..This is also affecting business services. For example, in May of the same year, Sega and Bandai Namco Technica announced a malfunction of the arcade game chassis due to the deterioration of the communication environment.[119][120][121]In addition, in August of the same yearWindows UpdateThen, congestion occurs in each communication company and communication failure occurs.[90][122], It has led to actual damage such as the inability to use electronic money and credit card authentication at some stores.[90].

    From 2020, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications will start studying methods for measuring the effective speed of fixed broadband.[123][124], is being demonstrated[125].

    Announced in 2021Tokyo Institute of TechnologyAccording to the results of the communication speed survey by the iNonius project ofPPPoEAbout 12% of connections,IPoEAbout 4% of the connections were downlink 20 Mbps or less, and about half of them were downlink 10 Mbps or less.[126].

    Mobile communication speed

    Since the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications has set guidelines for the effective speed of mobile communication, each company has released it since December 2015.[127]..The following is based on the data released by each company as of November 2021 (green is over 11 Mbps, red is less than 100 Mbps):

    CareersEffective downlink speed (Mbps)Effective upstream speed (Mbps)
    Maximum value75% valueMedian25% valueminimum valueMaximum value75% valueMedian25% valueminimum value
    NTT DoCoMo (Android)[128]43029923716813624535232
    NTT DoCoMo (iOS)[128]5482982211543613830212
    au (Android)[129]4051611239326642719121
    au (iOS)[130]4291701248817672819132
    Softbank (Android)[131]2841721409736312317111
    Softbank (iOS)[131]3501631299033322419131

    Latency

    Services for low latency are relatively possible even via the Internet, where priority communication functions cannot be used with broadband.However, the problem of latency still remains, and wireless communication becomes a problem especially on the access line side.

    Half-duplex communication and latency

    There are two types of communication: full-duplex communication, which allows bidirectional communication to flow simultaneously, and half-duplex communication, which allows only one-way communication to flow.

    In half-duplex communication, time-division duplex (TDD / ping-pong transmission) is performed, which divides a single frequency into time divisions to bring it closer to full-duplex communication.[132]However, since it is necessary to provide a protection period (guard period) according to the transmission distance when switching between uplink communication and downlink communication, there is a trade-off relationship that increasing the ping-pong speed for latency reduces the throughput.

    In wireless transmission, time division duplex (TDD), which communicates half-duplex at a single frequency, has a radio path for transmission and reception than frequency division duplex (FDD), which separates uplink and downlink frequencies for full duplex communication. TDD is often used especially in the high frequency band where there is little wraparound because it is convenient to match.In mobile communication, carrier aggregation (LTE TDD-FDD CA) that combines TDD with FDD has appeared since 4GPP Release 3 of LTE Advanced of 12G.[133], The problem of latency for half-duplex communication has been alleviated.

    Also, as of 2022, single-frequency full-duplex communication (SFFD) and sub-band full-duplex communication (SBFD), which perform full-duplex communication at single frequency or frequencies different from sub-band by self-interference elimination in wireless transmission, Technology is under development (5G-Advanced SBFD)[134]Such).

    the way
    TCM-ISDNEuro-ISDNADSLDOCSIS 3.1 or earlierDOCSIS 4.0FTTHFDD-LTE5G NR FDDTD-LTE5G NR TDD5G-Advanced SBFD (planned)[134]
    Transmission line2-wire telephone lineHFC(Combined use of optical fiber / coaxial cable)Optical fiberwireless
    Duplication[Note 11]Time divisionSingle frequencyFrequency divisionSingle frequency[135]Frequency divisionFrequency divisionTime divisionSubband
    フ レ ー ム[Note 12]2.5msFull double5ms / 10ms[Note 13]? ~ 10msFull double
    Retransmission requestNoneNone[Note 14]None4ms[136]0.57ms etc.[Note 15] [137]4 ~ 13ms[138]? ~? ms?

    Packet loss and latency

    In a part of the transmission line(English editionWhen (packet loss) occurs, the entire transmission linePacket retransmissionIs required and causes a large delay.

    Packets overflow with relay equipment on high-quality transmission linesconvergenceCauses packet loss. As of 2022(English editionThen, congestion control is performed by detecting packet loss (Loss-based method; (English editionな ど[139]) Is common, and congestion control is performed by detecting the delay caused by the concentration of packets (Delay-based method; BBRな ど[139]) Has only been partially used.This is because BBR is always mildBufferingThis is because it is vulnerable to relay equipment that causes delays (improved version of BBRv2 is under development).[140]..However, the TCP protocol has ECN (ECN) that notifies the congestion of relay devices.(English edition) Also exists, and its use is widespread.

    On the other hand, in a poor quality transmission line, the transmission line itself causes packet loss, but the transmission data is encoded.Forward error correctionDo (FEC) or (RS sign-Turbo code-LDPC codeEtc.), local retransmission (Automatic repeat request) Or (VDSL G.fastDTU[141][Note 16], LTE / 5G NR HARQ, etc.) and other mechanisms to prevent packet loss are in place.

    Also, the cause of packet loss in wireless transmissionMultipath propagationAlthough there are some, this multipath propagation isDiversity,Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) [143]In addition, the drawback of being vulnerable to the phase noise of OFDM has been alleviated by phase tracking (such as PT-RS of 5G NR).

    However, as of 2020, the packet loss rate and delay of 5G services still have room for improvement.[144].

    Actual latency

    According to QTnet, latency of 30ms or less is required to play the game without lag.[145].The physical distance between communications is also important for latency, as the speed of light in optical fiber is limited.

    According to the speed measurement site "Minna no Net Line Speed", as of May 2022, optical lines are the only line type with an average latency of less than 5 ms for all users.[146]..Also, in the world catalog of the Internet speed measurement site Speedtest by Ookla, the median and average latency of Japanese mobile lines as of April 2022 exceeds 4 ms.[147], Median and average of fixed broadband lines are below 30ms[148].

    Also an internet measurement platform(English editionAccording to IIJ's research using open data from Japan, Japanese operators have a large difference in latency between non-crowded hours and busy hours as of 2020.[149][150], IIJ speculates that this difference is due to congestion at PPPoE's network termination device.[149].

    Deployment in Japan

    JapaneseMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIs "Broadband serviceWaitFTTH (including FTTB) andCable TVStatistics on Internet connection services such as (coaxial / HFC) are published.In addition, fixed-type services with a downlink speed of 30 Mbps or more are treated as fixed-type ultra-high-speed broadband services.

    The number of fixed Internet service contracts in Japan is as follows as of the end of June 2021.[151] :

    The number of households
    (As of 2022 month of 1)[152]
    Whole fixed systemFTTH
    (Including FTTB)
    CATV
    (Coaxial / HFC only)
    (A) DSLFixed radio
    59,761,06543,298,13136,368,0146,520,005746,3413,369

    The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications wants to further promote equipment competition and service competition, but it has been weak.

    • Lack of killer applications
      • Many people who need fixed broadband services have already signed up, and killer applications have been regarded as important for expanding demand.After that, 4K TV became widespread and became in demand.4K broadcastingCan't catch up[153], High-quality Internet video distribution services are growing.
    • Large capital investment
      • The main optical cable has already been laid on a large scale, leaving only remote areas.Although laying in remote areas requires a lot of cost and time, optical cables are used for high-speed mobile communication and IoT (IoT).Internet of Things) Is also necessary for the backbone, so subsidies are being used to improve remote areas.
      • On the other hand, the cost of investing in the backbone of the Internet is increasing as the distribution of large-capacity videos and games grows.
    • Lack of IPv4 address
      • The IPv4 global addresses required for mainstream IPv4 communication are already exhausted, and IPv4 addresses can be transferred from overseas, such as DS-Lite.Carrier grade NATThe life of IPv4 continues to be extended by sharing the IPv4 address with multiple people.But UDP-basedHERE CUsedHTTP / 3Due to the widespread use of IPv4, problems such as NAT table overflow and SPI table overflow have occurred.[154], It is desirable to move to IPv6[154].

    History in Japan

    From 1999 to 2000, services for general individuals such as ADSL, CATV, and FTTH were started in urban areas and gradually started to spread. Until thenLeased lineOther than the above, inexpensive internet connection methods that can be connected all the time except for a fixed amount are available only during limited hours at night.NTTSubscriber phoneLine ofDial-up connectionbyTele HodaiThere was only means using.

    East and West NTT in October 1999,ISDNIf you pay a flat rate on the line, you can use the "I Plan", which is a quasi-flat rate system that allows you to use the call charge up to the upper limit of the flat rate, and in June 2000, the "I Plan"IP connection service (FLET'S ISDN)Has started to be deployed on a nationwide scale.

    In January 2001, the countrye-Japan strategyIn October of the same year, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications launched[155]..Under this concept, it was planned to combine high-speed FTTH and inexpensive xDSL / CATV to create a broadband environment for 2005 million households by 4,000.[155]..With the start of government subsidies for network construction, broadband deployment to rural areas, which had been stalled until then, gained momentum, but the number of FTTH contracts was sluggish even in FTTH service areas.[156]In addition, even the cities, towns and villages with a small population continued to not provide even ADSL, let alone FTTH.[157].

    In some local governments, the development of cable TV (CATV) and broadband are spreading by local governments, and even in depopulated areasTo a certain extentNow available. In the maintenance of CATV, the national and local governments often subsidize the backbone lines (optical fibers), service lines, and subscription fees that make up HFC (FTTN), and in prefectures,National road,Prefectural roadFTTH/FTTx and CATV (HFC/DOCSIS) are widely spread over the world with optical fibersMunicipalitiesAlso started to appear.On the other hand, there are differences such as delays in response depending on the local government, and there are many areas where maintenance is not done at all in depopulated areas and areas around urban areas.Information gapWas occurring[158].

    In 2004, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications launched the "Broadband Zero Area Escape Plan"[157], Announced "Next Generation Broadband Strategy 2006" in 2010.In this strategy, the goal was to increase the household coverage rate of broadband to 2010% and the household coverage rate of ultra-high-speed broadband centered on FTTH to 100% by 90.[159]..In the same year, the "Survey Study Group on Wireless Access Systems for Eliminating Broadband Blank Areas" was held at the Hokuriku General Communication Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.[160]In 2007, the "Survey Study Group for Promoting Broadband in Unfavorable Areas" was established at the Okinawa General Communications Bureau.[161].

    In 2010, the country saidPath of lightWith the goal of "aiming for 2015% (ultra-high-speed) broadband utilization rate by 100", we planned to reduce the cost in order to raise the low utilization rate of FTTH.[162][23]However, it was unrealistic and failed due to the backlash of each company. In 2011, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications was established, and the fixed telephone network will be converted to IP by 2025, which is the useful life of the core network of the NTT fixed telephone network. At the same time, the fixed telephone access line will be converted to FTTH. It was decided to be considered slowly[163].

    In 2019, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications will announce the 5th generation mobile communication system (5G) and IoT (IoT) in disadvantaged areas.Internet of Things) Started "advanced wireless environment maintenance promotion project" to support the laying of optical fiber cables required for backhaul lines of base stations (Financial resources areRadio usage fee[164]) After that, the "ICT Infrastructure Regional Development Master Plan" was launched, and the development of optical fiber for home use was promoted as a side to the development of 5G and IoT infrastructure.[165].. In 2020, the "Study Group on Broadband Infrastructure" was established to make broadband a universal service.[166].

    In the same yearNew coronavirusbyCoronaAs a result, the development of optical lines was advanced to promote telework and distance education.[167].. In 2021, the country plans to increase the coverage of optical lines to 2030% by 99.9.Digital rural city-state conceptLaunch[168][169], In 2022, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications announced the "Digital Rural Urban National Infrastructure Development Plan".

    Optical connection (FTTH)

    FTTX.svg

    FTTH is a connection method that connects everything from the base station to the house with optical fibers.The maximum speed of FTTH in the early days was about 10 Mbps.[170]However, since then, the speed has been increased to 1 Gbps or higher.

    As of the end of December 2015, the number of FTTH contracts was 12 million (up 2,758% year-on-year).[171]However, after the end of ADSL and the corona disaster, the number reached 2020 at the end of September 9.[172].

    Super fast in specs in the late 2010s5GIn order to counter the advent of mobile communication, the number of home-use 10Gbps fixed-line communication services increased ahead of that.[173]..2015 in JapanNURO light 10G preceded, thenau Hikari Home 10 Giga / 5 Giga(2018), eo Hikari Net 10 Giga Course / 5 Giga Course (2019),FLET'S Hikari Cross(2020) and so on are appearing in succession.

    FTTB connection

    FTTX.svg

    VDSL (telephone line wiring) method

    VDSLFrom the premises to the houseStructured cablingOld can't draw fiber opticshousing complexIt is used in such as.This is often done by connecting the inside of the building with an optical fiber and using a telephone line (metal cable) to the inside of the house.The data that goes through the telephone lineOrthogonal frequency division multiplexing In (OFDM)Digital modulationIs done.

    新 し いG.fastBy using the standard, relatively high-speed communication is possible, and from 2018 in Japan, au will use it to 664 Mbps downlink / 166 Mbps uplink "au Hikari Mansion Type G".[174]Offers (UR City OrganizationThere is also "au Hikari Mansion Urban Organization G" for rental housing in Japan).

    On the other hand, NTT's "FLET'S Hikari Next Mansion Type (VDSL method)" is said to have about 2019 million contracts as of 200.[175]However, it is as slow as 100 Mbps at maximum.[175]..Therefore, in July 2020 during the corona disaster, NTT made the conversion from VDSL wiring to optical wiring (FTTH) free of charge, and is promoting the conversion of premises wiring to optical wiring.[176].

    LAN wiring method

    The LAN wiring method is the same as above.housing complexIt is used in.This is connected to the inside of the building with an optical fiber, and by the inside of the houseLAN cable(Baseband transmission) is used.Each house is the sameLocal area network Since there is a security problem if it belongs to (LAN),Virtual LAN The LAN of each house is divided using (VLAN).[177]..However, the text from the VLAN device to the inside of the house is plain text (non-encrypted text).

    Since the LAN wiring method does not require home equipment, it is mainly used in all-unit collective condominium ISPs.As of the end of March 2020, it is said that there are contracts for 3 thousand units for all-unit collective condominium ISPs.[178](Including VDSL method etc.).In addition, NTT offers "FLET'S Hikari Next Mansion Type (LAN wiring method)" and KDDI offers "au Hikari Mansion Type E".

    Wireless connection

    As of the end of December 2021, the number of mobile communication contracts has risen to about 12 million.[151]..However, there are also regional disparities.Villages outside the area where mobile communication signals do not reach are scheduled to be eliminated by the end of 2023, but only 95% of the national roads under direct control within the area are.[179].

    In addition, not only in depopulated areas, but also in the surrounding areas of urban areas, the frequency band (number of bands) provided is small, and the density of base stations is low, so the connection speed is often low.Platinum bandAlthough each company provides (700MHz-900MHz band) with a population coverage rate close to 100%, other frequency bands have not reached that level of coverage.[180].. NTT DoCoMo offers "LTE (by speed)" on the area map.

    Optical fiber is basically used for the backhaul line for wireless access, but flexible fiber is used even in areas where optical fiber lines are not provided.[181]It is possible to provide ultra-high-speed services by micro-wireless relay at speeds comparable to those of optical fibers (such as 5G at the summit of Mt. Fuji).However, in some areas slow micro radio relay and satellite communications[182]There are also base stations that use the as a backhaul line.

    The number of wireless Internet service contracts in Japan is as follows as of the end of December 2021.[151] :

    population
    (As of January 2022)[152]
    Public wireless LAN5G3.9G / 4G3G[183]BWALocal 5G
    125,927,902126,654,24436,418,002142,899,279約 20,740,00078,195,54522
    Radio band of Japanese wireless access / relay line
    the wayRadio band
    LTE-A (4G) /
    Diverted 5G
    700/800 / 900MHz band
    1.5 GHz band
    1.7 GHz band
    2 GHz band
    3.4 GHz band
    WiMAX 2.1/
    AXGP (LTE compatible)
    2.5 GHz band
    sXGP
    (Private LTE)
    1.9 GHz band
    5G2.3GHz band (planned)
    3.7 GHz band
    4.5 GHz band
    28 GHz band
    (5G additional candidate)(2.6GHz band)[184]
    (4.9GHz band)[185]
    (24GHz band)[186]
    (26GHz band)[186]
    (38GHz band)[186]
    (40GHz band)[186]
    Local 5G4.7 GHz band
    28 GHz band
    Public wireless LAN2.4 GHz band
    5 GHz band
    6 GHz band
    60 GHz band
    5GHz wireless access
    (High output wireless LAN)
    4.9 GHz band
    Fixed micro line
    Entrance line
    6 / 6.5 / 7.5GHz band
    11 / 15 / 18GHz band
    22 / 26 / 38GHz band
    70 / 80GHz band
    Communication satelliteKa band
    Ku band

    Wireless LAN method (Wi-Fi 4 or later, IEEE802.11n / 11ac / 11ax)

    August 2009, 4,Wire and wirelessIs a public wireless LAN service that uses IEEE 802.11n "Wi2 300To start[187], KDDI and Okinawa Cellular responded to its roaming on June 2011, 6.au Wi-Fi SPOTStarted[188].. From May 2013, 5, docomo will be "docomo Wi-Fi"("d Wi-Fi"Predecessor) to support IEEE802.11n[50], From April 2014, 4, Softbank also said "BB mobile pointStarted to support IEEE 802.11n[189].

    In addition, KDDI and Okinawa Cellular will start on October 2013, 10.au Wi-Fi SPOTThe introduction of IEEE802.11ac has started.[51].

    In addition, a design guideline for 2010GHz wireless access (71GHz band) has appeared in the domestic standard ARIB STD-T5.1 5 version for wideband mobile access systems in 4.9.[190], The use of high-speed IEEE 5n has advanced even for long-distance 802.11GHz wireless access.This is IEEE 802.11j / n[191][192][193], IEEE802.11n / j[194][193], IEEE802.11nj[195]And so on.

    2022年9月には日本でもWi-Fi 6Eの6GHz帯が開放された[196].

    Mobile communication (5G)

    5rd generation mobile communication system (5G) is the successor to 4G, and 5G has higher frequencies than 4G (Sub6 band andMillimeter waveHigh speed is realized by using a wide band (band). 5G's new wireless interface5G NRIt is also possible to convert the frequency bands of 3G, 4G, and BWA, which have a narrow band but easily spread radio waves, to 5G NR and use them (5G diversion).

    From 2020, each mobile company started official 5G service.In addition, regional BWA 5G NR (BWA 5G NR) has been possible since the same year.[197]。2022年冬にはUQワイコミュニケーションもUQ WiMAXの周波数帯を5Gに転用する予定となっている[198][199].

    Wireless broadband connection during migration

    Mobile communication (4G)

    Takeover of WILLCOM's assets from 2011Wireless City PlanningAs the successor to XGPTD-LTECompatibleAXGPTo start[200], The AXGP network is from SoftbankSoftBank 4GWas also used.Also, since 2013, UQ will be compatible with TD-LTE as a successor to WiMAX.WiMAX 2.1 Based on AEWiMAX 2+To start[201]In 2014, the ban on TD-LTE compatible AXGP method and WiMAX 2.1 AE method was lifted in the regional BWA as well.[197].. With TD-LTE compatibility, carrier aggregation between these services and LTE-Advanced (4G LTE) is also possible.[202][203].

    Also, in 2014, SoftBank will use the AXGP line as the back end to connect wired LAN and wireless LAN clients.SoftBank AirAlso appeared.

    The LTE-Advanced adoption service then became compatible with 5G NR.

    Wired broadband connection during migration

    FTTN connection (DOCSIS 3.0 or later)

    FTTX.svg

    DOCSISBy FTTN (HFC: Hybrid Fiber Coaxial) Connection is mainly used for internet connection of cable TV service.This FTTN (HFC) utilizes the existing coaxial cable that is easily attenuated at the end, but it is of high quality at the core part.Optical communicationAdoptingCarrier-to-noise ratioIt is to earn (C / N ratio).

    DOCSIS 3.0 or later bundles multiple communication channelsChannel bondingWas introduced, and by increasing the frequency band used for communication, it became possible to significantly increase the speed. In August 2006, DOCSIS 8, which can achieve a maximum downlink of 1 Gbps / maximum uplink of 100 Mbps, was introduced, and in October 3.0, DOCSIS 2013, which can achieve a maximum downlink of 10 Gbps / maximum uplink of 10 Gbps, was introduced.However, unlike wideband optical cables, narrow-band coaxial cables have a problem with the range of frequencies that can be passed.The maximum frequency that can be used according to the standard is DOCSIS 2.5 up to 3.1 MHz.[204], Although it rose to 3.1Mhz in DOCSIS 1794[204], Japanese household equipment is not guaranteed to pass frequencies above 770MHz used in terrestrial digital broadcasting.[205], And even if you can pass up to 1794Mhz, Japan BS-IF / CS-IF frequency band Since it collides with (1032 to 3224MHz), there is a problem of collision due to wraparound of BS digital broadcasting / CS digital broadcasting signals in buildings where BS / CS antennas are installed.[206]As of March 2017, it was common for Japanese cable TV to use the band up to 3MHz.[204]..Therefore, it was difficult to get the full speed of the specifications.

    For example, J: COM started a service using DOCSIS 2007 in Kansai in September 9 and in Kanto in October of the following year, but a service with a maximum downlink speed of 10 Mbps and a maximum uplink speed of 3.0 Mbps ("J: COM NET Ultra" → " 160M course ")[207], Even after the speed increase in January 2015, the maximum downlink speed was 1 Mbps and the maximum uplink speed was 320 Mbps ("10M course").[208].

    After that, at J: COM from January to April 2015Digi-ana conversionEnded analog broadcasting by[209], Starting with "J: COM Kumagai / Fukaya" in October 2017[210]Introduced a service using DOCSIS 3.1, which finally increased the nominal speed to 30 Mbps.[Note 17]Reached a service with a maximum downlink speed of 1 Gbps and a maximum uplink speed of 100 Mbps ("J: COM NET 1G course")[211][212].

    In addition, speeding up with FTTN (HFC) is more susceptible to noise.[213],Full dual communicationThere is an oscillation problem of the amplifier in[214]Therefore, it is necessary to expand the optical section, and in addition,New 4K8K satellite broadcastingDue to the problem of insufficient bandwidth for retransmission, more and more cable TV companies are switching to providing services via optical line (FTTH). Cable Labs, which has established the DOCSIS standard, has also prepared his DPoE (DOCSIS Provisioning of EPON), which adds DOCSIS operation management functions to passive optical network (PON) -based FTTH lines.

    Japan Cable Television FederationThe technical committee of Japan launched the "Transmission Line Advancement Task Team" in 2017 to support the conversion of cable TV lines to FTTH.[215][216]In addition, in 2017, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications started the "Cable TV Network Optical Promotion Project".[217], In 2018, "Disaster resistance enhancement project by cable TV opticalization" was started, and the target of FTTH was set to "about 2025%" by the end of 50 (2019% as of the end of 26.6).[218].. In fiscal 2019, "Emergency Measures for Cable TV Operators to Convert to Optical Cables" was also started.[219](However, this subsidy is limited to the part used for broadcasting purposes.[220]).In addition, subsidies for the "advanced wireless environment maintenance promotion project" can be used for communication purposes, and in some local governments, "temporary subsidies for regional revitalization for new coronavirus infections" are also used for the conversion of cable TV. (Tottori City[221]Such).

    J: COM is also developing an optical network for 2019 billion yen from 2021 to 3000.[222], Has been providing services of up to 2020 Gbps by optical line since 10 ("Hikari 10G course")[223].

    However, there are still some businesses that have left the old FTTN (HFC) equipment.[224]As of the end of December 2021, the number of contracts for the Internet using coaxial / HFC was about 12 million, and the prefectures with the largest number of contracts were Tokyo, Osaka, and Kanagawa in that order.[225][151]..Therefore, as of 2022, J: COM will not include the upstream nominal speed in the "broadband quality standard" at the "Study Group on Broadband Infrastructure" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, and will make it "only the downlink nominal speed". Claims to be "nominal speed in protector" rather than nominal speed in modem[226].

    Past wired broadband connection

    FTTB connection (coaxial wiring method)

    Coaxial wiring is also used in apartment buildings."C.LINK" ("c.LINK") that uses the blank frequency between terrestrial digital broadcasting and BS / CS digital as a standard corresponding to the coaxial cable on which the TV broadcast wave rides.(English editionThere is a specification called (predecessor of)[227]In 2005, J: COM used its c.LINK to provide "J: COM NET Hikari".[228]It has been canceled.

    MoCA 2006 with a maximum of 135 Mbps was standardized in 1.0, and then MoCA 2010 in 2.0 supports a maximum of 1 Gbps, MoCA 2016 in 2.5 supports a maximum of 2.5 Gbps, and the planned MoCA 3.0 supports a maximum of 10 Gbps.HoweverJapan Cable LaboratoriesAccording to 2015, there are no known examples of MoCA use in Japan.[229].

    FTTN connection (DOCSIS 1.0 / 1.1 / 2.0)

    The first DOCSIS 1.0 appeared in 1997 as a standard with a maximum downlink speed of 42 Mbps and a maximum uplink speed of 10 Mbps.In Japan, in 1999, a cable TV companyJ-COMand rice(English editionJointly at Home Japan (laterAt Net Home) Launched[230], At Home Japan began to provide CATV Internet service "J-COM @ NetHome" (later "J-COM Net") on the J: COM cable TV network from June 2000.[231]However, the speed is low for both downlink and uplink, and even after the speed increase in July 2001, the maximum downlink speed is 7 Mbps and the maximum uplink speed is 2 kbps.[232], Even after the speed increase in February 2002, the maximum downlink speed was 2 Mbps and the maximum uplink speed was 8 Mbps.[233].

    2003 yearsInternet associationAccording to a survey by J: COM, J: COM had the top share of CATV Internet.[234]However, when a service with a maximum downlink speed of 2002 Mbps such as "Yahoo! BB 12M" appears in 12 with inexpensive ADSL[235]The CATV Internet, which was expensive and had a maximum downlink speed of 8 Mbps, became inferior in terms of catalog specifications.[236]..Therefore, J: COM is in some areas (TokyoHigashimurayama city) Was used for FTTH conversion experiments.[236]However, the realization of TV broadcasting services on FTTH was still difficult at that time.[236], J: COM went on to introduce DOCSIS 2.0 instead[237].

    DOCSIS 2.0は2001年12月に下り最大42Mbps/上り最大30Mbpsな規格として登場した。2003年9月にはJ:COMがDOCSIS 2.0を用いた下り最大30Mbps/上り最大2Mbpsの「J-COM Net プレミア」(後の「30Mコース」)を開始した[237](In 2009, speed up to "40M course"[238]).

    In 2007, J: COM introduced the next generation of DOCSIS 3.0, but it is technically backwards compatible.[239]After that, "1M course", "12M course", "24M course" and "40M course" were continued for a long time, but the low speed course gradually disappeared due to the subsequent speed increase of the billiard type.[240][241][242].

    ADSL connection

    ADSL communicates from the base station to the house with a metal cable.

    ADSL specifications with a maximum downlink speed of 1999 Mbps and a maximum uplink speed of 8 Mbps in 1.3(English edition (G.dmt) was formulated. In 2001, a high-speed ADSL service with a maximum downlink speed of 8 Mbps was launched.Yahoo! BB,ACCA NetworksAppeared more[243]The following year, in 2002, many services with a maximum downlink speed of 12 Mbps appeared beyond the standard.[235][244][245]After that, the speed has continued to increase rapidly, reaching a maximum downlink speed of 2004 Mbps and a maximum uplink speed of 50 Mbps in 5.[246].

    However, after that, the speedup stopped, and the number of contracts began to decrease from the April-June period of 2006, decreasing at a pace of about 4% every quarter.2008At the end of March, the number of households using optical lines exceeded the number of households using ADSL lines for the first time.The number of users, which used to be more than 3 million, has decreased to 1500 million at the end of June 2017, which is about 6% of the peak.[247].

    Due to deterioration of facilities and deterioration of profitability,Telephone officeSome line operators have terminated the ADSL service on a unit basis.[248][249].. NTT will also end the FLET'S ADSL service in the "FLET'S Hikari" service area on January 2023, 1.[250][251].

    Past wireless broadband connection

    Wireless LAN method (Wi-Fi 1, IEEE802.11)

    2001Since AprilTEPCO-Softbank-MicrosoftThe joint venture Speednet will make the last mile a 2.4GHz band IEEE 802.11 (FH method) wireless LAN communication.Speednet wireless access serviceStarted[252][253]..However, due to the problem of radio wave interference, it was not possible to move to high-speed IEEE 802.11b.[253]Therefore, it cannot keep up with the speeding up of wired communication.[254], Ended service on May 2006, 5[254].

    Wireless LAN method (Wi-Fi 2, IEEE802.11a / 11b / 11j)

    NTT Communications ThePublic wireless LANAfter the service experiment "Hi-FIBE", the commercial service "Hi-FIBE" adopted on May 2002, 5, which adopted IEEE15b in the 2.4GHz band and IEEE802.11a in the 5GHz band.Hot spotStarted[255]..In addition, Softbank also started the pilot public wireless service "Yahoo! BB Mobile" (one of the predecessors of "BB Mobile Point") that adopted IEEE2002b from April 4, 24.[256], NTT DoCoMo also adopted the public wireless LAN service "IEEE2002b" on July 7, 1.Mzone(Later "docomo Wi-Fi") started[257]..Japan Telecom (SOFTBANK TELECOM(Predecessor of) also started "Mobile Point" (one of the predecessors of "BB Mobile Point") adopted by IEEE2004b on April 4, 1.[258][259].

    In addition, on December 2003, 12, TEPCO adopted the 1GHz band IEEE 5a as the successor to Speednet.TEPCO Hikari Mansion Type 5GHz Wireless Plan(Later "Hikari one Mansion Type Wireless")[260][261](Ended 2011[262]).

    In addition, 5GHz wireless access is assigned to 4900-5000MHz (4.9GHz band) and 5030-5091MHz (5.03GHz band, deleted in 2017) in the 5GHz band.[263][53], 2004 for 5GHz wireless accessHigh output wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11j) Was formulated, and 5GHz wireless access by registered stations using it appeared.For thisOrrence"Skynet V(Hokkaido), Waikomu[264]"Air 5G" (Hokkaido),NTT Business SolutionsThere are consignment operations such as "Whale Net", "Painushi Manet", and "Ginoza BB" (Okinawa Prefecture).

    Since then, the Wi-Fi Alliance has been a Wi-Fi access point since 2013 and an old and weak encryption method with Wi-Fi clients since 2014.WEPAnnounced to ban[265].. NTT Communications' "Hotspot" service ended on December 2012, 12[266], Successor service "OCN hotspotBut at the end of July 2013, the spot area of ​​the old hotspot was deleted.[267]..Also, docomo Wi-Fi also deleted the old access point on September 2013, 9.[268].

    Wireless LAN method (Wi-Fi 3, IEEE802.11g)

    From July 2004, SOFTBANK BB began supporting IEEE 7g for the public wireless LAN service "Yahoo! BB Mobile".[269].. On December 2004, 12, NTT East adopted the IEEE 1g public wireless LAN service "FLET'S SPOTStarted[270].. September 2005, 8Live doorLaunched "livedoor Wireless", a public wireless LAN service that uses IEEE 802.11g[271].

    "Livedoor Wireless" was discontinued on April 2013, 4[272].

    Submillimeter wave / millimeter wave band FWA

    Originally, the 26GHz band and 21GHz band were used for digital subscriber radios. In 1985, NTT started 26SS-D26 digital subscriber radio using the 1GHz band.[273][Note 18], In 1987ShindenInternational telegraph telephone21GHz band is open to[276].

    After that, the FWA moved from the 21GHz band to the 22GHz band by reassignment.[277]In 1998, the 26GHz / 38GHz band was additionally opened for fixed wireless access (FWA).[277].

    In April 2002, NTT East used the 4GHz band for condominiums where wired installation was difficult.B FLET'S FWA type(Later "B FLET'S Wireless Access Type")[278].. In 2004, NTT West used the 26GHz band for households with difficult wired connections.B FLET'S Wireless Family TypeStarted[279].

    However, with the spread of FTTH, "B FLET'S Wireless Access Type" was introduced in March 2009.[278], "B FLET'S Wireless Family Type" was closed for new applications in February 2010.[279].

    After that, about 26 stations were operated in the 5300GHz band, centering on mobile phones and BWA entrance lines.[280]However, the 26GHz band is a 5G frequency candidate.[281][282], The use of those 26GHz bands is also being considered for frequency transition and sharing.[283][280].

    Mobile communication (3.9G)

    Standardized as fixed wireless accessWiMAXFor mobile communications in 2005 as a derivative ofMobile WiMAX(3.9GOne of the standards) has appeared, and in Japan the standard has been available since 2008.Region BWAIt came to be used as. In 2009Mobile WiMAXAdoptHigh-speed mobile flat-rate communication service OfUQ WiMAX(UQ Communications) Has also appeared.Also, in the same year, it was an original standard.XGPHigh-speed mobile flat-rate communication service that adoptedWILLCOM CORE XGP(WILLCOM) Has also appeared.

    Since the spring of 2011, au has been in-house3GUQ WiMAX network can be used in addition to network+ WiMAXServices and their correspondingSmartphoneAnd at the same time thatTetheringWas released for free[284]. afterwards,NTT DoCoMo,Softbank mobileWith a smartphoneLTEOpened tethering with (3.9G) support[285][286].

    Various services that adopted LTE subsequently adopted 4G LTE-Advanced technology.In addition, WILLCOM CORE XGP that adopted XGP ended on January 2012, 1.[287], UQ WiMAX with mobile WiMAX ended on March 2020, 3[288].

    Areas not provided with broadband

    Optical fiber

    As of March 2021, the remaining 3 (39%) households in Japan have undeveloped optical fibers.[289]..The main areas where FTTN connection, relay, ADSL, etc. are used for communication without reaching the optical fiber are as follows.[290].

    Remote island
    Other

    In addition, the following are areas where the undeveloped household rate exceeds 50%.

    In addition to the above, remote islands where optical fiber does not passLonely islandThere are many (in Hiroshima prefecture)Nasake Island[291]Such). As of March 2021, 3% of households living on remote islands are unable to use optical fiber.[292].

    Mobile phone line

    As of March 2021, there are 3 out-of-area settlements on Japanese mobile phone lines, and the remaining out-of-area population is about 876.[293], It is planned to eliminate the out-of-area population by the end of 2023[179].

    In addition, there are still many tunnels where mobile phones cannot be used.Undeveloped sections have been eliminated in the Shinkansen tunnel of the railway[294], Sections with a large average number of people passing through conventional line tunnels (109km or more out of 17km)[295]) Is being maintained[179]However, other than that, there are still undeveloped sections.As of the end of 2018, about 2% of expressways and about 5% of directly controlled national roads are undeveloped sections of road tunnels.[295].

    Nihon Hyaku Meizan(Japan's hundred famous mountains)High-speed mobile communication of each company is becoming available even on mountain trails of popular mountain climbing spots such as[296][297]It is also recommended to use multiple carrier lines with dual SIM just in case.[298]..Although high-speed mobile communication has made it possible to upload videos and distribute live even in the mountains, there are still sections where the communication speed is slow and where radio waves do not enter.

    FarmlandIn, 95% or more is inside the mobile phone cover, but depending on the prefecture, 5% or more of the agricultural land is not covered (according to the estimation by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in 2022).[299].

    At the hospitalEnd of PHS serviceAlthough the number of places where mobile phones can be used is increasing, it is said that the improvement of the radio wave condition of mobile phones is delayed in small hospitals.[300]..In addition, some high-rise condominiums also have mobile phone radio wave problems.[301]..JTOWER and others are installing indoor equipment for mobile phones.[302][303]However, there are some places that have not been installed yet.

    At sea, the number of places where mobile phones can be used is increasing in the sea near where radio waves from land reach.[304].

    Global Broadband Internet Penetration

    Of the world's broadband subscribersOECDFrom June 2020 data of member countries, shown in descending order of percentage of broadband subscribers in 12 population[305].

    RankingCountryRatio of broadband subscribers to 100 peopleNumber of contractors (person)
    DSLCable TVFTTHsatelliteFixed radioOtherTotal
    1Switzerland23.512.410.80.00.00.847.484,104,050
    2France22.76.815.30.00.80.045.5730,828,000
    3Norway4.610.726.70.02.20.244.562,397,006
    4Denmark10.715.217.50.00.40.444.222,578,110
    5Germany30.510.52.30.00.00.143.4136,101,303
    6 Netherlands13.920.19.20.00.00.043.157,525,000
    7 South Korea1.05.636.50.00.00.043.0622,330,182
    8Canada9.520.49.20.02.40.141.5615,794,330
    9Belgium18.621.70.70.00.00.141.044,734,210
    10United Kingdom30.98.11.90.00.00.040.9227,498,154
    11Portugal3.611.722.30.02.80.140.414,160,895
    12Sweden3.46.530.30.00.10.140.374,179,574
    13Greece39.80.00.10.00.00.039.884,270,473
    14アイス ランド11.90.226.70.00.10.038.90141,816
    15Luxembourg14.83.518.70.00.00.237.27235,200
    16America5.6223.575.980.580.620.1336.51120,531,000
    17Czech Republic9.05.76.70.014.40.035.853,835,701
    18Australia17.78.27.70.51.40.035.419,099,618
    19New Zealand7.90.921.10.04.70.034.661,770,222
    20Japan0.95.327.40.00.00.033.5542,318,035
    21Hungary6.215.710.20.01.40.033.493,265,308
    22Spain3.84.524.50.00.60.033.4715,850,374
    23Finland5.18.819.10.00.10.233.381,846,000
    24エストニア7.87.014.80.02.90.232.73435,026
    25Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu8.73.211.00.08.20.031.161,701,561
    26スロベニア8.08.713.70.00.30.130.76646,964
    27Ireland16.77.55.00.11.20.030.441,516,252
    28Italy9.40.03.00.02.615.230.1918,128,787
    29Austria17.010.71.30.00.20.029.222,606,214
    30リトアニア4.30.721.80.01.50.128.51796,814
    31Israel16.98.72.70.00.00.028.232,602,079
    32ラトビア5.40.818.80.00.41.026.50503,808
    33Poland4.57.56.30.02.01.521.818,366,549
    34Turkey13.21.64.80.00.00.520.0716,734,853
    35Costa Rica4.212.42.70.00.10.019.43992,725
    36チリ1.29.27.80.00.80.319.323,755,614
    37Mexico4.97.05.00.00.10.317.2821,936,131
    38Columbia2.69.72.70.10.80.015.747,778,301
    OECD10.0611.2610.130.160.730.8233.16453,896,239

    footnote

    1. ^ Physical deterioration due to oxidation of cables and amplifiers,4K / 8K broadcastingIncluding both social deterioration due to lack of bandwidth due to the spread of
    2. ^ Another predecessor of au Hikari, "KDDI Hikari Plus," uses NTT's dark fiber.[26]
    3. ^ Although Multipath TCP itself was implemented earlier in iOS 7, its use is in voice assistants.CrabWas limited to[48][46]
    4. ^ BS1 to BS23
    5. ^ ND1 to ND26 (ND25 and ND26 are unused as of 2021)
    6. ^ C13 to C63 (TV Frequency Channel # Cable Television Broadcasting
    7. ^ When 3 APSK of the ISDB-S16 method is used (advanced BS digital broadcasting that realizes 8K broadcasting and multiple 4K broadcasting).In the ISDB-S3 system, 120APSK of about 32Mbps is also specified, but it is not used as of 2022 due to the problem of non-linear distortion in the satellite repeater.
    8. ^ When using 256QAM of the ISDB-C method.note thatCarrier-to-noise ratioMany cable TV companies stay at about 64 Mbps of 29QAM due to the problem of (C / N ratio), and in that case, 4K broadcasting requires multiple physical channels per logical channel.[70](J.183 expansion method, etc.).The J.382 method also specifies 59QAM at about 4096Mbps.
    9. ^ There are two types of 5G broadcasting: large cell system and small cell system.
    10. ^ Although there is a priority communication function by QoS in the NGN network, its use is limited to some paid services such as "Hikari Denwa" (including "Data Connect") and "Hikari TV".
    11. ^ Red for time division, yellow for combination of radio and frequency division, green for combination of wired and frequency division, and green for subband full-duplex communication or single-frequency full-duplex communication.
    12. ^ The frame here is a set of downlink → switching → uplink.
    13. ^ 5ms is for DSUxx DSUxx configuration
    14. ^ G.2 exists in the extension of ADSL2 / ADSL998.4 +.
    15. ^ 0.57ms is for 2 OFDM symbols per TTI and subcarrier spacing of 15kHz.Different in other configurations.
    16. ^ DTU was originally intended for ADSL2 / ADSL2 + / VDSL2International Telecommunication Union It is included in G.998.4 (G.INP) standardized by (ITU).BroadcomBased on the vendor extension PhyR[142].
    17. ^ Definition of "ultra-high-speed broadband" in "Next Generation Broadband Strategy 2010" (#Definition of speedreference)
    18. ^ Uses equipment made by NEC[274][275]

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