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💴 | Who is responsible for the lack of wage increases in Japan for 30 years?


Who is responsible for the lack of wage increases in Japan for 30 years?

If you write the contents roughly
However, without a union, we should be able to organize a new organization or speak out individually.

Even before the employment environment deteriorated due to the new coronavirus, the average wage in Japan increased for 30 years unlike overseas countries ... → Continue reading


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Union(Union,English: trade union, labor union, workers union) IsWorkerIs a solidarity organization of, maintaining sincere contract negotiations, raising wages,employmentIt is a group that aims to achieve common goals such as increasing the number of people and improving the working environment. Its most common purpose is to "maintain and improve the employment of its members".[1].. The abbreviation isLabor union(Rokuro, wax),Union.. simplycombinationSometimes called.


Union(Hereinafter, it may be simply abbreviated as "union".) Dates back to the 18th centuryIndustrial revolutionBy women, children, peasant workers,ImmigrationIt was an era when many workers began to participate in the labor market. The origin is that such a group of unskilled workers voluntarily organized the organization.[1], Played an important role as a later trade union.

Catholic churchTrade unions that received such approvals appeared at the end of the 19th century.Pope Leo XIII TheEncyclical"Rerum NovalumPromulgated, and urged society to commit to this issue for the first time as a church, tackle the issue of worker abuse, and ensure that workers receive reasonable rights and protection regulations.[2].

International treaty

As a basic principle of the labor union, 1948(Showa 23)Convention on freedom of association and protection of right of association(ILO Convention No. 87), right to organize trade unions (Right to organize) And the right to collective bargaining (collective bargaining right) when two or more workers agree to form a union.[3]You can form a labor union and make any notificationAuthenticationAlsoAuthorizationIs not necessary either.

Japan has this treaty 1965(Showa 40) January 6Approveare doing.

Shop system

There are various forms of labor-management relations between trade unions and employers. The "shop" here means an "agreement" in which various agreements and agreements are exchanged between labor and management.

JapanThen, when the labor union organized at the business establishment represents a majority of the total number of workers at the business establishment, the employment condition is that it is a member of the union.Collective agreementCan be concluded (Labor union lawArticle 7, item 1 proviso).

英国Then.EUBefore the directive was issued, in the 1980sThatcher administrationThe closed shop system and the union shop system were regulated by.

Open shop system

When an employer hires a worker, it does not require that he / she be a member of the union. Basically, between union members and those who are notWorking conditionsThere is no difference in treatment such as.

in Japan,government official-Local civil servantof"Staff group"(Equivalent to a private company union) must be an open shop (equivalent to a private company union)National Civil Service LawArticle 108-5 paragraph 2,Local Civil Service ActArticle 55, paragraph 2).

Closed shop system

This is a system in which an employer must hire a worker from a union member when hiring a worker. When a worker is disqualified as a member, the employer removes the worker.DismissalMust. This systemTrade unions by industryCan be found in countries where there is, but not in Japan[4].

アメリカ合衆国Then,Taft-Hartley methodProhibits the closed shop system.

Union shop system

Employers may or may not be union members when hiring workers, but workers are unionized after joining the company.TermsIt is a system that requires you to become a member within the period specified in. If the employer does not become a member within the period or later disqualifies as a member, the employer must dismiss the worker. JapaneseMajor companyFound in the major unions that exist in. It is usually concluded with a "only negotiating body clause" that approves the union as the sole negotiating representative of the worker (so that the union is naturally joined by the employer and all workers Recognized as the only union in the company)[5].. However, in reality, there is often a system called a so-called "union without a tail", and even if you lose your qualification as a union member, employment is often discussed and decided separately between labor and management. Therefore, leaving the union does not necessarily meanretirementThere is nothing to do.

In Japan, in past judicial precedents, workers have freedom of choice and other unions when they withdraw from the union under the Union Shop Agreement.Right to organizeIn case of infringement, the employer's obligation to dismissPublic order and moralsHowever, workers who join other unions will not be dismissed.[6].. In addition, even if it has been agreed in the past that the union will not be resigned, it is said that "members have the freedom to withdraw."[7].. Therefore, it is virtually impossible for executives to flicker dismissals and suppress anti-executives in union internal conflicts.

In the United States, some states apply the Right-to-work law and prohibit the union shop system.

Agency shop system

Joining a labor union is at the discretion of the worker, but even non-members must pay the costs of collective bargaining and grievance as membership fees. However, for those who are not union members, other expenses (LobbyingYou don't have to pay for the cost of the service or the cost of privileges given only to the members.

Configuration form

The range of workers the union targets has historically changed and is still diverse. How to determine the membership qualification is subject to certain restrictions due to various legal protections, and in principle it is left to the autonomy of the union.[8].. It is classified as follows according to the composition of the main union members.

Professional association

Professional association(Craft union) is the most classic form of trade unionSkilled workers of the same occupationOrganized by.

Early professional unions were characterized by raising working conditions by monopolizing the skilled workforce locally or nationwide. There, it is possible to conclude an agreement between union members on specific working conditions, have workers comply with it through strong control, and at the same time refuse to work under employers who do not agree with the conditions. It was the main means of raising conditions. Although it is an extremely strong organizational form, it becomes difficult to maintain a monopoly on the labor force when a large number of unskilled workers are produced due to industrial development.[9].

In today's Western countriesOccupational unionIs a development of a professional union,Collective bargaining-DisputeIs the main means of improving working conditions.

Industry union

Industry union(Industrial union) is a gradual integration of occupational unionsWorkers belonging to the same industry regardless of occupationAre all targeted for the organization. It is the most typical organizational form in Western countries today.

Collective bargaining, including disputes, is the main means of achieving objectives in industrial unions. Collective bargaining takes place in various dimensions, but the most typical form is regional or national negotiations between industry unions and industry employers' organizations. In this case, a collective bargaining agreement that records an agreement in collective bargaining usually acts like a kind of legal norm in the industry. With that as the minimum standard, it is normal for each company to build up, and the gap between contract wages and company-specific wages is called wage drift.[9].

As a representative industry union in JapanAll Japan Seamen's UnionHowever, in Japan, industrial unions are only an exception.

Corporate union

Corporate union(Enterprise union, company union)Workers belonging to each business establishment or company, regardless of occupationIt is a form of organizing all together.

Most unions in Japan take this form. In Western countries, corporate organizations formed by employers to counter unions (Yellow union) From the history of struggle, there are few corporate unions[9].. Compared to industry unions, labor-management negotiations that match the actual situation of the company are conducted, but the results of collective bargaining are limited to the company, so the ability to promote competition between companies is weak. As unions are more likely to be dominated by corporate consciousness and competition between companies intensifies, they tend to act in cooperation with employers to strive for corporate prosperity rather than acting in solidarity with other labor unions. As a result, there will be a great limit to the union's original function of leveling working conditions. In addition, in corporate unions, interest in all workers in the industrial sector, including the unemployed, is diminished.[10].

In Japanese unions by company, the qualification of a member is the employee of the company (especiallyPermanentHowever, it should be limited to those who are not executives above a certain level (so-called)Reverse tightening clause) Is stipulated in the regulations[11].

James AbegrenIn his book "Japanese Management" (1958), he created a trade union by company.lifetime employment,SeniorityWith, "Japanese managementIt was shown to be the "three sacred treasures of."

In the United States,Wagner methodBy company union (=Union) Is prohibited.

Labor union by unit industry

A federation of industry-specific unions to address issues that cannot be addressed by company-specific unions. Commonly known asSingle production(Tan).

General union

General union(General union)All workers regardless of occupation or industryIs the target of the organization.

Since the end of the 19th century, it has evolved as a form for organizing unskilled workers in England. In Japan, workers dispersed in micro enterprises andPart-time worker-Temporary worker-ManagementIt is a form taken to organize workers who are virtually excluded from corporate unions.[9].

General union

The general union is characterized by organizing workers who are difficult to organize into corporate unions according to the principle of individual membership in each region, but the organizational forms are diverse, such as industrial unions, occupational unions, and general unions. Take the form. Among general unions, there are unions that mainly target workers by major industry but also extend to other workers, and unions that literally organize workers widely regardless of occupation or industry.[12].

In general, small and medium-sized enterprises have strong employer power, and in many cases even corporate unions cannot be organized. 1955 (Showa 30)General commentAt the convention, the policy was to organize such small and medium-sized enterprises, and since then the formation of a joint labor union has been promoted.[12].

Trade unions in Japan

  • In this sectionLabor union lawBelow, only the number of articles is listed.

Characteristics of labor unions in Japan

The labor union in JapanTrade unions by companyMainly[13]Organized by industry, region, occupation, etc.EuropeIt has different characteristics from the labor unions of each country. On top of that, in order to tackle issues that cannot be addressed by corporate unions, these are gathered by industry to form a coalition (single production), which is usually the mainstay of each industry.CompanyThe union is in control of single production. As a main single productSelf-help,Automobile Soren,Electric Federation,UA Zensenand so on. Furthermore, single products are gathered to form a national organization.

Japan's national coalition (National center) Can be roughly divided into three.

On the other hand, majorbankMany of the unions by company, such as trading companies and trading companies, do not join any of these superordinate organizations and remain unions within the company.

A labor union that can be joined on an individual basis regardless of the company, occupation, or industryGeneral union.. Such unions are sometimes called "unions") and are workers who work for companies that do not have unions by company.Osaka Regional Joint Labor UnionEtc.), cannot join a company-specific unionNon-regular employmentPerson (Metropolitan Youth Union,Freeter General Labor UnionEtc.), managers[14]Etc. are the main targets. While unions by company organize employees into the union even if they are in different regions, general unions generally limit the scope of their organization to a specific region in consideration of the limits of their activities. It appeals its existence with its high dispute resolution.

It was a development process seen in many industrialized countries that labor unions started from occupational labor unions and then evolved into industrial unions through general unions, but in Japan, occupational functions The process from a separate labor union to a company-specific labor union is characteristic.

JapanThe first unionアメリカ合衆国Experienced the modern trade union movement inFusataro Takano,KatayamaBy 1897It was founded on July 7th of the same year, based on the craftsmanship association that was formed inLabor union term meetingIs. The development of corporate unions as they are today isSecond World WarAfter that.

Labor union law

The current law isArticle 28 of the Constitution of JapanIn response to this, it was stipulated that "the right of workers to unite and the right to collective bargaining and other collective actions are guaranteed".Labor union lawLaws such as stipulate rights and procedures related to labor unions.

Employers organize and join trade unions, through trade unionsLabor movementUnfair treatment for the reason of doingDismissalDoing so will result in unfair labor practice (Article 7).strikeSuch dispute behavior is originally criminalMayhem(Criminal lawArticle 106)Power obstruction(Article 234 of the Penal Code), in civil termsDefault(Civil lawArticle 415)TortIt corresponds to (Article 709 of the Civil Code), butThe Constitution of JapanFrom the viewpoint of protecting the rights of the labor movement guaranteed above, Article 35 of the Penal Code ("Acts by law or legitimate business shall not be punished") is applied to legitimate disputes (Article 1 Article 2). Item XNUMX, but in any caseThe use of violence should not be construed as a legitimate act of trade unions), And it is not possible to claim compensation from the labor union or its members for damages caused by strikes or other disputed acts (civil exemption, Article 8).

Regarding the withdrawal of union members, even if there is no provision in the rules, union members can withdraw freely.[15], The terms and conditions that require union approval to withdraw are invalid[16].. Disqualification of union members against their will (sanctions for expulsion) must be due to the reasons and procedures prescribed in the Covenant.[17].

Trade unions are legally allowed to retain control over their members, who are subject to this and are in a position to participate in the activities decided by the union and to pay dues. There is, but it isFreedom to withdraw from the unionIt is tolerated for the first time on the premise of. Therefore, obliging members to not exercise their right to withdraw from the union and not to bring about the effect of withdrawal itself deprives the important right of freedom of withdrawal and forces permanent obedience to the control of the union. Because it is a thing, it is against public order and moralsInvalid(Article 90 of the Civil Code)[18].

Members who generally and comprehensively prohibit the political activities (election campaigns) of union members who support candidates other than the specific candidates recommended by the union in the convention resolution of the labor union, and act in violation of this. , Resolving that it should be punished as a violation of control is considered invalid as exceeding the limits of the union's control.[19].

For full-time labor union employees, if the employer exempts the obligation to provide labor while still enrolled and allows the employer to be dedicated to labor union affairs, the labor relationship with the employer under the Labor Standards Act will continue. (March 11, 3, No. 31). Therefore, even for full-time staffDismissalThe provisions of the Labor Standards Act such as, etc. apply. In addition, in the labor union full-time staff(I.e.(Health insurance,Welfare pension insurance) Will be lost as an insured person in relation to the previous business owner, but will be insured as a person used by the labor union (July 24, 7, No. 7).

Collective bargaining

Under its leadership, trade unions are delegated by their members and with employers or their organizations.Collective agreementNegotiations on various other matters such as working conditions (Article 6, Article 28 of the Constitution of Japan). Employers must always respond to legitimate collective bargaining of trade unions, which is unfair labor practice (Article 7). Even if there are multiple labor unions in one business establishment, or even if the labor union is based outside the business establishment, the employer must bargain collectively with all of them.

Collective agreement

If both labor and management agree in writing on working conditions and other matters through collective bargaining and labor-management consultations by the union, this agreement will be reached.Labor regulationsAnd individual labor contracts have superior effect (Articles 14 to 18).

Employee representative

If one union organizes a majority of the workers at the business establishment, the union is granted the following authority as an employee representative of the business establishment, and its effect is not another union member or union member. It also extends to people. In European countries, institutions with different characteristics, such as super-corporate unions and employee representatives at the corporate / business level, play a complementary role, whereas Japanese unions themselves have similar characteristics to employee representatives. It is characteristic to have[20].

Convenience provision

Generally, trade unions by company provide various facilities according to their position as representative organizations of employees. A typical example is the loan of a union office. Convenience provisionLegally not the obligation of the userAlthough it is a matter arbitrarily decided by negotiation, if it is a minimum provision that does not conflict with Article 2, it will be the basis for facilitating labor-management relations.

Although voluntary, lending to only one of the co-existing unions and not to the other may be considered unfair labor practice.[23].. In addition, the employer can request a surrender if there is a justifiable reason, but if he / she does not follow the negotiation procedure such as prior explanation and alternative office, it may be regarded as unfair labor practice as a control intervention.

The use of physical facilities by labor unions is essentiallyAgreement with the userIt should be done based on the above, and it is not obliged for the user to obtain the right to use and accept the right use because the union or union member has a great need for use. Performing union activities using the physical facilities of a company without the permission of the user may be a case where not allowing these persons to use the facility is an abuse of the rights of the user. Except, it violates the authority of users who manage and use physical facilities so as to maintain a proper and good working environment and secure a disciplined business operation system, and disturbs corporate order, as a legitimate union activity. Not allowed (National Railway Workers Sapporo Driving District Case, maximum judgment October 54, 10).

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "28 Survey on Labor Union Activities, etc.", looking at whether or not corporate facilities are provided as union offices, 74.8% "received" (23 survey 80.9%). , "Not received" 22.7% (17.8%). Looking at the form of grants from labor unions that receive grants, 79.0% (74.0%) "received free grants" and 21.0% (26.0%) "received grants for a fee". It has become. In addition, when requesting the provision of corporate facilities for union activities, the percentage of respondents who answered that they could always use the facility when requested was 89.8% (82.3%) for "regular meetings" by purpose of use. "Extraordinary meetings" 85.9% (80.3%), "Activities for struggle preparation" 73.7% (67.9%), "Other activities of daily living" 84.5% (77.5%), all In terms of purpose, it exceeds the results of the previous survey.

Sole proprietorship union

For tax purposesSole proprietorshipEven if defined inEntertainment officeMake a contract withAnime production companyThere are some occupations that are close to workers (even if they are not recognized as workers under the Labor Standards Law), such as doing group work at. As an example of being recognized as a worker under the Trade Union Law in case law and practice,Single masterTaru carpenter[24], A pieceworker of sandals who is a homeworker[25], A member of the orchestra of a broadcasting company under a free appearance contract[26],Pro baseball player,Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) collection staff[27] [28],KumonClassroom leader[29]and so on.

convenience store OfFranchise加盟店オーナーについては東京都労働委員会や岡山県労働委員会は労働組合法上の労働者性を認めた [30] [31]が、2019年3月25日中央労働委員会はこれを否定する判断[32]をしており、現在裁判所で係争中である。

Under the Trade Union LawWorkerThere is also a trade union, recognizing the need and appropriateness of protecting collective bargaining. As a representative labor unionJapan Professional Baseball Players Association,Musicians Union of Japan,Japan Actors UnionAnd so on. Since the end of Heisei era, whether to give legal protection to such "freelancers with strong labor" has become a big issue.

アメリカ合衆国There are also freelance business associations in various fields.

Japan Professional Baseball Players Association

On November 1985, 60 (Showa 11), the Tokyo Metropolitan Labor Commission certified the Japan Professional Baseball Players Association as a labor union. The following points are the facts that support the laborability of professional baseball players.

  • The player contract must be renewed every year.
  • The schedule and place of practice and games are decided by the team, and the players do not have the right to decide.
  • The team is exercising command and command through supervision regarding the use and allocation of labor.
  • Athletes' compensation is compensation for the labor of playing baseball, and it is necessary and appropriate to provide protection for collective bargaining (minimum annual salary, pension, injury compensation, etc.)tradeSystem, etc.).

Since the Japan Professional Baseball Players Association is a labor union, it has the right to collective bargaining, and the part related to the working conditions of its members falls under the mandatory collective bargaining matters.[33].

Japanese trade union in the 21st century

2018As of June 30, 6, the number of single labor unions was 30 and the number of labor union members was 24,328 million, a decrease of 1,007 unions (137%) from the previous year, labor. The number of union members is 0.6 (88,000%)IncreaseIt has become. Estimated organization rate (ratio of labor union members to the number of employees)[34]) Is 17.0%[35].. On the other hand, the number of union members of part-time workers is 129, which is 6 (89,000%) compared to the previous year.Increase, The ratio to the total number of union members is 13.0%, and these are added to the survey items. 1990Since (2), it has set a new record high.[36].

Looking at the existence of labor unions that are working on organizational expansion as a priority issue, 29.8% (31.9% last time) were "working" and 70.0% (66.0%) were "not working". In addition, as the reason for not working (multiple answers), "because the organization is almost sufficiently organized" was the highest at 50.7% (50.8%), followed by "because the organization is unlikely to expand" at 21.1% (same). 27.4%), “because there are other important issues to be tackled” 19.0% (19.2%). Looking at the types of workers that are particularly emphasized as targets for organizational expansion efforts, "regular employees hired mid-career / new graduates" was the highest at 37.0% (47.1%), followed by "regular employees who are not enrolled in the union" 18.7% (13.7%) and "part-time workers" 13.4% (17.8%). Looking at the problems (multiple answers) in advancing organization for each type of workers targeted for organizational expansion efforts, all types of workers are "interested in the union of those targeted for organization". The most common answer was "part-time workers" at 63.7% (55.9%), and "regular employees who are not enrolled in the union" at 63.5% (61.0%).[37].

Decrease in organization rate

Estimated union organization rate
YearsOrganization rate
Showa 44 Year35.2%
Showa 49 Year33.9%
Showa 54 Year31.6%
Showa 59 Year29.1%
Heisei 624.1%
Heisei 1122.2%
Heisei 1619.2%
Heisei 2118.5%
Heisei 2617.5%
Heisei 3017.0%

Second World WarImmediately after, the estimated organization rate reached 60% or more, but it has been declining since 50. 2003In (15), the estimated organization rate was 19.6%, which was below 20% for the first time. Also, more than 1000 employeeslarge companyThe estimated organization rate is as high as 41.5%, but it is about 100% for small businesses with less than 0.9 employees.[38].

The first reason for the decline in the organization rate was that it was out of the organization of the corporate union.Non-regular employmentIncrease in the ratio ofIs said to be large[39].. Japanese corporate unionsPermanentHas been organized only byFrom historical background,Restructuring,part timer-Part-time job-(I.e.・ Fixed termContract employeeThe efforts to tackle the problems that many workers in the 21st century actually face, such as employment instability due to the increase in the number of workers, have been significantly delayed. Currently, the organization of non-regular workers is progressing centering on the general union, and efforts are being made to raise awareness of the rights of non-regular workers. In addition, in industries with a large proportion of non-regular workers such as the service industry, there are examples such as forming a labor union with only non-regular workers in a company, and in metropolitan areas there are examples such as "student union" that aims to improve the treatment of student part-time workers. is there. 2007Spring fightThen,UnionIs a non-regular workerWorking conditionsIn the same year, he set up a request for improvement and opened the "Non-Regular Labor Center" to improve the treatment of non-regular employees and build a network. In response to these movements by the general union, the conventional labor unions by company are also moving to attract non-regular workers (Oriental landEtc.) can also be seen.

On the other hand, start-up companies and companies with good performanceTo the extent that there is no need for a unionwageAnd working conditions have already been givenIt can also be mentioned. Also, many temporary staffing companies do not have trade unions. In the unlikely event that something happens to a company, the existence of a union in that company makes it difficult to take "quick" restructuring measures.InvestorAbout the existence of the labor unionStock priceMany people see it as "minus." But at the same time, we also need to look at the risk side of the lack of a healthy union. In other words, it also increases the possibility of driving into a business crisis by admonishing the excessive management of the management and virtually eliminating the one that puts a brake on it (the labor union has taken a strict attitude toward the labor union because the founding management has taken a strict attitude toward the labor union The requested correction of illegal and illegal acts and improvement of the working environment were not achieved, resulting in a business crisis.Komsun,ZenshoEtc. are this case).

またuserThe so-called violation of laws and regulations on the side has become normalBlack companiesIn the company that is said to be dismissed by those who tried to organize a labor unionRelocationYou will be asked to retaliate, or not to engage in union activities when you join the company (these areUnfair labor practicesThere is also a case (corresponding to). Measures against black companies have become a major social problem in recent years, and are regarded as issues that should be addressed by society as a whole, and the significance of the existence of corporate unions that have not shown interest in the rights of others and other companies is being tested.

Besides,政府-Local governmentSuch as社会 保障The system has replaced the union, and the organization rate is high.Manufacturing industryDue to the shift of the industrial structure from to the service industry with a low organization rate, the avoidance of spending time on union activities, and the recession from before the 2000s, corporate restructuring was promoted, and companies and departments The labor union was disbanded due to the consolidation and personnel reduction of the union, and it became difficult to feel the significance of the union's existence because the union did not produce sufficient results in the spring battle, etc., and some labor unions worked. For example, full-time employees are absorbed in political activities, forgetting the original purpose of the union.

Long time agoLabor movementIs actively performed,High growth periodOf the eraJapanThe wage increase struggle in Japan is just one example.WorkerIn an era when people's living standards were much poorer than they are todayJapaneseImprovement of living standards (and by extensionJapanese economyIt can be said that it greatly contributed to the expansion of. 1960Mitsui Miike disputeUntil then, there were many major disputes, but eventually we learned how to reach an agreement on labor-management negotiations with labor and management, and in the 1980s we started labor-management negotiations.Labor CommitteeWithout relying onAiming for voluntary solution under labor-management autonomyIt changed to private labor relations. In this way, labor-management negotiationsstrikeAs a result of the establishment of mechanisms and practices to resolve without, to the Labor Relations Commission in 2012MediationThe number of applications such as etc. is 10, which is less than 1/209 of the peak time.[40].

Bubble burstAfter that, full-time employeesDismissalOf course, the labor union shows the opposite position and willingness to resist, but there are few strikes, and as a result, the hiring of new graduates will be narrowed down to protect the employment of baby boomers and others.YouthThere is an opinion that it made one of the factors of the deterioration of the employment rate. On the contrary, it is sometimes criticized for not resisting the replacement of regular workers with non-regular workers in cooperation with management rationalization. HoweveremploymentThe diversification of forms is led by economic organizations (employers), and discourses that seem to have a major cause in the labor union have the aspect of shifting responsibility to the workers.

Labor-management communication




Negative image

The managers of Japanese companies are often the goal of the career advancement race of workers (the manager and the workers are not separated), which was one of the reasons for excessive adhesion or conflict. In Japan today, the labor union activity itself is not well known, and it is easy to be labeled as a "resistor" or "oppose anything" just because it is a labor union. Some people frown on the labor movement itself because of prejudice.The multifaceted functions of labor unions, such as labor-management consultations, are not fully evaluated by workers... in recent yearsstock optionThere are also movements to bring workers into the management side, such as the introduction of a system.

In some unionsNew LeftIt is seen in unions and Japan Airlines that have neglected the improvement of working conditions, which is the original role, only by waving political demands and unrealistic demands under the influence of As you can see, there are some unions that have run on uncompromising and confrontation routes and have not taken into account the current state of the company (Japan Air SystemThe merger with will further complicate this issue). Also, onceJNR Labor Union,National Railway Locomotive Engineers UnionIs oldNational railwayIn the times, the daily work attitude of JNR staff is not good, but the users are not ignored.Legal compliance struggleRepeatedly demanded improvement of treatment, which resulted inPeopleJNR separation and divisionPrivatizationCreated a climate that boosts. For this reason, from the management's point of view, the view that "the labor union will destroy the company" has spread. As well,Public transportLabor disputes in Japan are hostile to its usersRiotThere was a case that developed into[45].

on the other hand"Labor-management cooperation"Union (Sankei Shimbun,Japan Airlines(→Japan Airlines Labor Union) Etc.), although the form exists as a labor union, it loses its original function and becomes a mere corpse, and the union executives follow the company's obedience.board of directorsFor example, taking the last seat ofUnionIn some cases, it is said to be "the second human resources department." In some cases, the existence of such unions themselves may be detrimental to workers. OnceNissan MotorSome unions have taken actions that are socially criticized, such as the labor union intervening in management and personnel affairs after "labor-management cooperation" has developed into a bond between labor and management.[46].. Also,"Weekly Hyundai"ButJR SorenAlthough there was a dispute over the content of the article when posting an article accusing the union that is a member of the JR Soren, there is a labor-management cooperative relationship with the JR Soren.JR EastThere is a case of taking measures not to sell "Weekly Hyundai" at group shops etc.[47].

recentlyGifu prefectural office back money problemAboutAll Japan Autonomous Organization Labor UnionThe Gifu Prefectural Staff Union, which is a member of the union, is deeply involved in embezzlement of public money and is an employer, such as keeping a slush fund in the union's safe.Gifu Prefectural OfficeAdhesion with was pointed out. On the other hand, the self-governing labor said, "The Gifu citizens said that the staff union, which has a tense relationship with the prefectural authorities and should perform a certain check function, has contributed to the cover-up work of the entire organization in which the prefectural authorities are involved. Of course, I had to conclude that it was an act of disbelief toward the people, and I apologize for losing that trust, and I would like to apologize from the standpoint of the constituent organizations. "

In addition,Civil servant"The labor union ofDedicated to YamiWas also regarded as a problem (MoreYami full-time # Problematic exampleSee).

For union members and union sympathizers, it is often inconvenient for the management, so "CommunismLabels such as "person" and "red" are attached, and occasionally at workBullyingMay be a problem. actually資本主義It just claims a share of its labor in the economy,Office workerCentered onWorker TheSalarywageThere are also opinions that trade unions should be used to make claims against. From these examples, the image of the New Left is attached, and in general, the labor union =Socialist Party(CurrentSocial Democratic Partyas well as the Constitutional Democratic Party) AndCommunist partyIt is often regarded as a supportive body ofUA Zensenな どPoliticsTypicallyMaintenanceThere are also unions that advocate the idea.

In addition, although only a small part of these days, there are some labor unions that abuse the right to dispute labor and carry out street promotion activities that go beyond the scope of the right to dispute. For example, the Tokyo / Chubu Regional Workers' Union, which can be joined on an individual basis,Supreme CourtでDismissalWas dismissed because he forced a town mission such as complaining of unfair dismissal even though he was found to be legitimate.CompanyAnd its representativetrialAppeal toTokyo District Court"Damaged the company's honor and credibility and violated the right to operate in peace." "Villas and relentless street missions containing false contentFreedom of expressionIt is recognized as an "illegal act that deviates from the above and infringes on peaceful business activities", and the union is prohibited from conducting street activities in the vicinity of the target company and costs 200 million yen.Restitution for DamagesOrdered payment[48].

Acknowledgment of camouflage contract

Has been widespread in recent yearsCamouflage contractUntil now, it was unavoidable that the union was virtually "acknowledged".UnionChairman·Tsuyoshi TakagiAdmits this[49].. The reason is so-calledUnionIt is becoming difficult for the labor union to oppose the management's policy due to the progress of the conversion, and when the camouflage contract is canceled, the management will pay the cost as a member.PermanentThis is because it cannot be pointed out that it will be disadvantageous to union members because there is a risk of trying to generate wages by reducing wages (this is also a problem "SubcontractingThe same can be said for.)

Great East Japan Earthquake Workers Countermeasures Headquarters

On March 2011, 3, Zenroren, MIC, and Pure Neutral Labor UnionGreat East Japan EarthquakeThe Workers Countermeasures Headquarters has been set up to support the victims by calling for the cooperation of relief supplies and volunteers for reconstruction. On April 4, the Great East Japan Earthquake Workers Countermeasures Headquarters and the Tokyo Spring Fighting Joint Struggle carried out urgent request actions centered on Kasumigaseki, Tokyo, and each ministry and agencyTEPCORequested a member of parliament, marched on a demonstration, etc.[50].

Trade unions in the United States

In the United States, the organization rate has been declining gradually since it accounted for 1983% in 20.1, reaching 2012% in 11.3. As a result of fierce international competition, the work that was once done by union members is now being done overseas, where labor costs are low, especially in the industrial sector of the steel and automobile industries. Production automation has eliminated the need for some workers on production lines, and many companies located in states with strong unions have factories in states where labor rights laws are enacted and there are few unions. It has been pointed out that the company has moved.

When comparing the public sector and private companies, the number of union members in the public sector is more than five times that of private companies. In addition, unlike Japan,Policemen,FireThere is also a labor union.

Trade unions pay the costs of external workers, goods and services to consumers and companies for the benefit of internal workers (maintenance of jobs).ShareholderIt has been accused of pushing against. In the field of public education, teachers' unions have been accused of declining the number of talented teachers by urging young teachers to quit, leaving only older teachers supported by school officials. Is[52].

America OfMacroeconomicsA personMilton Friedman"No labor union is needed"The wage increases that trade unions earn for their members are primarily at the expense of other workers outside the union.'[53][54]I have left the word. If a trade union succeeds in raising wages in a certain occupation / industry, it will be in that field.employmentWill decrease, and as a result, that amount of employment will be released to the market, and as a result, other industries and workerswageIs pushed down. As a result, the wages of high-wage workers will rise and the wages of low-wage workers will fall, widening the wage gap.[55].

Trade unions in the People's Republic of China

ChugokuIn "Koukai" (zh: Kokai), And "Communist partyIt is based on "getting guidance from." Living mainly from wage income of companies in China (including foreign-invested companies), business units, institutions and other social organizationsWorkerIt is,People,Race,Sex,Occupation, Creed,EducationRegardless of the degree, if you approve the "Chinese Industry Association Regulations" established by the National Congress of the Chinese Industry Association, you can join the "Industry Association" and become a member. Therefore, not only employees but also managers can join the labor union.

World Confederation of Trade Unions


Represents a labor union㈸As "labor with double-byte brackets"UnicodeIncluded in.

symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
Labor with double-byte brackets
Maru labor


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London  ch. I
  2. ^ "Rerum Novarum: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Capital and Labor”. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2011/7/27Browse.
  3. ^ combinationA contract refers to a promise that "multiple parties" will invest and run a joint business (under Japanese law).Civil Code Article 667Others), the so-called "single labor union" does not meet the requirements of the law (as a case denying the "single labor union", the Tomoura Iron Works case (Okayama District Court, July 39, 7)).
  4. ^ oldMinistry of LaborIs an agreement that the closed shop system is "only workers who have already joined a certain labor union will be hired, and if they leave the union, they will be dismissed." (October 22, 10, Tottori Prefecture Education and Civil Affairs Department Manager, Ministry of Labor Labor Administration Bureau Labor Administration Division Chief Notification). However, even at that time, "There are no examples in Japan where such an agreement is purely concluded today, and even in foreign countries, in the civil engineering industry.carpenter,PlastererIt exists only in a part of occupational unions such as. From the beginning, it was recognized as an extremely exceptional form.
  5. ^ Overview of the results of the 27 fact-finding survey on negotiations between labor and managementMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareAccording to a survey byCollective agreementAbout 31.5% of the companies that have signed the agreement are the only ones that have a negotiating body clause. However, since the only bargaining group clause has no legal effect, if a separate union is formed, it is not possible to refuse collective bargaining with that separate union using the clause as a shield.
  6. ^ "Mitsui-Soko Port Transport Case" Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment on December 1, 1989 Labor Case No. 12, p. 14
  7. ^ "Toshiba Labor Union Komukai Branch Case" Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment February 2, 2007 Labor Judgment No. 2, p. 2
  8. ^ Yokohama District Court decision on September 9, 26
  9. ^ a b c d Satoshi Nishitani "Trade Union Law 3rd Edition" Yuhikaku 2012, p.4 ~ 5
  10. ^ Satoshi Nishitani "Trade Union Law 3rd Edition" Yuhikaku 2012, p.8
  11. ^ However, trade unions are not bound by counter-tightening clauses regarding the scope of their members, even if the union recruits non-employees.Default(October 32, 10, Hyogo Prefecture Commerce, Industry and Labor Department Director, Ministry of Labor Labor Administration Bureau Labor Law Division Manager Notification).
  12. ^ a b Satoshi Nishitani "Trade Union Law 3rd Edition" Yuhikaku 2012, p.9
  13. ^ In the statistics by company size of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Labor Union Basic Survey", if "Other" is regarded as a cross-company organization (a labor union that is not a company-specific labor union), more than 9% of the labor unions of private companies are companies. It will be a separate labor union.
  14. ^ Tokyo Management Union
  15. ^ Nagoya District Court decision on November 33, 11
  16. ^ Hiroshima District Court Judgment on February 42, 2
  17. ^ Supreme Court Judgment on October 62, 10 Labor Case No. 29, p. 506
  18. ^ "Toshiba Labor Union Komukai Branch Case" Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment February 2, 2007 Labor Judgment No. 2, p. 2
  19. ^ Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment May 2, 1969 Casebook No. 5, p. 2
  20. ^ Satoshi Nishitani "Trade Union Law 3rd Edition" Yuhikaku 2012, p.8
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ After April 29, business owners of applicable business establishments other than the specified applicable business establishments (business establishments where the number of insured persons is expected to be 4 or more) can make this offer after obtaining their consent. In the case of a specific application establishment, it will be compulsory regardless of whether or not there is a request.
  23. ^ "Nissan Motor Case" Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment May 2, 1987 Labor Case No. 5, p. 8
  24. ^ June 21, 6, Labor Departure No. 1, May 325, 25, Labor Departure No. 5
  25. ^ "Tokyo Hep Sandals Industry Association Case" Central Labor Relations Commission August 1960, 8 Labor Relations Commission Annual Report No. 1, p. 15
  26. ^ "CBC Orchestra Labor Union Case" Supreme Court First Small Court Judgment May 1, 1976 Minshu Vol. 5, No. 6, p. 30
  27. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation (Nagoya Ekimae Center) Unfair Labor Practices Reexamination Case December 2016, 12 "Central Labor Relations Commission"
  28. ^ NHK's outsourced staff recognizes "workers" as unfair labor practices ... Points of court judgment May 2017, 05 "Bengo04.com NEWS"
  29. ^ Kumon Education Study Group Case Order Issuance Tokyo Labor Commission July 2019, 7
  30. ^ Case F (Case No. 24, 96) April 2015, 4 "Tokyo Labor Commission"もっとも、中央労働委員会は
  31. ^ Convenience store owner is a "worker" Tokyo Labor Commission orders Famima April 2015, 4 "Nikkei"
  32. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/churoi/futouroudou/dl/shiryou-31-0315-1z.pdf
  33. ^ Tokyo High Court decided on September 2004, 9 Labor Court No. 8, p. 879
  34. ^ It is explained that the word "estimated" is used because the result of the "Labor Force Survey" of the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications is used as the number of employed workers, which is the denominator of the organization rate calculation.
  35. ^ Overview of the 30 Labor Union Basic Survey XNUMX. Status of Labor Unions and Labor Union Members Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  36. ^ Overview of the 30 Labor Union Basic Survey XNUMX Status of Part-time Workers Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  37. ^ Overview of the results of the 30 survey on labor union activities, etc. XNUMX Status of expansion of labor union organization [Unit labor union] Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.. The "previous" is the same survey in 28.
  38. ^ Overview of the 30 Labor Union Basic Survey XNUMX. Status by company size (private company) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  39. ^ Tsuyoshi Tsuru"Contemporary Japanese Labor Unions and Union Members Separated" Takenori Inoki and Yoshio Higuchi, "Japanese Employment System and Labor Market," p194, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 1995
  40. ^ Overview of the 24 Labor Dispute Statistics Survey Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  41. ^ 30 Survey on Labor Union Activities XNUMX Awareness of Labor-Management Relations [Headquarters Union and Unit Labor Union] Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Last time" is the same survey in 29.
  42. ^ 26 Labor-Management Communication Survey XNUMX Important Labor-Management Communication Matters Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Last time" is the same survey in 21.
  43. ^ 26 Labor-Management Communication Survey XNUMX Matters concerning labor-management council organizations Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare26 Labor-Management Communication Survey XNUMX Matters concerning the workplace round-table conference Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Last time" is the same survey in 21
  44. ^ 26 Labor-Management Communication Survey XNUMX Existence of Labor-Management Consultative Organizations, Awareness of Discussion Contents and Results Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Last time" is the same survey in 21
  45. ^ Ageo Incident,Metropolitan National Railways RebellionSuch.
  46. ^ The union's occupation at Nissan MotorRyo TakasugiIt became a model for the novel "Sprint to Ruin" (also known as "Sprint to Hegemony") and "Labor Aristocracy". On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the attitude of the company, which ignores the actual situation of the workplace, is also a factor in the anti-company hard line of some unions of Japan Airlines.
  47. ^ After the article was published, the JR East Group also released "Weekly Hyundai".
  48. ^ "14 (Wa) 20443 Street advertising activities prohibited (commonly known as Asahi Diamond Industrial Street advertising activities prohibited)”. Public Relations Division, Secretariat, Supreme Court. 2018/11/20Browse.
  49. ^ Union requests correction from Keidanren with camouflage contract(Asahi Shimbun)
  50. ^ Reconstruction of employment Joint action with workers in Miyagi, Iwate, and Fukushima Request for measures by Zenroren, etc. April 2011, 4 (Friday) "Shimbun Akahata"
  51. ^ Bernstein, Aaron (May 1994, 5). “Why America Needs Unions But Not the Kind It Has Now”. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/archives/1994/b337360.arc.htm 
  52. ^ Card David, Krueger Alan. (1995). Myth and measurement: The new economics of the minimum wage. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.
  53. ^ Friedman, Milton (2007). Price theory ([New ed.], 3rd printing ed.). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-202-30969-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=EhcI5-D9wREC&pg=PA164 
  54. ^ "Why doesn't my salary go up? -Understanding the six hypotheses [below]"Toyo Keizai" March 2008, 3.[Broken link]
  55. ^ Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, Nikkei BP classics, 2008, pp. 234-235.ISBN 9784822246419. 

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