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THE JUNEI HOTEL Kyoto, "JUNEI Memory ~Kyoto's…

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Refined rice koji has a high moisturizing ingredient and reaches the core of the body.

Junei Co., Ltd. (Location: Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, CEO: Emi Tokunaga) is a small luxury company operated by the company ... → Continue reading


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malt,Koji(Koji) isRice-wheat-soySuch as穀物ToAspergillusfood such asfermentationEffective forMoldCentered onmicroorganismis bred.Aspergillusto proliferateMyceliumfrom the tip ofStarch,proteinVarious酵素is produced and released, and the starch and protein of steamed rice and barley, which are the culture media, are decomposed and producedglucose,amino acidas a source of nutrition.Using the action of various degrading enzymes produced by Aspergillus oryzaeSake-miso-Vinegar-pickles-Soy sauce-Distilled spirits-AwamoriSuch,Fermented foodused when manufacturing[1][Reliability required verification].himalayan regionSoutheast AsiaIncludingEast AsiaIt is a fermentation technology unique to the area.

The name 'Koji' is a corruption of the noun form 'Kamosu' of 'Kamosu'.[2].

Kanjimalt" is a character introduced from ancient China, but "Koji” in the Edo period[3]can be confirmed inJapanese kokujiEspecially inRice JiuquRefers to.

How to make koji

Aspergillus oryzae spores cultured separatelySeed kojiThere is a method of sprinkling it on the steamed raw materials, and a method of extracting good quality koji from the previously made koji and storing it, adding it to the steamed rice when making new koji. .The latter method is called 'Tomo-koji' (also known as 'Tomo-koji').In present-day Japan, the former method is predominantly adopted, and when newly producing koji, it is often the case that the koji starter supplied by a company that specializes in producing koji starter is used.in the fieldMold poisonSince there is a wild type of mold fungus that generates iron TheAspergillusUse water with low iron content as it adversely affects the growth of[4][5].unsuitable for brewingSoft waterIsSoy sauce Ofbrewingsuitable for[6].

TasteNutritionIn order to produce fermented foods with excellent functionality, companies and public research institutes such as local governments are preserving excellent koji mold and selecting new ones.[7].

For details on how to make koji,Sake #Koji makingchecking ...

How to use Koji

  1. By adding koji to the fermentation ingredients, the already produced enzymes such as mold are used to ferment the food.Microorganisms do not necessarily have to be alive during fermentation.miso,Sweet Sake,sweet sakeThis is how koji is used when making koji.
  2. It is used to plant the necessary microorganisms in the fermentation material.This is the seed koji in Japanese koji technology.
  3. The fermented material itself, in which microorganisms, mainly molds, are planted and propagated is also called koji.Normally, the propagation of the microorganisms that make up the koji is stopped halfway through by adding water or salt, and the fermentation process proceeds to the next stage using the enzymes and other microorganisms that are produced.Sake, shochu and soy saucemashThis is the koji in the previous stage.
  4. Some are in between 1 and 3 above.For example, when making Japanese miso, soybean koji is used.Chubu regionSoybean miso and so on are completely the above 3 usages.However, in many cases, koji is made from rice or barley, and this is added to soybeans boiled with salt.If soybeans are the main ingredient of miso in Japan, this is close to usage 1, but white miso from the Kinki region and barley miso from Kyushu have a very high ratio of malted rice and barley malted rice, and these are also major ingredients. Considering it as a fermented material, it can be said that the element of usage of 3 is strong.

In addition to being used by companies to produce fermented foods, koji is also used by households to make amazake (sweet sake) and other products.Seasonings OfSalted JiuquIs on sale.

Types of koji

Rice cake koji

Mochi-koji is made by pulverizing raw or heated grains, kneading them with water to harden them, and allowing mold to grow.Many of the alcoholic beverages in East Asia other than Japan, such as China and Korea, are made using rice cake koji.[8].

The main fungus is Aspergillus Aspergillus oryzae, genus Saccharomycopsis (Saccharomycopsis fibuligeraSuch),Lactic acid bacteriaTetracoccus ( Pdiococcus pentosaceus), Mucorales (Kumonosukabi,Mold), etc., a bacterial flora is formed by a plurality of fungi.Research since the 1990s has shown that aspergillus and filamentous yeasts of the genus Saccharomycopsis are the main fungi for saccharification.[9], in the previous theory, Rhizopus (Rhizopusgenus) and mold (Mucorgenus) was thought to perform saccharification, but the saccharification ability of the mold mold is weak.[10][9].When compared to Aspergillus oryzaeMalic acid,Succinic acid,fumaric acidHigh productivity such as[11]It has the effect of suppressing the growth of contaminating bacteria.It also has excellent ability to saccharify unheated starch.[12].


heated (mainly steamed)wheatIt is made by propagating mold on grains such asIt is used to make sake, shochu, miso, and soy sauce.

Aspergillus oryzae is the main type of mold, but the type varies depending on the application.Sake, miso, and soy sauce are mainlyAspergillus oryzaeis the main body, and authentic shochu iswhite koji moldblack koji mold, awamoriblack koji moldis from Fujian, China(Chinese version Thered aspergillusIs the main subject.

Japanese koji

Koji has had a great influence on Japanese food culture. in 2006Japan Brewing AssociationByJapanese Aspergillus(Yellow Koji,Aspergillus oryzae),Aspergillus soybean mold(Yellow Koji,Aspergillus soybean),Aspergillus communis(Black Jiuqu,Aspergillus luchuensis), white koji mold (Aspergillus luchuensis mut.) is designated as a national fungus[16][17].

Malted rice

It is made by breeding koji mold on steamed rice.

The rice koji used for sake is1989(XNUMX)11/22ToNational Tax AgencyNotice No. 8 "Regarding Sake Production Method Quality Labeling Standards"[1]”, “What is rice koji?White riceIt is made by breeding Koji mold, and it is used for white rice.StarchTheSaccharificationSake with a specific name is limited to those with a koji rice ratio of 15% or more (referring to the weight ratio of koji rice to the weight of white rice; the same shall apply hereinafter). ” is defined.

Bean Jiuqu

Beans grown with Aspergillus oryzae[19]Miso with a lot of umami is produced because it contains a lot of protein.[20].products using soybeansHatcho MisoRepresented byBean misoIt is often used for

Barley Jiuqu

Aspergillus oryzae is grown on barley, but since the aspergillus oryzae does not grow in this state, it is subjected to a polishing process and steaming.In Japan, barley shochu[21], miso, and soy sauce.Since the enzyme activity is different from rice koji, brewing technology specialized for barley koji is required.[22].

Sotetsu Koji

Types of koji mold

Aspergillus oryzae

It has been used for a long time, and is a representative fungus species that brews miso, soy sauce, sake, vinegar, mirin, etc.The classification suitable for each brewing is determined by the balance of the three enzymatic powers of amylase, protease, and lipase.In classification by pigments, there are pure white yellow koji mold and blue koji mold.In the first place, there are many fungal species called yellow koji mold.

white koji mold

Genichiro Kawachiwas isolated from Okinawa Awamori black koji mold as an albino mutant.It contributed to the shochu culture in the Kyushu region, and the recent national and global shochu boom was spread by this white koji mold.

black koji mold

black koji ( Aspergillus luchuensis ) IsOchratoxinSpecies with no A-producing ability[23],in generalAspergillus communiswidely known infrom ancient timesOkinawaAwamorihas been used in the brewing ofAspergillus.citric acidFermentation flourishes, and moromipHCan be maintained at a relatively strong acidity of about 3[24].Therefore, it has the effect of preventing the growth of bacteria during fermentation, and is suitable for alcohol brewing in areas with relatively high temperatures.Black koji contains more glucoamylase than yellow koji, so it can saccharify unheated raw starch.[24].

The spread of black koji in the production of shochu in the Kyushu region was1910AroundGenichiro Kawachi``Kawachi Black Aspergillus'' (scientific name:a. niger there. awamori) and provided technical guidance to shochu producers in Kagoshima.Until then, Kagoshima shochu, which had been produced using yellow koji, dramatically improved yields by using black koji.However, black koji also has some drawbacks: 1. temperature control is difficult, and 2. the black pigment in its spores stains the workplace.Later, in 1924, Kawachi discovered 'white koji' which solved various problems of black koji.At the time of its discovery, black koji was already established, so there was no dramatic replacement, but white koji began to be used in most shochu production sites around 1970-1980.After that, Genichiro Kawachi, the second president of Shoten, discovered another mutant strain from white koji mold and succeeded in culturing a new type of black koji mold.With the recent shochu boom, black koji shochu is on the rise.

Enzymes contained in koji

As mentioned above, koji is made by growing a group of filamentous fungi called "Koji mold" on rice, wheat, beans, etc., and the koji mold is secreted outside the body.酵素ByStarch,protein,fatetc. can be made into low molecular weight molecules with very high efficiency.

amylase group

"amylase” means starchHydrolysisIt is a general term for enzymes thatStarch has a large number of glucose with α-1,4 and α-1,6 bonds.polymerizationHowever, humans cannot sense the sweetness of polysaccharides.Also, yeast cannot convert polysaccharides to alcohol, but they do so by hydrolyzing starch.Glucose,maltosecan be converted into alcohol (maltose is a disaccharide in which two molecules of glucose are α-2-linked).

Aspergillus isα-amylase,α-glucosidase,GlucoamylaseA large amount of several types of amylase such as amylase can be secreted outside the cells, and the starch contained in rice and barley can be decomposed into low-molecular sugars such as glucose and maltose.

  1. α-Amylase: Hydrolyzes α-1,4 bonds in starch at random positions, and can finally decompose to maltose.However, the α-1,6 bond cannot be resolved.
  2. β-amylase(Aspergillus oryzae does not produce): An enzyme that hydrolyzes α-1,4 bonds in starch from the non-reducing end side to maltose units. The α-1,6 bond cannot be resolved.
  3. Glucoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch from the non-reducing end to glucose units. Both α-1,4 and α-1,6 bonds can be hydrolyzed, but starch with relatively low molecular weight can be hydrolyzed.Substrateand cannot.
  4. α-Glucosidase: Can hydrolyze maltose to glucose.

Protease group

"Protease” is a general term for enzymes that hydrolyze proteins.protein isamino acid amide bondmany polymerized inPolypeptideis.As with starch, humans typically haveUmamican't feelAmino acids and short peptides produced by hydrolysis of polypeptides have an umami taste.

Lipase group

"Lipase" (lipase) isLipidComposeEster bondis a group of enzymes that hydrolyze


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Knowledge of brewing It is written as a reference book "revised brewing studies".
  2. ^ U sound serviceBy transformation (kamoshi > cowhide > koji).In addition, during the Insei period,Jinju YoshiyoshiThere is also a theory that 'koji' is derived from 'kabidachi' (kabidachi), and that it is a corruption of this (kabidachi > kauuji > koji), but such changes are not only irregular. , and the word form ending in ``di'' has not actually been confirmed.
  3. ^ ``Koji'' can be seen in the ``Wasokuji'' section of ``Itengoji Ben'' published in 5 (right, 1692c).
  4. ^ How Japanese sake is made <Process>
  5. ^ Understanding the "water" of sake: Nada's men's sake and Fushimi's women's sake
  6. ^ About Tatsuno's soy sauce
  7. ^ As an example,"Amekoji" developed by Akita Prefectural General Food Research Center.
  8. ^ a b Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Mochikoji Ragi from Indonesia A Study on Grain Koji and its Microorganisms in Asia. Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 1991 Vol.86 No.1 p.55-61, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.86.55
  9. ^ a b c Michio Kozaki, Yasushi Uchimura,Microbiota of Mochi Koji Bubod and Rice Sake from the Philippines A Study on Cereal Koji and its Microorganisms in Asia (Part 1) Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 1990 Vol.85 No.11 p.818-824, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.85.818
  10. ^ Microbiological study on traditional fermented foods in Southeast Asia Journal of Japanese Society of Food Industry Vol.38 (1991) No.7 P651-661
  11. ^ Traditional alcoholic beverages and koji from Japan, China, and Southeast Asia Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 104(12), 951-957, 2009-12-15
  12. ^ Seinosuke Ueda, "On the Discovery of Direct Alcoholic Fermentation of Raw Starch and Subsequent ResearchStarch Science 1987 Vol.34 No.2 p.113-118, two:10.5458 / jag1972.34.113
  13. ^ Lactic acid bacteria flora of Nepalese rice cake koji murcha Microorganisms of Nepalese rice cake koji (Part 2) Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 1996 Vol.91 No.12 p.901-905, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.91.901
  14. ^ Investigation of saccharification fungi in rice cake koji Chang Po from Bhutan Studies on cereal koji and its microorganisms in Asia (Part 2) Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 1990 Vol.85 No.12 p.881-887, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.85.881
  15. ^ Yasushi Uchimura, Yoichi Shinmura, Naohiro Ohara and others,Microbiota of rice cake koji Lucpan used for Thai vinegar brewing Study on cereal koji and its microorganisms in Asia."Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan 1991 Vol.86 No.1 p.62-67
  16. ^ *Koji mold is certified as Japan's "national fungus" (PDF) (October 18, 2006,Japan Brewing Association
  17. ^ Eiji Ichishima, Japan's national fungus Kojikin Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan Vol.99 (2004) No.2 P.83, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.99.83
  18. ^ Ministry of education,Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
  19. ^ Kishimoto City, research on soybean koji manufacturing method 1916 Vol.11 No.8 p.37-44, two:10.6013/jbrewsocjapan1915.11.8_37
  20. ^ Takeshi Namba, Hisao Yoshii, Studies on Amines in Soybean Miso (Part 1). Journal of the Japan Food Industry Society Vol.14 (1967) No.5 P.199-203, two:10.3136 / nskkk1962.14.199
  21. ^ Hironobu Ogasawara, Katsufumi Takahashi, Kenhito Iizuka, et al. Contribution of white koji to the improvement of fermentation characteristics of barley shochu moromi Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan Vol.86 (1991) No.4 P.304-307, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.86.304
  22. ^ Kimio Iwano, Shigeaki Mikami, Seiji Fukuda, et al., Research on activities of various enzymes in shochu white koji 1986 Vol.81 No.7 p.495-498, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1915.81.495
  23. ^ Osamu Yamada:Phylogenetic analysis of black koji mold and OTA non-productivity Mycotoxin Vol.63 (2013) No.2 p.187-190, two:10.2520 / myco.63.187
  24. ^ a b Seinosuke Ueda: On the discovery of direct alcoholic fermentation of raw starch and subsequent research Starch Science Vol.34 (1987) No.2 P.113-118, two:10.5458 / jag1972.34.113

Related literature

  • Bao Qi'an, "Chinese Koji Making Technology (1)", Journal of the Brewing Society of Japan, Vol. 85, No. 1, Brewing Society of Japan, 1990, pp. 34-37, two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1988.85.34.

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