IDC forecasts that the domestic private cloud market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 24% by the end of 28.6
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Furthermore, hosted private clouds, which provide IT assets owned by vendors as "as a service," have evolved in various ways, such as "industry-specific cloud services" and "local clouds that utilize public cloud technology." There is.
IDC Japan Co., Ltd. announced the domestic private cloud market forecast.According to this, the country of 2020 ... → Continue reading
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Cloud computing(British: cloud computing) IsインターネットSuch asComputer networkViaComputerresourceTheServiceIt is a usage form provided in the form of. For shortク ラ ウ ドOften called, cloud is in English(I.e.Means. With the global spread of the cloud, online users will be able to receive the services they need, when they need them, streamline all operations, and enhance the creativity of society.
A shape similar to a “cloud” was created in 1977. ARPANET,,Year 1981 CSNETで, Used to represent a network of computer equipment, both of which laterインターネットDeveloped into. The term "cloud" refers to the InternetMetaphorHas been used as. The term "cloud" was used in 1993. Distributed computingWas also used in the field of.
conventionallyOn-premisesThe main method was to own and operate the IT infrastructure hardware itself in the organization. On the other hand, in this method, the user receives various information processing services from an information system owned by an external organization via a network such as the Internet. What the user needs is a minimum connection environmentPersonal computer,Mobile information terminalSuch asclient, And the service usage fee. A group of computers that actually perform most of the processing (server, Storage, etc.) on the service provider sideData centerIt is installed inside, and the service provider side carries out the asset management and operation and maintenance of them.
The user interface is mainlyWeb applicationIt is provided in the form of. 1995 OfインターネットImmediately after the commercial use ofApplication service providerTrial and error has been done with a similar form such asJava appletThe format depended on vendor specific technology such as. 2005Begins withAjaxIn the boom ofWeb applicationAfter great potential was found in 2006ToGoogle OfCEOIsEric SchmidtAdvocated by.
Services provided in this form are referred to as "cloud computing services" or simply "Cloud service". Call that service provider "cloud serviceプ ロ バ イ ダ ーOr just "Cloud providerAlso called. As a new paradigm, "Sky Computing", The service when the network is closer to the device is called "fog computing" or "edge computing".. The edge is the outer edge of the network,Content delivery networkThe closest business user to your accessMirror serverIs a typical example.
Wide network access, rapid adaptability, measured service, on-demand self-service, and resource pooling are key characteristics.National Institute of Standards and Technology Defined by (NIST).. NIST explains:.
Network, server,storage,ア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ン, A shared pool of configurable computing resources such as services, andon-demandIt is one of the models in which it can be accessed and quickly provided and utilized with minimal administrative effort or interaction between service providers. This cloud model isUsabilityAnd consists of 5 basic characteristics, 3 service models, and 4 deployment models. — National Institute of Standards and Technology
In the case of the full cloud system, it is sufficient if the terminal and the Internet connection environment are prepared, and it becomes possible to simplify the internal IT equipment. Therefore, mainly for small and medium-sized enterprises with mobility, companies that simplify the internal IT equipment by selecting a method of connecting to a business system on the cloud from a lightweight notebook PC to perform business are rapidly increasing. The adoption of the full cloud system has made it possible to diversify working styles and is also useful in promoting remote work. Since the latter half of the 2010s, we have been aiming for the full digitalization of human work.Digital transformation (DX)Is booming.
2006Similar attempts have been made before the proposal of, but the social impact of this method was not obtained due to the limitations of processing performance and line speed.
1980 eraAlsoValue Added Network (VAN)Existed. However, in the 1980s, communication lines were expensive and slow, and the technical specifications were not standardized, so they were used only to a limited extent so that they could be introduced as one element of business.
Classification by service provided
The classification according to the type of service provided is as follows.
- SaaS (Software as a Service)-Via InternetsoftwareProviding packages.電子 メ ー ル,Groupware,CRMSuch.Google OfGoogle Apps,Microsoft OfMicrosoft Online Services,SAPof,SAP Business ByDesign, SAP SuccessFactors, SAP Ariba,Salesforce.comSalesforce CRM,OracleThere is Oracle Cloud.Open SourceSaaS constructionFrameworkasLiferayThere is.
- PaaS Platform as a Service-for running applications over the InternetplatformOffer of.VirtualizationWas doneApplication server,DatabaseSuch. Users can deploy and operate their own applications. Google'sGoogle App Engine,AppScale, MicrosoftMicrosoft Azure, SAPSAP Cloud Platform,SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud,Amazon Web Services OfAmazon S3,Amazon DynamoDB,Amazon SimpleDB,IBM OfSoftLayer,Salesforce.comSuch as the Force.com platform.
- HaaSorIaaS (Hardware / Infrastructure as a Service)-Via InternethardwareAnd infrastructure provision.Server virtualization,Desktop virtualizationOr shared disk. User himselfoperating system System can be installed and constructed including (OS).Amazon Web Services OfAmazon EC2-VMware Cloud on AWS, IBM's SoftLayer, etc.
- XaaS -Generic term for the above.
Classification by arrangement form
The classification according to the arrangement form (deployment) is as follows.
- Public cloud --General services via the Internet. In a narrow sense, it refers only to the public cloud. Services provided online.The point is a service that partially lends the cloud.
- Private cloud --Companies build and install an environment using this technology in-house,IntranetA form used by the user department via, for example. In the case of own assets such as data centers and servers,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グThere are also cases such as procurement. Compared to the public cloud, investment and operation management are required, but security and asset protection can be strengthened.
- Hybrid cloud -A form that combines the above public cloud and private cloud. It is possible to use and cooperate according to requirements such as business, data and security.
The main technologies used internally to realize this method are as follows.
The use of computer resources via networks has been carried out since the dawn of computers in the 1950s, and is basically not a new technology. Traditional examples and terms includemain frameProvide hourly calculation service via network usingValue-added communication network(VAN), orApplication service provider,Network computing,Utility computing, SaaS, etc. exist.
However, behind the spread of the term and service form called "cloud computing" since the 2000s,Open standardThe fact that the procedure common to all over the world has been established and spread has been great. For example, the development of the Internet and Internet-related technologies, variousstandardization, The speed and cost reduction, and on the provider side, the use of servers and software with less restrictions on specific manufacturers due to the spread of open source technology, at various levelsVirtualizationSharing of computing resources by technology and realization of flexible provision according to each user. Conventional similar services are not open due to barriers between services and technical barriers, and the procedure to start using them is complicated, and even if it is the widest, information can only be transmitted within the service to be used. , Anyone in the world can use it with easy procedures, and cooperation between services is easy, which is a big step forward.
Depending on the provider's requirements, depending on the provider, a dedicated line connection may be used instead of via the Internet, and not via virtualization.Bare metal(Physical server unit), original technology,Quality of ServiceDifferentiated by adopting or using a service fee system according to the actual service level. A large-scale provider installs huge data centers in multiple locations around the world and connects them with high-speed lines to improve availability such as disaster countermeasures.Multi national companyUser companies, such as, need only connect to the nearest access point and do not need their own international line.
However, the form of “providing computer processing in the form of a service via a network” has existed in the past. 1960From the generationTime sharing systemSuch asData centerUtilization (sharing a centralized virtual environment remotely via a network and charging as a service on a pay-as-you-go or flat-rate basis), 1980TeenagerVAN, 1991From aroundインターネットBased onASP, And even SaaS. Generally, of these, those that mainly provide the use of packaged software have come to be called SaaS.
It is said that the historical changes in the usage of computers are as follows.
- main frameCentralized processing in its heyday
- Distributed system(Open system)Client serverDistributed processing such as
- インターネットNew centralized processing centered on network
- Globally distributed users receive services without being aware of servers (cloud computing)
For example, it is a representative Japanese automobile companyToyotaIn the case of, even before this method was generalizedToyotaIT assetsIntranetでToyota groupAbout 4,000 companies (supplier, Stores, etc.,networkIt provides an environment where the system can be used via.
The chronology since the SaaS terminology has been generalized is shown below.
- 1999, Salesforce.com was established,CRMLaunched Salesforce CRM, which provides SaaS form of application.
- 2002,Amazon.com Amazon Web Services (AWS) started.
- 200511/13,Intel Virtualization Technology(x86 virtualization.Virtualization requirements for Popek and GoldbergThe CPU that supports () was announced.
- 20068/9Eric Schmidt allegedly used the term first in a "Search Engine Strategies Conference" held in San Jose, CA, USA.
- 20068/25, Amazon EC2 public beta started.
- 2007In July, Salesforce.com announced “from SaaSPaaSHe announced the concept.
- 200711/15,IBMAnnounces plans for what is currently available.
- 20083/4,Yahoo!And Computational Research Laboratories (CRL) in India announce research support.
- 20085/27, Google Google App Engine (GAE) announced to the public.
- 20088/20,Amazon Web ServicesIs Elastic Block Store compatible with Amazon EC2.
- 200810/23,Amazon Web ServicesBeta is removed from Amazon EC2, and it is official version.
- 200810/27Microsoft is the platform at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference 2008 (PDC 2008)Microsoft Windows AzureAnnounce.
- 200811/17, Microsoft is a groupware serviceMicrosoft Business Productivity Online SuiteStarted the service.
- 2009XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Sun MicrosystemsAnnounces.
- March 2009, 3, IBM, Sun Microsystems,Cisco Systems, SAP,EMC,AT&T,Novel,OMG,Red hat,VMwareAnnounced by.. In addition, non-participation of Amazon, Google, Microsoft became a topic.
- April 2009, 4 IBM Integrates Social Networking and CollaborationLotusLive EngageAnnounce .
- On July 2009, 7, IBM launched IBM Managed Cloud Computing Services (IBM MCCS) Announced.
- October 2009, 10, OS equipped with the development environment "Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud" (UEC),Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koara) Server Edition has been released. In the desktop version,Online storage serviceThe "Ubuntu One" client software is now standard equipment.
- On November 2009, 11, Fujitsu announced the appointment of the leadership board of the "Open Cloud Standards Incubator" inter-standardization group in the DMTF (Distributed Management Task Force), an international standardization organization for operation management technology and virtualization technology.
- 2010In April, the IEEE computer society published a special article “ECONOMICS AND THE CLOUD” in the monthly magazine “Computer (ISSN 4-0018)”.
- 2010January,Toyota digital cruise(Current Toyota Systems) Has begun offering the All Toyota Cloud.
- 2011June 6th at the WWDC 6 Keynote Speechア ッ プ ルCEO,Steve JobsBut"iCloud"Announced.
- On June 2012, 6, Oracle announced Oracle Cloud.
- October 2012, GermanySAPThe company's in-memory databaseSAP HANABased onPaaS"SAP HANA Cloud PlatformIs now available. In addition to online companies such as Amazon.com and Google, the services of the world's four largest package software companies (US, IBM, Oracle, Oracle, SAP in Germany) have been released.
- August 2013, 7,IBM SoftLayerAnnounced the completion of the acquisition.
There are more similar concepts and terms than before, just paraphrasing orBuzz wordThere are many claims that it is. 20084 Sun MicrosystemsCEO Jonathan Schwartz said, "What is the cloud?Network computingWas rephrased with a new word." CEO of Oracle in September 2008Larry EllisonCriticized, "We've already done it, the advertising phrase has changed.". It is also argued that there are many companies that the management team leads and promotes on-site technologists on the basis of "I do not know what it is, but it seems to be an industry trend"..
On the other hand, unlike the conventional concept, there is a view that opportunities to utilize large-scale infrastructure are open to individuals and small groups, which may lead to social change..
From the point of view of system configurationNetwork computingFrom a provider perspectiveApplication service provider, From the perspective of software provision form, SaaS, from the perspective of billing methodUtility computingIt can be considered that such systems and services are called "clouds" from the user's point of view.
The existing similar terms include the following.
- Server hosting(Rental server)-Provides services including provider assets via the network.
- Network computing(Network Centric Computing)-Advocated by Sun Microsystems. Network-centric computing in general.
- Dot com (.com)- Sun MicrosystemsAdvocated by. Mainly utilizing the InternetE-commerceGeneral business such as.
- e-business (e-business)- IBMAdvocated by. All businesses that apply Internet technology to existing core businesses.
- Utility computing -Provision of computing services by pay-per-use billing units.
- Application service provider -A provider that provides application services via a network.
- SaaS -Offer software as a service, not as a package.
- Ubiquitous computing - and production And similar concepts. Many devices are connected to the Internet.
- Grid computing - Distributed computing OfParallel processingone of. It is also used for technology in the data center.
- Web service -A standard that allows different software to cooperate with each other using Internet technology.
- Service-oriented architecture (SOA)-A form of loose coupling of application services based on Web services technology.
- Web 2.0 -A collective term for multiple web technologies.
- ^ Cloud computing [cloud computing]
- ^ Who Coined'Cloud Computing'-Antonio Regalado -MIT
- ^ Internet History 1977
- ^ National Science Foundation, "Diagram of CSNET," 1981
- ^ What Is The Cloud? --AT & T (1993)
- ^ Life after Google (Author George Gilder) Review. Why is Google's era over?
- ^ IoT platform structure and new business possibilities
- ^ William Sterlings, Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2015 ISBN 0134175395
- ^ NIST Definition of Cloud Computing(September 2011),NIST's definition of cloud computing(Information Processing Promotion OrganizationJapanese translation, December 2011)
- ^ Cloud Computing
- ^ Strong security due to inner circle: "Private" cloud computing is gaining popularity
- ^ IBM announces current viable cloud computing
- ^ Yahoo, US partner with Indian research institute for cloud computing research support
- ^ Microsoft Announces Windows Azure at Professional Developers Conference
- ^ Sun announces "Open Cloud Platform"
- ^ Open Cloud Manifesto
- ^ A dark cloud that can be reached in the way of "Open Cloud Manifesto"
- ^ IBM offers enterprises cloud social networking and collaboration services
- ^ New public cloud service that provides IT resources on a pay-as-you-go basis-IBM
- ^ Oracle's Ellison CEO Takes Down "Cloud Computing"
- ^ Nicholas G. Kerr "What the Net Baka Internet Is in Our Brain" Seitosha, 2010 ISBN 4791765559
- ^ Masaya Mori "Cloud Accelerates Transformation of Human Society"
- Nikkei BP Publishing Bureau, "Cloud Taizen The Complete Cloud Computing <From Service Details to Basic Technology>" (Nikkei BP, 2009) ISBN 978-4-8222-8388-9
- (Papers) "Business system that pursues customization and scalability of IT services at the same time-A case of salesforce.com "Force.com"-"InfoCom Review (54), pp.2-21
- Thin client -Simplified terminal that is premised on leaving the processing and storage functions to the server via the network.
- CNG -System that collects and shares broadcast program materials using cloud services
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