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💴 | How to choose the main credit card, think concretely from the supermarkets and mobile phones that you often use


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How to choose the main credit card, think concretely from the supermarkets and mobile phones that you often use

 
If you write the contents roughly
For example, in the case of supermarkets, if you choose to pay by credit card, a point return system has been established that can only be obtained with a credit card issued by the store, such as 0.5% ~ return at all times + points 5 times or 10 times on specific days. I am.
 

In "How many credit cards do you use properly? Why do you have multiple credit cards?", I explained the merits of having several credit cards.This time, Mei ... → Continue reading

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MONEY PLUS is an economic media that conveys financial and economic information in an easy-to-understand manner for people who are not good at talking about money.


Wikipedia related words

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credit card

credit card(British: credit card Abbreviation (slang): Card) is one of the means to make post-payment payment (payment) when purchasing a product. Alternatively, the contractor's number and other information was recorded and recorded.cardIs. CustomerscreditBy (credit)Deferred paymentIs a possible means.

A credit card is one that has an installment payment function, and a one-time payment is also called a charge card in Europe and America. On the other hand, a card that is tied to a bank account and uses the account deposit for immediate settlement isdebit cardCalled.

Credit cards, including their predecessors,アメリカ合衆国Has a history of about 150 years.

Overview

A credit card is a post-payment (Post pay) Payment method. It is not necessary to carry a large amount of cash when purchasing a high-priced product, and payment can be made only by presenting a card (up to a set limit). For payment, details are often sent on the closing date and paid in the following month. Payment methodInstallments,Revolving paymentVarious plans are prepared.

Being postpaidSome credit to customersPrepayment because you needprepaid cardOr immediate paymentdebit cardUnlike the above, a screening is performed when you join ("#About membershipSee).

Even if the store side introduces a payment system, even if it is a high-priced product or shopping for travelers from overseasCounterfeit billThere is no need to worry about money or exchange money. In addition, the credit card company side does the clerical work such as payment request, so it is rare for the payment to fail.

Credit card,MagneticWith stripesICIf the payment is made by IC,signatureInstead ofPINYou can make a payment by inputting.

Face

Creditcardwcontactless.png
CCardBack.svg
表面
1. Issuer logo 2.IC chip 3.hologram 4.card number 5. International brand 6. Expiration date 7. Cardholder name 8.Non-contact type IC

裏面
1.Magnetic stripe 2.signature 3.security code

The figure is an example of a typical face.

Some issuing companies have a card number printed on the back side, and others have a security code printed on the front side.

Card number, expiration date, cardholder nameImprinterFor use inEmboss(Relief) is often processed,Credit inquirySince the use of imprinter has decreased with the online of, the embossed card without embossing has also appeared.[1].

Cardholders' names are in order of [first name] [last name]The alphabetThe notation and expiration date are [month 2 digits] / [year 2 digits].

After the spread of online inquiries, magnetic stripes for reading card information electronically were attached,SkimmingDue to the frequent damage, switching to IC cards has progressed since the 1990s. Japan also 2018"Revised in JuneInstallment sales methodWas established, 2020By the end of MarchPayment terminalIt is obligatory to deal with IC cards. IC cards are standardized by.

Non-contact type ICContactless paymentThe IC used inMastercard contactlessWas first installed in. 2020Current,"Visa touch payment"Or"JCB ContactlessIt has been adopted by many card companies. Contactless IC cardISO / IEC 14443Has been standardized in.

At the time of payment, the required signature is replaced with a 4-digit PIN code input for IC cards and contactless IC cards. In both cases, there are cases where it is not necessary for small payments (according to individual contracts between the member store and the card company).

Since the 1980s, international brands have been widely seen on cards issued by domestic issuers (issuer). For international brands, even if the acquirer of the member store and the issuer of the cardholder are different, a system that enables payment using the network of international brands has been realized.

Mechanism in shopping

A credit card is a mechanism in which a credit card company once presents a credit card when purchasing a product at a member store that can be used, and then the credit card company takes over the payment to the member store and bills the card user later. The flow is as follows. Also, please refer to the figure on the right.Credit inquiryIs omitted)[2].

  1. The card user presents the credit card at the card member store.
  2. Card merchants provide products and services to card users.
  3. The card member store sends the voucher for the product/service price to the member store management company.
  4. The member store management company will collectively pay the card/member store within a few days the amount of the product/service price less the member store fee.
  5. The member store management company sends the transaction information to the processing center.
  6. The processing center sends the transaction information to the card issuing company.
  7. The card issuing company charges the card user for the price of goods and services with an added fee.
  8. The card user pays the product/service price to the card issuing company (usually after a fixed period of monthly tightening (for example, 25 days)).
  9. The card issuing company pays the amount of the product/service price less the card user introduction fee to the member store management company.

When using the card, a credit inquiry is made to the credit card issuing company. If you do not get approval here (expired, exceeded limit, late payment, etc.), you cannot use your credit card.

米 国In Japan and Japan, the amount charged to card users is basically the same for card payment (but once payment) or cash payment.UK,デンマーク,スウェーデン, Netherlands,オーストラリアIn such cases, an additional request for a card handling fee is allowed[3].

In the United States, card issuersbankThere are many banks that specialize in credit cards that do not perform counters or ordinary deposit/lending operations because they must be.

If the amount charged to the card user is the same for both card payment and cash payment as in the US and Japan, the card payment and cash payment look the same to the member store from the user's point of view, but they are actually paid to the member store. The amount of money is the amount obtained by subtracting the commission from the amount in the case of cash transaction, and this commission is eventually distributed by the member store management company, the processing center, and the card issuing company. The commission is usually around 3%, but it depends on the relationship between the member store and the member store management company (transaction amount). In addition, member stores collect various nominal fees from member store management companies.

  • Monthly account maintenance fee
  • Monthly device usage fee
  • Fixed fee for each transaction (sales, returns, etc.)

If there is a fraudulent use of the card (for example, using another person's card to impersonate the card holder and make a purchase at a member store) and the card holder reports to the card issuing company, the member store will be authorized by the back of the card. Owner'ssignatureCard use slips that have the same signature as the ones listed aboveInvoiceEtc. must be shown to the member store management company to prove that there is no defect, and if it cannot do so, the member store that sells the product or service will suffer the loss of unauthorized use.

For admission

In order to obtain a credit card, it is necessary to apply and be screened. The criteria for examination differ depending on the type of credit card and issuer, but especially in the United States,Credit information(Credit history) is very important. Therefore, even if you have a lot of cash, if you do not have a credit history or the repayment situation is bad, it will be difficult to obtain a credit card.[4].. For this reason, you will first need to build a credit history with a debit card that does not provide credit (sometimes called a check card), and then obtain a credit card.[4].

International brand

International brands are companies that provide systems that allow credit card payments around the world.[5][6]..The card can be used at member stores of the same international brand as the international brand of credit cards.In addition, international brands correspond differently depending on the country or region as well as the store.[7].

World share

2018Based on the transaction amount at the time (including debit cards and prepaid cards)世界Share isShow 44.84%,Union Pay(UnionPay) 26.66%,MasterCard 24.46%, 2.26%,JCB 1.04%,Diners 0.74%[8]

Show

Top share in the worldMasterCardTwo major brands alongside[9]. In JapanJCBSecond largest share is second only. Initially Sumitomo Credit Service (currentMitsui Sumitomo Bank Card) And other VISA Japan Association (currentVJA) Was only issuing cards and cultivating member stores, but after the introduction of the special licensee system in 1987, banks and credit sales companies other than VJ Kyo have a lot of partnerships with other companies.

MasterCard

The world's two largest brands alongside VISA. The pioneer of EMV specificationsEuro PayStarted in a partnership with Frankfurt in Germany in July 2002 (being divided into the USA product development headquarters and EU headquarters),EuropeIt was said to be strong in the sphere.Currently, card companies that are members of both camps at the same time often develop affiliated stores, and MasterCard can also be used at stores that can use VISA, so there is no big difference in convenience between them.[10].

In Japan, in principle, VISA does not allow direct membership in branding to non-bank card companies,CMWe are trying to expand our power by proactively promoting offensives.

American Express

Also known as "Amex". The American hotel union acquired the issuance rights and continues to this day. It features a wealth of services prepared according to the grade of the card. "Gold card""Platinum card""Black card(The official name is "American Express Centurion Card")" is the originator of. In addition, we do not set a uniform limit on the usage of credit cards issued by our company.[11].. Conditions for increasing the real limit include making a payment record of AMEX or responding to the backing of assets.

Unlike the above two companies, along with "issuer business" and "acquirer business" that issue cards in-house, in JapanMUFG card,Credit SaisonIn Hong KongAEON credit serviceIs also licensed to a local corporation.Roman soldierKnown for its card face. In Japan, it can be used not only by its own affiliated stores but also by affiliated JCB affiliated stores, so the number of stores available in Japan is almost the same as the above two companies.

JCB

JapanThe first authentic credit card issued by a Japanese company in Japan. For the first time in a private company, it realized the automatic transfer from a bank account, and has pioneered and led the credit card business in Japan.AsiaIt is the first international brand. Increase the number of member stores mainly in Asian countries, South Korea,Taiwan,Hong Kong,Singapore,Malaysia,ThailandThere are member stores similar to VISA and MasterCard.Also, in the United States and other countries, there is a tie-up with American Express in the business of developing affiliated stores, but it is not a complete mutual opening (a format selected by the affiliated stores as an option).In addition, we have a mutual opening tie-up with DISCOVER, which will be described later.It is the only credit card brand in Japan and boasts the largest number of stores in Japan.There are some stores in rural areas where only JCB can be used, but nowadays, due to high member store fees, there are an increasing number of stores that support VISA and MasterCard but not JCB.[12]..In JapanJCB Group(Franchise) Is also licensed to card companies other than) (opening of affiliated stores and brand issuing companies), and card issuance is also carried out through partner companies.Including these cards, as of 2007, it has the top share in Japan.

Diners Club

Many credit cards have been issued by various industries in the United States, but it is said to be the first general-purpose credit card in the United States, mainly in restaurants. Most company-issued cards do not have a uniform limit on usage[13]. Also,Gold cardWe haven't issued any of the following grade-worthy cards and are expensive when you joinattributeIs required. For this reasonstatusWas said to be one of the highest brands. For a long time it was independent and had few member stores, but in 2000CitigroupBelonging to the United StatesカナダIn Japan, a tie-up with MasterCard was realized, and in Japan, a franchise store contract with JCB (as with Amex, not full opening, but treated as an option) was signed, and the number of stores that can be used in North America and Japan is expanding. In April 2008, Citigroup sold its subsidiary Diners Club International to Discover Financial Services because of poor management. Became a member of Discover[14].

DISCOVER

From the United States, 5,000 million card members, more than 400 million member stores. Most merchants are in the United States, but some in Canada,メキシコ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Micronesia,マ ー ャ ル ル,CaribbeanIs developing member stores in these countries. Also JCB andChinese UnionPayAnd the member stores are open to each other, and the stores that can be used in Asia such as Japan, People's Republic of China, Singapore, Thailand, and South Korea are rapidly expanding.

As of 2017, it is the only international brand that has not been issued by a company in Japan.

Chinese UnionPay

People's Republic of ChinaPayment network system that is spreading around[15]..The international notation is "China UnionPay" ("UnionPay" on the logo).With creditDebit[16]There are two types. Besides China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand,ドイツ,FranceAvailable in about 20 countries including Australia. The above-mentioned Discover Card and member stores are open to each other.

Some banks also issue VISA/MasterCard/JCB composite types, so it is possible to use them at participating brands.

card number

  • Credit card numbers are 16 digits for VISA, MASTER, JCB, etc., 15 digits for AMEX, and 14 digits for Diners.
  • The card numbering system isISOIs determined by.
  • In the case of domestic cards, it is determined by the institution of that country, not ISO[17].

Credit limit

Usually, the maximum amount of use is set for each card according to the attributes of the user.In Japan, a general card costs 3 to 50 yen, and depending on the usage record, it exceeds 50 yen to 100 million yen, the wealthy class. The target gold card is about 50 to 300 yen, and there are differences depending on the attributes and usage record. In some foreign credit card companies, the limit is set to a value equivalent to X times the monthly salary.

The difference between the usage limit and the unpaid debt (including unclaimed debt) is the amount at which the credit card can be paid in advance at that time. It depends on the credit card, but in some cases it may be possible to use more than the limited amount if it is a small amount.

There are some cards that do not set a credit limit in advance, but the credit card company actually saysCredit(Frame) is managed, and approval is required when trying to use a large amount of money.

Still moreCall centerIf you apply to increase the usage limit, etc., the usage limit may increase as a result of another examination. This is sometimes called "increase" because the credit limit is increased.

In addition, when going on an overseas trip or making a big purchase even in the country (for example, renovation costs, car repair costs,Ceremonial occasionYou can also ask for a temporary increase in the usage limit (there are often questions about the application and period when applying). This is called "temporary increase" or "temporary increase".

It should be noted that some cards may have a plurality of limits set according to purposes (stores). In the past, many house cards were just partnered with an international brand (house cards will be described later), and there were many cases where the amount used for own stores and the use for international brands were divided. It is now almost gone due to the integration of payment systems.

Payment Method

There are various payment methods available for credit cards.

Lump sum payment
As the name implies, it is a one-time payment method. The most common payment method. Cards for single payment are also called "charge cards"[2].. All early credit cards were lump-sum payments[18].. No fees.
Installments
Two-time installment payment with no fee and 2 to 3 payment with feeInstallments(Add-on payment: A method of multiplying the usage amount by the interest rate and making a payment in installments). This is a useful payment method when purchasing high-priced products. Even if the card is compatible, it may not be available at some stores.
Revolving payment(Revolving payment)
This is a method of paying a fee and paying a fixed amount fixed every month. The feature is that the monthly payment amount does not change even if you purchase more. Instead, the number of payments will increase. It is not popular because member stores are passive, but on the contrary, card issuing companies tend to encourage users in campaigns etc. in anticipation of increased revenue. In addition, even if you specify lump-sum payment at the store, all payments will be revolving paymentsサイトThere are also things that can be changed to revolving payment by telephone contact.
Bonus payment
ボ ー ナ スHow to count and pay. There is a grace period of up to 6 months for a lump sum bonus payment and a maximum of 2 year for a double bonus payment. Please note that the period for which bonus payment can be specified is fixed (bonus payment is not possible immediately before the bonus period). No fees.
Flex payment
Flex payment is a kind of revolving payment, but you can freely set the repayment amount as long as it is the minimum amount set by the credit card company. It is easy to understand if you think that flexibility has been added to revolving payment.
Prepayment method
A prepaid card type credit card, which is similar in nature to prepaid electronic money. Generally, it is sold as a disposable gift prepaid card. Not issued for gifts in Japan, but for overseas travel or online payment[19].

Of use pricePayment site(The period from the closing date to the withdrawal date) varies depending on the type of card and the issuing company, but there are forms such as 27th of the month following the end of the month and 15th of the next month closing. Some companies (or some cards) allow you to choose from multiple payment dates.

For countries other than Japan, add-on payment or revolving payment is used as a credit card, and the monthly usage amount is paid in full (one-time payment).Charge cardSometimes referred to as a credit card. In AmericaAmerican Express,Diners ClubThe main card of is a charge card. With regard to charge cards, instead of interest, profits are earned from commissions from member stores, membership fees from card users (such as foreign exchange fees), and sales of incidental services (such as travel agency business).

Corporate card

Corporate cards are credit cards issued to corporate representatives and sole proprietors.

The difference from the personal credit card is that there is no big difference in terms of performance except that the credit limit is high. Other than performance, you can specify a corporate account as a withdrawal account, or you need a copy of a register or business plan at the time of examination.

Similar words are called “business card” and “corporate card”. These differences are different for each issuer, so there is no clear definition, but "Business cards" are mainly classified as sole proprietors and small and medium-sized enterprises, and "Corporate cards" are classified as large enterprises.[20]

Corporate card

Corporate (mainlylarge company) Target expense payment card issued. The maximum usage limit is set for each corporation or department, and depending on the contract type, the corporation can arbitrarily specify the number of issued cards (users). It is also possible to add a caching function.

Some corporations give employees two types of cards, this card and the welfare card described below, so that they will not wear them.

MainlyEntertainment expenses,Travel expenses[21],ConsumablesPurchase, etc.ExpenseIt is used to settle payments, and those costs are paid back by the card company, so there is no need for the corporation to prepare cash until the payment date. You can check how much you used. In particular, the corporate card has advantages for the shipping company, and since it is possible to issue a child card of the corporate card for each vehicle, how manygasoline-Light oil,highwayIt will be easier to know if you used. Also, because it is a service equivalent to a gold card,Business tripof timeAirport loungeIt also has the advantage that travel accident insurance is provided free of charge.

Purchasing card

A purchasing card is a type of corporate card and is an expense payment card that limits the use of the card. By limiting the usage destination, it is possible to prevent the employee from being used up and reduce the risk of loan loss, so there is an advantage that a higher limit can be set than a general corporate card[22].

Business card

Personal business card
Arrange the corporate card with a unique card from some Japanese card companiesSole proprietorTo be issued for. As with individual cards, you can choose between general and gold grades, and there are cases where the annual membership fee is free. Business cards are for each card companyCreditIs established, and it is generally said that "working history is 3 years or more, surplus settlement is 2 years or more".Credit informationIf there is no problem with the[23].
Benefit card
WelfarePeople and occupations belonging to the corporation forCo-opCard issued to members of the company. Although a service similar to that of a gold card is attached, the limit is lower than that of a personally contracted gold card, which is about 50 to 80 yen per person. Also, depending on the contract type of the corporation, the card usageSalaryDirectly fromDeductionThere are also patterns that are played.
The famous ones are JCB andMitsubishi UFJ Nikos National Public Service Mutual Aid AssociationThere is a "KKR Members Card" that is issued to union members (including retirees) in partnership with (KKR).
Residential credit cardIt is,Asahi ShimbunIn partnership withAsparagus ClubBusiness cards are “sold out” for members and issued at an annual membership fee of ¥2,500.

History

The word "credit card" itself is 1888United States authorsEdward BellamyBut, 2000Set in (more than 100 years later)ユ ー ト ピ アnovel,"(English edition)It is said that it was used first. The term "credit card" is used 11 times in this novel. Bellamy in this novelbillIt is envisioned that instead of, the state will distribute a credit card as a payment for labor and a payment method for labor.

The advent of credit cards demanded their origin in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century, and in the 20th century, it developed mainly in specific industries such as gasoline and distribution. Full-scale adoption of plastic cards in the United States began in the 1950s, and in other card developed countries in the 1960s. Huge in the United StatescheckProcessing and high value banknotes are low in credit and difficult to use (100DollarBills are often forged.Counterfeit bill), essential for social lifeCredit informationA credit card is the most common way to build (credit history and credit score) and a means to prove the user's own credit, even if it is a very small amount for everyday consumption Credit cards are often held and used for reasons such as being able to pay.

米 国

  • Late 19th century-Frank (Frank) paper communications, payment cards were issued and spread for the payment of luggage, etc.
  • Early 1910-Oil companies, taxi companies, etc. issued paper credit cards. The name Credit Card was also used. However, there were many things that were not called credit cards even if they were functionally credit cards.
  • From the first half of the 20th century, many metal credit cards (Chaga plates) were issued mainly in the distribution industry. In parallel there were also paper and celluloid products.
  • 1950-First credit card companyDiners ClubIs established in the United States. Initially, it was a ticket type like a notebook. It is said that the founding motive was born from the experience of the founder, "I wish I had a payment method without forgetting misery even if I forget my wallet at dinner ..."[18]However, this is a corporate advertisement at that time, and it is not based on the fact that "this is the first credit card" in Japan.urban legendHas spread. As mentioned above, many types of credit cards have been issued for almost half a century before the Diners card.
  • 1951-Franklin National Bank issued a credit card.
  • 1958- American Express(Amex) started credit card business and started issuing Bank of America Card (predecessor of VISA).
  • 1966-Interbank Card Association (ICA) established. The cards issued by ICA member banks are Master Charge Cards (the predecessor of Master Card).
  • 1985- Discover cardEstablished.

Japan

  • 1960
    • Fuji Bank(CurrentMizuho Bank) And Japan Transportation Corporation (currentlyJTB) Japan Diners Club (Citicorp Japan through Citicorp Diners Club Japansegmentation) Was established (published in the spring of 1961 the following year, almost at the same time as JCB).
    • Marui Installment saleIssue a "credit card" as a tool for use. However, even though its name and form are modeled on American credit cards, it is like a paper "payment certificate" that can be used only once for the next shopping after payment of installment sales is completed. It had a different function than a credit card. It was recovered at the next shopping. After that, Marui issued a plastic "credit plate," which had the function of shopping, but it became a very limited issue and did not spread.
    Then, in the 1970s, Marui started credit card business in earnest,Red cardIs nicknamed. From spring 2006Epos Card"change to.
  • 1961-Sanwa Bank and Nippon Shinpan (currentlyMitsubishi UFJ NikosJapan Credit Bureau (currentlyJCB(JCB)) is established to issue JCB cards.
  • 1961-JapanDiners ClubHowever, the card was issued almost at the same time as JCB. JCB and Diners Club began issuing full-fledged credit cards in Japan. After that, the share of JCB (and its sister company OCB) was overwhelming, and the JCB Group expanded nationwide. These effectively became the standard for the first universal credit card in Japan, and the standard features of Japanese credit cards were developed by JCB.
  • 1966-Nippon Shinpan (now Mitsubishi UFJ Nicos) issued a credit card.
  • 1967- Bank of MitsubishiDiamond Credit (currently Mitsubishi UFJ NICOS), mainly by (currently Mitsubishi UFJ Bank),Sumitomo Bank(CurrentSumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation) Mainly Sumitomo Credit Service (currentlyMitsui Sumitomo Bank Card) Established. JCB partnered with Amex to issue international cards.
  • 1968- Tokai BankEstablished Million Card Service (currently Mitsubishi UFJ NICOS) centered on (currently Mitsubishi UFJ Bank). Sumitomo Credit Service (now Sumitomo Mitsui Card) issues VISA international cards.
  • 1969- Daiichi Bank, Fuji Bank (above 2 banks, currentMizuho Bank),Mitsui Bank,Sun bank,Kobe Bank(The above three banks, currently Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation),Yamato Bank(CurrentResona Bank),Saitama Bank(CurrentSaitama Resona Bank)etc,Union credit(CurrentCredit Saisonas well as the Ucy card)Established.Orient Corporation,Central finance(CurrentSMBC Finance Service), domestic credit (currently J Trust Card) issued a credit card.
  • 1970- JacksIssued a credit card.
    * After that, the issuance of bank-related and credit-related credit cards continues.
  • 1980-American Express (Amex) issued the first gold card in Japan.
  • 1981-JCB begins its own global expansion.
  • 1987-Nippon Shinpan (currently Mitsubishi UFJ Nikos) will issue a VISA card and issue a dual MasterCard. After this, other credit and distribution cards issue dual VISA and MasterCard as well.
  • 1989-Established Omni Card Association. Visa Japan Association (currentlyVJA) Has dual issue with MasterCard.

英国

  • 1961-British Diners Club founded.
  • 1966- Barclays BankIssued a credit card.

Cases in the United States

Card Information Leakage in 2005

Visa and MasterCard member banks (acquirers) outsource data processing (ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グ)WasArizonaData processing company "Card Systems" discovered about 4,000 million pieces of card information leaked to the outside on June 2005, 6, and leaked data occurred even with Japanese cards affiliated with both companies, leaked information Unauthorized use of the card based on this has also occurred, causing damage. The impact was not limited to Visa and MasterCard, but Amex, Diners, and JCB in Japan were also suspected that there was a possibility of information leakage and unauthorized use, and it was revealed that the damage to these cards is spreading all over the world.

It is said that the cause of this problem is that the data processing company originally saved data that should not be saved.crackingIt is known that it has been leaked.

As a measure from the user side, it is necessary to properly check the monthly usage statement and to notify the card company if there is an unauthorized use (if it is recognized as an unauthorized use, the price will not be charged). Similar to the case of loss, consider switching to a new numbered card and requesting reissue.

Impact of the 2007 subprime problem

2007 yearsSubprime mortgage crisisAlso affected the credit card industry.Sub prime loanSince the issue, card non-payments have increased and bad debts have increased[24].

Cause

It has been pointed out that the repayment capacity of individuals and the amount of card usage have increased as the background to the increase in bad debts.[24].

Decrease in individual repayment ability
The loss of housing property value due to the subprime problem
  • Increase in personal debt such as mortgages
  • There is no way to borrow money from homes and use it to pay for cards
As a result, the repayment ability of individuals declined.[24].
Increase in card usage
In the 2000s, individuals became more tolerant of their spending activities, and as a result, it became commonplace to even borrow to the full card limit. Debt as a percentage of middle-class household income rose to an average of 2000% in the early 141s. In addition, after the subprime problem, the number of people who use credit cards for the purpose of immediate cash flow such as shopping for daily necessities is increasing.[24].

Lender response

Lender companies are taking defensive measures to prevent the spread of bad debts and aggressive measures to lend money at high interest to people who can not make cards due to increased defensive measures.[24].

  • Preventing bad debt expansion
Existing card companies, such as banks, tried to limit the amount of lending by raising lending rates, lowering the lending limit, and tightening the examination of new applicants, in order to prevent further credit losses.
  • Active lending to people who can no longer make cards
The number of companies that lend at high interest rates is increasing for people who cannot make cards and whose cash flow in daily life deteriorates. Lending at a high interest rate (eg 500%) with employment as collateralPayday loanBusinesses are growing rapidly. In some cases, banks also lend at interest rates of around 20% within the range of deposits. Also,PawnshopIs also thriving.

Card crime prevention

When using a credit cardCredit inquiryIs done. Also, if the credit card reaches the holder, immediately in the signature field on the backsignatureOtherwise, if a credit card is discovered by unauthorized use when lost or stolen, the card issuer will not guarantee anything and the cardholder will pay the full amount. For this reason, the signature section of a credit card has an important meaning for preventing card crime.

Also, when credit card merchants use fraudulent or fraudulent credit cards to think of fraudulent cards, or when enough cardholders to think so appear, be careful not to become bearers. The card company has decided to notify the card companySignatureExists.

The card company that receives the notification with this signature will give top priority to the protection of the member store, and a specialized operator will handle it. At that time, the situation should be grasped (“yes/no” questions) so that the person who brings it will not notice it, and if necessary, the police will be notified via the operator. In addition, the card company may call the cardholder or the cardholder directly by telephone.

In addition, it is rare for member stores to report to the police, and stores do not detain suspicious persons. It is usual to ask for a payment method other than using the card. However, at that time, the information will be notified to member stores nationwide and worldwide.

As an example of a crime, in July 2006, a JCB subsidiary JCS (Japan Counter Support Co., Ltd.) was dispatched and arrested when a customer asked for a PIN code from a customer when receiving a postal savings card with a credit function and withdrawing cash.[25].

To prevent unauthorized use of credit cards, the government plans to popularize IC cards and payment terminals compatible with IC cards by 2020.

Other

If you become a member (card holder), you will often get benefits in addition to payment (deferred payment). For example, point service according to usage record, domestic/overseas travel injuryinsurance,チケットIt is a special sale of. Also, when traveling abroadIdentificationAs one of the cases, you may get a guarantee of solvency or a credit guarantee.deposit -Request a deposit in advanceHotelIs in part). Some card companies are working to improve membership services by making accumulated points indefinite, expanding exchange gifts, and supplementary services. This is a measure because it is not possible to differentiate itself from other companies by the payment service itself, but the resources are only covered by annual fees collected from members and payment fees from member stores.

High yield in the short termOperationIf it is possible, you can manage the money until the settlement date of the price paid by credit card and earn an operating profit, so even in JapanBubble burstUntil the termWealthWas one of the. There are few in Japan, but in Europe and AmericaFX,CFDEven in such cases, there are companies that allow credit card payment.

In the case of theft or loss, use can be stopped by contacting the issuing credit card company, and damage can be minimized. In addition, some card companies come with card theft insurance in advance. This is a service that considers the benefit of the victim, but in the past it was decided that the unauthorized use of a credit or loan card by a third party was not the responsibility of the cardholder under certain conditions.[26]Things,Depositor protection lawHowever, due to environmental factors such as the enforcement in 2006, the card company side is aiming to limit the loss before it happens.

In the 1990s in Japan,Internet service providerWas essential for paying account usage fees to. This is because at that time, payment methods such as direct debit and payment payment were not complete.2010 eraEven inSo-called "cheap smartphone"And onlineDVDIn most cases, a credit card is required to pay usage fees for rental services (debit cardHowever, it often does not support account transfer or other payment methods.

In some countries, the credit cards that can be used are limited or not available.キ ュ ー バIn the case of, the credit cards that can be used are only Visa and MasterCard that are settled at financial institutions other than American financial institutions (financial institutions such as Japan, Canada, Europe, Latin America) and affiliated with non-American companies, Other credit cards (including Visa and MasterCard paid by American financial institutions and Visa and MasterCard affiliated with American companies) cannot be used. As a result, tourists visiting Cuba have a little bit of cash and rely on credit cards, so there are cases where they are in trouble.[27][28].(I.e.Credit cards cannot be used at all[29].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ https://www.j-cast.com/2020/01/19377444.html Impact of Sumitomo Mitsui Card "Number on Back" Is "No Embossing" the Industry Standard?: J-CAST News
  2. ^ a b "Credit Card Glossary" Published by May 2008, 5
  3. ^ Payment method for shopping abroad Orico
  4. ^ a b Akio Iwata"Credit" Disparity Society, Toyo Keizai, November 2008 ISBN 9784492222935
  5. ^ "What is an international brand? Credit card brand difference”. Zeus. 2020/10/10Browse.
  6. ^ "What is an international credit card brand?Introducing the features of the world's five major brands”. Sumitomo Mitsui Card (October 2020, 10). 2020/10/10Browse.
  7. ^ "What is an international brand? Explain the 7 major international brands including VISA, MasterCard and JCB!”. Manekai Credit Card. 2019/4/22Browse.
  8. ^ "Global Cards”. Nilson Report. 2020/10/10Browse.
  9. ^ "What is "Mastercard", one of the two major brands along with Visa?”. Sumitomo Mitsui Card (October 2020, 10). 2020/10/10Browse.
  10. ^ "Can I use "Mastercard" at "Visa" merchants?". Mitsui Sumitomo Bank Card. 2020/10/10Browse.
  11. ^ Actually, it is set for each customer. You can check the limit by inquiry.
  12. ^ "Is the number of stores that cannot use JCB cards increasing?I will explain the unexpected reason and solution”. VANDLE CARD. 2020/10/10Browse.
  13. ^ Meaning that restrictions are not uniform.
  14. ^ In Japan, Citi Card Japan continues to issue cards and cultivate member stores through licensing from Discover.
  15. ^ “UnionPay accounts for 45% of global cards spending, but only 1% outside China” (English) (PDF) (Press Release), rbrlondon, (October 2020, 10), https://www.rbrlondon.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/GC25_Press_Release_071020.pdf 2020/10/10Browse. 
  16. ^ The cards issued by Sumitomo Mitsui Card and Mitsubishi UFJ NICOS are family cards andETC card,Post-pay type electronic moneyLike the above, it is a credit card that is a child card of the existing credit card.
  17. ^ ISO 7812(Wikipedia English version)
  18. ^ a b "Half century of credit in Japan"Corporation Japan Credit Industry Association
  19. ^ Visa prepaid card Visa Worldwide Tokyo
  20. ^ "Corporate card recommended comparison site". xn--t8j4aa4nyhsgsnk44r6z0cgdcj65m.net/. 2020/7/15Browse.
  21. ^ In Japan, credit card companiesJR TokaiIn partnership withExpress bookingThere are many corporate cards available for use.
  22. ^ "What is a purchasing card? |Corporate card comparison concierge". xn--lck0cth848i8p5a.jp. 2019/7/24Browse.
  23. ^ "What is the corporate card ranking that is easy to pass the examination? |Sengoku corporation card". xn--lck0cth848iewi0zqbur.com. 2020/5/8Browse.
  24. ^ a b c d e "Creepy credit card crisis Subprime spreads to the card industry that has been supporting personal consumption" "Nikkei Business Online" Delivered February 2008, 2
  25. ^ "About misconduct by outsourcing staff”. JCB (July 2006, 7). As of March 21, 2016オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2017/9/26Browse.
  26. ^ Cases concerning consumer finance (illegal use of cards and liability)[Broken link]
  27. ^ Important notes for staying in Cuba Embassy of Japan in Cuba
  28. ^ Basic data for safety measures CubaMinistry of Foreign Affairs December 2017, 12
  29. ^ Basic data for safety measures IranMinistry of Foreign Affairs December 2017, 7

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