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💴 | I can't ask you anymore ... Experts explain the mechanism and precautions of "hometown tax payment"!

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Final return

Final return(Have a good time)Japanese taxThis is the declaration procedure for and refers to the following points.

  1. Individuals make taxable from January 1st to December 1st of that year, and their income/expenses within that period,Medical billsAnd a tax return that calculates income from the situation of dependent relatives, etc.Tax officeShould be submitted and paid toincome taxTo fix the amount
  2. CorporationBut in principleArticles of IncorporationThe tax return shall be the taxable period of the business year set forth in the paragraph, and the tax return should be submitted to the tax office and the tax return must be paid.Corporate taxTo fix the amount
  3. consumption taxAn individual or corporation that is a taxable business operator must submit a tax return that calculates the consumption tax amount within the taxable period to the tax office and finalize the tax payment amount.

Incidentally,Labor insuranceWith the renewal of the fiscal year, the declaration of insurance premiums for the previous year is also called final tax filing, but it is omitted here. Generally speaking, the final tax return often refers to the income tax filing procedure of individual taxpayers, and the tax return for income tax will be mainly described below.

Individual tax return

Sole proprietor, farmer,Real estate leasingIndividuals who run a business, those who have a profit from the transfer of real estate, and those who have a certain amount of insurance money received must calculate and report their income and expenses themselves. Today, along with the spread of electronic filing, the merit that documents can be created cheaply, quickly, and easily is respected,ク ラ ウ ドAccounting softwareIs used.

Declaration time is every year, next year2/16から3/15Is up to a month. Due dateSaturday-SundayWhen it overlaps withMondayUp to

However,Tax withholdingIf the tax amount is greater than the income tax amount and you receive a refund (= refund declaration), the following year, which is before the declaration time1/1(When submitting to the tax office window,First use by governmentBecome1/4From the first weekday after that)2/15The tax return can be submitted in the meantime. If the tax return person submits the tax return earlier than February 2, the tax office will accept it as a normal tax return.[1]If the tax is paid before the declaration time, the tax will be treated as an “erroneous payment” that has already been paid although there is no reason to pay it as the tax until the declaration time comes. (If there is an offer from the taxpayer, the tax will be obliged to be returned, but since it will be applied when the delivery date arrives, there is no particular problem even if the taxpayer does not make an offer.)

In the public relations guidance and final tax return guidance, etc., the expression "the period for filing income tax filings is from February 2 to March 16" is usually used, and the filing of tax returns after the filing period has passed. Since the handling of is not specified,Many taxpayers misunderstand that tax returns will not be accepted after the tax deadline.However, if the tax return submission itself is subject to the imposition of undeclared additional tax and delinquent tax,It is possible at any time of the year as long as the prescription does not come.. In addition, the guideline for preparing tax returns after 2014 (Heisei 26) is "If you forget to file in time, please file as soon as possibleIs the additional tax (Undeclared additional tax)[2],Delinquent tax[3]Has been newly added in the form that it may be imposed together with.

From February 2017, tax returns for income tax, etc.My numberIt was stated in the guide, etc. that it was necessary to present the statement and the identification documents.

In 2019 (Reiwa 2020), the NTA announced that the tax return and payment deadline for income taxes will be extended until April 4, 16 (the same applies to individual consumption tax and gift tax).

Request for correction, filing of corrections, filing of corrections

If the tax amount of the tax return is found to be incorrect or fluctuated after the tax return deadline and the tax to be paid is too large, make a "request for rectification", and if it is too small, make a "correction report"[4].

The request for rectification is based on the tax return due date in the case of tax return with tax to be paid, and the tax return date with the tax return date in the case of tax return with tax to be refunded (refund tax return). Each is within 5 years from the latest date (National tax with statutory filing deadline before December 2011, 23 is within 12 year from statutory filing deadline. Even if the deadline has passed, if it is within the period for renewal of increase, we will respond by "request for renewal".

The amended return does not have a deadline until the tax prescription is established. By tax officeTax investigationIf you file an amended tax return or receive a tax rectification (increase) from the tax office,Underreported additional taxMay be added. An overdue tax may be added to the payment of the revised tax return.

It should be noted that re-reporting within the statutory deadline to correct an error after filing a final tax return is referred to as “correction filing”. If you file a final tax return twice within the statutory deadline, the latter tax return will be valid, and if the tax payment is completed within the deadline, no additional tax or overdue tax will be charged. If you have overpaid taxes, they will be refunded by the procedure[5].

If you need to file a tax return

If the tax return is paid by calculation, it is basically necessary to file a final tax return.[6].

If you have salary income
employee,Civil servantSalary earners such asYear-end adjustmentThe final tax amount will be calculated by, but in principle the final tax return is required in the following cases.
  • Salary income exceeds 2,000 million yen
  • Receiving salaries from one place,Employment income,Retirement incomeThe total amount of various income amounts other than 20 yen
  • The total amount of income of salaries that received salaries from two or more places and was not adjusted at the end of the year and various income amounts other than salary income and retirement income exceeds 2 yen (from salary income, deduction of miscellaneous losses・Deduction for medical expenses ・Deduction for donations ・Basic deductionExcluding when the total amount of income deductions excluding is less than 150 million yen and the total amount of income excluding employment income and retirement income is 20 yen or less)
  • Family companyIn addition to salary from the family company,interestReceived payments for rent from shops and stores
  • Disaster Reduction LawDue to this, the withholding tax of the withholding tax amount and the refund were received (compared to the miscellaneous loss deduction in the table below, you can finally select the one that is more advantageous)
  • Foreign posts in JapanIncome tax is not withheld when paying salary
If you have a public pension
When the amount of income such as public pensions exceeds 400 million yen, when the amount of income such as public pensions is 400 million yen or less and the total amount of various other income amounts exceeds 20 yen
If you have retirement income
Retirement payments from businesses in Japan are basicallySeparate taxationHowever, it is often unnecessary in practice to file a tax return. However, in other calculations such as income deduction, the amount of retirement income is a condition (parameter), so calculation is required when filing a tax return. AlsoComprehensive taxationIf your income is less than your deduction, you may be deducted from your retirement income. Retirement payments from businesses outside Japan are not withheld, so a tax return is required.
When loss occurs even if there is a withholding transaction or trading of stocks (stocks, investment trusts, bonds, etc.) other than the specific account with withholding tax
A tax return is required as "transfer income related to stocks, etc." except for specific accounts with withholding tax. A tax return is also required if the loss is carried over to the next year or later. The tax amount will be offset by the fixed income within the next three years. However,Small investment tax exemption system(NISA account) is not included in the total profit and loss.
Futures trading,Option trading,Covered warrant,Forex margin trading,CFD tradingIf there is a profit or loss due to
On "Miscellaneous Income Related to Futures Trading"Separate taxationNext, tax return is required. Losses can be deducted for 3 years.
Foreign exchange gains on foreign currency deposits,Virtual currencyTransactions and overseasDerivativesIf there is a profit from the transaction
Tax return is required as general income or business income. Interest on foreign depositsInterest income, Interest on foreign currency depositsWithholding tax.

If tax returns after tax return

In the following cases, the tax calculated after tax return may be returned (refunded).

Mid-yearretirementHowever, if you have not been adjusted for the year-end, if you have a small income and tax is withheld from dividend income, manuscript fee income, miscellaneous income such as public pension, you will be required to file a final tax return (tax return). it can. If the withholding tax amount is deducted more than the originally payable tax amount due to income deduction, tax deduction, withholding tax amount and tax rate, the tax will be returned by filing. Scheduled tax paymentHowever, even if the tax return is no longer required, the tax will be returned by the tax return.

In addition, even if a salaried employee with an annual income of 2,000 million yen or less does not have to file a final tax return, even if he/she has a tax return of 20 yen or less, if he/she makes a tax return, the income of 20 yen or less is also reported. Need to pay (not tax exempt).

Income deduction (deduction from total income amount)

Medical expenses deduction
  • Basically, the payment of the medical expenses of the person and the relatives who make a living is "10 yen.Gross income amount5%, whichever is less,” is the deduction amount (up to 200 million yen).
  • The criteria for determining whether medical expenses areMedical feePaid inDoctor-Dentist-Acupuncturist-Anma Massage Shiatsu-Judo reduction teacherFor example, medical expenses, medical treatments, and medical treatments performed or instructed by nationally qualified personnel do not significantly exceed the necessary expenses or general expenses.Public health nurse-nurse-Assistant nurse-MidwifeMedical care and medical assistance,Long-term care insurance methodIt also covers related care support costs.prescriptionbyPrescription drugNot only cold remedies and poulticesOTC drugsThe purchase cost of is also included. Mere beauty purpose, health promotion, disease prevention, fatigue recovery,Medical checkupCosts such as the above (excluding inspection costs when a disease is found as a result of the inspection and received medical treatment) are not deductible.
    In addition, the minimum required transportation expenses (car rent, taxi fare in case of emergency) to medical institutions are also covered, but gasoline charges for private cars are not covered.
  • As a special case of deduction for medical expenses after 2017, ``Self-medication"Tax system" (Switch OTC drug deduction) was founded. When taxpayers who receive influenza vaccination, regular health checkups, specific health checkups, etc. purchase certain Switch OTC drug products, the annual purchase cost exceeding 12,000 yen will be deducted (up to 88,000 yen). In addition, the previous medical expenses deduction will be applied selectively.
  • After 2017, if you attach the “description of medical expenses deduction”, you will no longer need the original receipt when filing your tax returns (medical expenses receipt must be stored at home for 5 years). In addition, it is possible to simplify the description of the statement by attaching a certain "medical expenses notification" issued by the health insurance association (no need to save receipts).
Donation deduction
(Furusato tax payment(Including)
Casualty loss deduction
  • Usually needed for life住宅,Furniture,clothingWhen assets such as natural disasters (earthquake disaster, wind and flood damage, cold damage, snow damage, lightning strikes, etc.), man-made disasters (fire, explosion, accident), abnormal disasters caused by organisms such as pests, theft or embezzlement, deduction of miscellaneous damage Be subject to. At the time of filing,Fire department, The government officePolice stationIt is necessary to have a certificate of damage, sickness, theft, etc. due to the above, and a receipt for the disaster removal costs described below.
  • The deduction amount is large in "the amount obtained by subtracting 10% of the total income amount from the retirement income amount from the deduction loss amount" and "the amount deducting 5 yen from the disaster removal cost etc. out of the deduction loss amount" It is one. What is the amount of deduction loss? Received due to a disaster, etc.insurance,Damages compensationIs subtracted. If a house or household property is in a disaster and the total income amount plus retirement income amount is 1,000 million yen or less, it is advantageous from "income tax reduction exemption under the Disaster Reduction and Exemption Act" (tax deduction) and miscellaneous loss deduction. You can choose one.
  • The mark-to-market value of assets that are normally required for daily life is deductible. For example of a houseTermiteSuch aspestDamage caused by cars and automobiles/motorbikes are applicable when used for daily commuting and transportation, but also for business use, calligraphy, bones, precious metals, etc., where the price of one set or one piece exceeds 1 yen is not covered. Is.
Exemption for dependents
Widow deduction/single parent deduction
Disability deduction
Spousal deduction
Spouse special deduction

If there is a change between the end of the year and the end of the year[7].

  • If there are dependents who are eligible for deduction,widow-Single parentIf the person, the spouse with the same living income, and the dependent relative arehandicappedIf there is a spouse whose total income is 133 million yen or less, instead of being a full-time employee,Total income amountIs limited to 1,000 million yen or less, from 2020), etc.
  • Here, “to make a living together” means living together in daily life and sharing a living, including the case where they are living separately for work, study, and medical treatment and living together by remittance.
  • Dependent relatives are not business full-time workers who make a livingrelatives,Foster childOr elderly people with a total income of 48 yen or less and over 16 years old (from 2020).
  • A spouse with the same livelihood means a spouse who is not a full-time employee who makes a living, and whose total income is less than 48 yen (from 2020).
Other deductionsExcept for those that received year-end adjustment.

Tax deduction (deduction from income tax)

Dividend deduction
(Specific renovation, etc.)
Special deduction housing loans
Special deduction for donations from political parties
  • When making certain donations to authorized NPOs, public interest incorporated foundations, etc., such as political parties.
Special deduction for earthquake-resistant housing
House-specific renovation special tax credit
Special tax deduction for new housing, etc.
  • EarthquakeRepairs to meet the earthquake resistance standards of (Reform), when certain requirements are met.
  • Barrier-free repair work, energy saving repair work, multi-family living repair work, durability improvement repair work, when certain requirements are met.
  • When you meet the certain requirements when you build or purchase a certified home.
Foreign tax credit
  • If you have paid foreign income tax.

Income tax calculation and filing of tax returns

Income tax is calculated based on income from January 1st to December 1st. The income tax for the total tax is basically calculated by the following formula.[8]

A salaried employee such as a company employee or a public servant usually pays "Withholding slipYou can calculate based on it.

  1. Income amount (payment amount)-Necessary expenses = Income amount (amount after deduction of salary income)
  2. Income amount-income deduction (total amount of income deduction) = taxable income amount
  3. Taxable income amount x tax rate = income tax amount
  4. Income tax-tax credit + special reconstruction tax-withholding tax = tax return

If there is a planned tax payment, it will be deducted from the declared tax amount. As a result, if the tax return is positive, in principle, the tax must be paid by the deadline. If the tax return is negative, the tax return will be returned and the financial institution designated later willSavingsWill it be transferred to my account?post officeGo to and receive.[9]

Preparation of tax return

The main tax return preparation methods are as follows.

  1. HomecomputerCreated by: National Tax Agency websiteEnter the amount in the "Filing of tax returns, etc."printerPrint with, ore-TaxElectronic filing and tax payment by (National tax electronic filing and tax payment system)Internet bankingEtc.Pay-easyTax payments and refunds are also possible).
  2. Created with a PC installed at the tax office or the nearest tax return filing center: Since there is an operation assistant, it can be used even if you are not good at a PC.
  3. Handwritten tax return: Obtain the tax return form from the tax office or the nearest tax return filing center (often sent by the tax office if the tax was paid in the previous year), and then handwrite it.
  4. Use of accounting software: Income from real estate,Business incomeUsed by taxpayers to create blue tax returns and final tax returns.

Personal number card,Basic Resident Register cardDigital certificate, such asIC card readerBecause it is time-consuming and labor-intensive, it is shunned by general users, and its spread is delayed compared to overseas, and there is a problem in terms of system maintenance cost effectiveness. Since January 2019, e-Tax has been simplified,My number card method"(Report using my number card),"ID/password methodTwo types of methods are now available (reporting the ID and password at the tax office)[10].

Declaration and tax payment

作成した確定申告書は、申告時点での住所地を管轄する税務署へ郵送するか、直接持参するか、e-Taxで申告する。 所得税の確定申告は2月16日から3月15日までだが、並行して行われる個人消費税の確定申告は1月4日から3月31日までである。2013年(平成25年)分からSpecial income tax for reconstructionThe final tax return is required, but it is also calculated and declared on the income tax return. In addition, if you have already filed income tax returns,Resident tax,Business taxThere is no need to declare.

Refunds for persons who do not need to file a tax return can be filed for five years from January 1 of the following year, regardless of the tax return period.[11].

The income tax amount that you have finalized your tax return is within the filing deadlineFinancial institutionEtc.paymentMust. If you apply in advance, you will be allowed to pay bank transfers and pay electronically. In addition, if you file a tax return by declaring deferred payment, you can postpone the deadline for payment up to May 1 (up to 2/5 of the tax payment amount).Interest taxWill be imposed).

Scheduled tax payment

If you file a certain amount or more of the tax due in the tax return for the previous year, a system that prepaid a part of the income tax for that year is called “planned tax payment”. If the planned tax payment amount calculated based on the income and tax amount for the previous year is 15 yen or more, one-third of that amount is from July 3 to July 1 (for the first term) , The same amount must be paid from November 7st to November 1th (for the second term). When a scheduled tax payment is required, a notification letter will be sent from the competent tax office. If the estimated amount of income tax for that year is less than the planned tax payment amount, the planned tax payment amount will be reduced by submitting the “Application for Reduction of Planned Tax Payment” by the prescribed deadline and obtaining approval.[12].

Quasi-tax return

If the taxpayer who should file a tax return dies without submitting a tax return, or if the taxpayer who died in the middle of the year had income to be filed for tax return, the heir inherited the date when he/she knew the inheritance started. The taxpayer who died must file a tax return and pay the tax within 4 months from the day after[13].. The filing deadline for March 3 does not matter.

Image characters from the 21st century onwards


It is said that tax awareness will increase and the tendency to focus on the use of tax will increase. There is also an argument that all salaried employees should be subject to tax return in order to raise the political awareness of the Japanese people.[14].アメリカ合衆国In this case, all citizens and residents are required to file tax returns individually, and not only salary and business income but also investment, asset formation, donation act, etc.Tax savingThe effect on taxation with "consciousness" is discussed.

Foreign tax returns


In the United States, all citizens and residents with taxable income, whether salaried or self-employed, have an annual Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Final tax return (Tax return) Is obligatory (DiplomatAnd trainingvisa(Except for such exceptions). For Japanese salaried employeesYear-end adjustmentThere is no equivalent to the payroll payer's W4 form deduction claim from the employeeTax withholdingJust do. US citizens (national citizens) and permanent residents (Green cardHolders) must declare all income even if they do not reside in the United States (however there is a deduction for tax payments in their country of residence and whether or not they actually pay tax in the United States, depending on the case).

The tax return deadline is April 4th of each year (the next business day if April 15th falls on a federal holiday) and you can either file your own tax return or ask a city-qualified contractor. Before the 4st century, when electronic filing by software on PC became popular,post office,libraryWith the declaration form prepared inbookletAccording to the tax return (and any tax deficiencycheck) Was the only means of filing, so from April 4th the radio was the deadline for final tax filings, and the post office staff ringed the bell next to the mailing post near midnight (April 15). It was also a seasonal feature such as (effective until the postmark of the day), but in the electronic filing era, it was a few weeks before filing tax refundscheck(Refund Check) mailing will be changed to direct bank transfer (direct deposit, electronic transfer of shortfall additional tax can be made from bank account) within a few days, which is improving efficiency.

Have income taxStateThe state tax will also be filed on the same day as the federal tax (April 4th), which is the deadline for filing the tax return, and the state tax return will be accompanied by the federal tax return and filed with the tax collection authority of the resident state.

Electronic filing is not done directly to the tax collection authorities, but via a private company (provider of tax filing software on PC) that has a contract with the tax collection authorities. For example, the overwhelming share of the tax return preparation program on a PCIntuitCompanyTurbo TaxSo, not only the data entered by hand,QuickenIn addition to importing data from accounting and household account programsADPWithholding tax data can be downloaded from payroll companies such as and can be uploaded after checking for errors and inconsistencies. The filing data uploaded to Intuit's server is transferred to the tax authority's server after undergoing the final inspection, and if there is no problem, the filing is completed and電子 メ ー ルReported in. Does the tax return preparation program create the same image as the paper tax return and actually print it?PDFCan be saved as a file. Intuit only paysHousing loanInterest deductioninterest-dividendFor taxpayers without income, business income, etc.webWe also offer simple filing using.

Authentication of the person at the time of electronic filing issocial Security number,Date of BirthIn addition to the tax payment of the previous year, simple things are used and there is no burden on IC card readers, but the tax return preparation software is only for the tax return year and the tax system is usually changed every year, so that year You have to buy a dedicated version of the software.


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