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🌏 | Market capitalization of crypto assets exceeds $ 1 trillion for the first time Some say that it is still in the early stages


Market capitalization of crypto assets surpasses $ 1 trillion for the first time Some say it is still in its infancy

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JPMorgan Chase said yesterday that Bitcoin has begun to emerge as an asset comparable to gold, and if it is considered a safe haven, its price could reach as high as $ 5.

[Reuters] – The market capitalization of crypto assets (virtual currency) exceeded $ XNUMX trillion for the first time on the XNUMXth, coins ... → Continue reading


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JP Morgan Chase

JP Morgan Chase(English: JPMorgan Chase & Co.)アメリカ合衆国New York StateHeadquartered inBank holding companyIs. Commercial banks such as JPMorgan Chase Bank (NA),Investment bankJP Morgan as a subsidiary. JPMorgan Chase Bank is a commercial banking business, including outside the United States[1]JPMorgan is an investment banking business that includes[2]Are shared.Hedge fundThe largest division in the United States, managing $340 billion[3].


Merger and public funding

2000年Tochemical(Chase Manhattan)(English edition)(JPM) Was born by the management integration with. afterwards,AlabamaI issued a local bond and earned a commission. The bribe was paid in many ways, so it became a case. JPMorgan Chase has signed a debt bond agreement that is dangerous to the finances of local governments.

2002 years,Merrill Lynch,CitigroupSimilarly,EnronIt was reported that he knew his financial condition.

2004年, Then the 6th largest commercial bank in the United StatesBank One[4]Acquired.2006年April 4, Corporate Trust DivisionBank of New YorkTo BNY's retail division instead. In addition, since 2007World financial crisisThe company acquired a bank whose operating condition deteriorated and expanded its scale. The 2008th largest investment bank in the United States in May 5Bear Stearns[5]Acquired. This Bear Stearns isLibyan Investment Authority) $2 million to bribe more than $600 millionGaddafiIt is said that it provided the government with a loan in July 2007. The Libyan Investment Authority sued JP Morgan Chase in September 7 for this suspicion[6].SogenHas also been fined in cases of bribery losses to the fund. September 2008 JP Morgan Chase was the largest in the United States at the timeSavings loan association Washington Mutual[7]Acquired. October 2008, 10 U.S. Secretary of Finance, Federal Reserve Chairman, Monetary Authority,Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,Federal Reserve Bank of New YorkWas asked to agree to implement the Bad Debt Relief Program (TARP). Since the 2007 financial crisis,Federal Reserve Of(English edition)I was receiving. March 2009, JPMorgan's legislationInsider tradingSchemeWikiLeaksPublished by[8].


In March 2006, the Tokyo branch of JP MorganTOPIXSuspended due to manipulation of futures contract index[9].. In addition, JP Morgan was established on April 4st of the same year.Pension reserve management operation Independent administrative agencyWas commissioned by theActive operationIt is carried out. JPMorgan has been placed on the global comprehensive league table of investment banking business for four consecutive years from 2009 to 2012.Goldman Sachs,Morgan StanleyAnd so on, was in the lead[10].. In 2013, JP Morgan willUnited States Department of EnergyFined $4.1 million from[11][12].. This price manipulationSmart meterPopularCaliforniaMade in. JP Morgan & Co., the predecessor of the parent company,Interwar periodToThomas edisonAnd the electricity business was an oligopoly. thisMonopolyGoldman’s bodyInvestment trustConnected to the pyramidWorld DepressionWas popularized.

2011å¹´10ToBank of AmericaHas become the largest American bank with assets[13].. Until then, not only for group companies but also for own capital raisingMutual fundIt seems that he was utilizing the. same year,American CenturyHas fulfilled the role of JPM fund salesCIBCWas acquired 41% of which approximately $10 billionNomura SecuritiesWas resold to.

December 2013, 12, JP Morgan ChasecartelUsedLIBORDue to illegal operations such asEuropean CommissionWas fined by me.

2014 year 1 month,Bernard L. MadoffIt has agreed to pay about US$26 billion to US authorities and others for a large fraud case by prisoners. Act on Report of Bank Secret Transactions (Bank Secrecy Act of 1970) Suspicious failure to report suspicious transactions. Prosecutors allege that prisoners had missed the crime, despite the fact that there were more signs than ever before[14].

September of the same year,Luxembourg leaksThen the tax avoidance was discovered.

Big business after TSE withdrawal

In March 2015, the previous electricity price manipulation was against parent company JP Morgan ChaseClass actionIt was reported that it has developed to[15].. Aug. 9,Block chainDevelopment ConsortiumR3CEV LLC Was launched.

2016 year 11 month,Donald TrumpAdvisers ofJames DimonWhile promoting to the Secretary of Finance[16], JP Morgan ChaseChugokuAgreed to hire a $2 million fine for allegedly hiring a relative of a government official to win a business in[17].. The employment fact itself has been reported several times. The fine will also be paid to the Federal Reserve.

JP Morgan's expansion into China is not new. In 1915Frank Vanderlip American International Corporation Was founded. The capital is 5 million dollars. AIC is for business purposesdew・Sending funds, banks and officials to South America. JP Morgan is the third Vice Chairman Willard Straight of AIC (Willard Dickerman Straight) Worked to soften England. Of AIC subsidiarySiems-Carey Company From the Chinese governmentKyohiro LineAuthorized to lay between Wuchang and Changsha. AIC isThe Industrial Bank of JapanIt is said that it has a cooperative relationship withMitsuiとKeihang Grand CanalAgreed to the project. MitsuiGeneral Electric,American locomotive,Vacuum oil,Swift & Company Was the general agent of.[18]

2017 year 1 month,Black rockStore and manage over $1 trillion of assetsCustodianI signed a business contract. JPMorgan Chase spends nearly two years on BlackRock assetsState StreetMove from.[19][20]

July 12st of the same year,1MDBJPMorgan Chase Swiss Co., Ltd. in dealing with the huge transaction that leaked the money ofMoney launderingThe Swiss authorities (FINMA) found a fact that violated the rules of prevention.Rothschild, Coutts Company (currentlyNatwest GroupAffiliated),UBS,Credit SuisseIt was the second incident. There were no fines or other sanctions, despite the alleged serious breach. Banks continue to be raided, but authorities have not disclosed the name of the last target.[21][22][23]

2018 year 3 month,Euro clearBelgian authorities found the loss of € 100 billion of Libyan frozen assets from[24].



1823å¹´New York Chemical Manufacturing Company, founded inChemical industryIt was a company, but the next1824å¹´Entered the financial business in April, as a subsidiaryChemical Bank of New York(Chemical Bank of New York) Was established. The first head is Baltazar (Balthazar P. Melick), the second generation is John Mason (John Mason)Met. In 1844, the operating patent of the parent company expired and the chemical bank was liquidated as it was.[25].. Only the Chemical Bank was revitalized in accordance with the Banking Act of 1838, but by 1851, the company's property had been sold out and distributed to shareholders.

Settlement institutions before coming to Japan

1853å¹´, Chemical is New York Clearing House (New York Clearing House) Became a founding member.Depression 1857Even though there was a conversion of banknotes, it was nicknamed "old gold bullion." However, because of the plight of other banks, he was temporarily locked out of the clearing house.Civil WarDramatically increased total deposits during the period, reaching more than $1871 million by 600. Since 1865, he has obtained operating patents under the National Banking Act (1865). The contents were privileged, and he was in a position to deposit the reserves of other national banks (Federal Chemical National Bank of New York). The superiority of chemicalsDepression 1907Lost by.[25]

1929 New York State is Wider than National Banking LawtrustWas changed, so the company format was changed (Chemical Bank and Trust Company)[25].. Chemical isWorld DepressionEven though there was, the total deposit amount continued to increase until 1941[25].. In 1934 Ivy Lee testified that heIG Farben IndustrieThe first pension benefit of $45000 from Max Ilgner of The Chemical Company in the name of IG ChemieInvestment trust(New York Trust Company) Was entrusted to.

1945å¹´Around October, the US Department of the Army deposited chemicals with foreign settlement funds centered on foreign currencies used by Japan for trading. This settlement fund will beSCAPThe procedure was completed by the end of August 1951.[26].. The SCAP account deposit account was opened in each of the following banks (both are Tokyo branches)[27].. IeNew York National City,Bang Camera, Chase National,Hong Kong Shanghai Bank,Chartered, Wanlan Bank, and Ran India Commercial Bank. Of these, the assets of the five banks except Bangkame and Chase NationalBOJ, But all returned by December 1951, 12[28].. Chemical is a lobby groupAmerican Council on JapanWas related to.

Anaconda Relief and Lisco Case

1954å¹´, Corn Exchange Bank (Corn Exchange Bank) Was acquired.

1967å¹´, Chase Manhattan and Morgan Guarantee Trust, and Citibank of New York (nowCitigroup),Anaconda Copper Mining CompanyCofinancing a total of 8000 million dollars.

1969å¹´February, Soul Steinberg (Saul Steinberg) Of Leasco (Leasco Data Processing Equipment Corporation) was launched a hostile takeover. In Lisco, the main bank is First Boston (currentlyCredit Suisse)was. Chemical not only knew of the acquisition in advance, but alsoMutual fundHad more than 27% of the Risco capital.Price waterThe defense plan,Bank of EnglandDirector George Bolton (George Bolton) Promised Risco's boycott.Power Corporation(Power Corporation of Canada) Mutual fund (Putnam Investments) And others sold all of Risco's stock at once, confusing the acquisition plan. PCC laterGroup Brussels LambertIt is a monopoly that becomes a shareholder of. As a thank-you note for successful defense,AT&T-DuPont-US Steel-Sears-IBMI was struck by a heavy man. In itMelon chaebolStrongholdPittsburghHenry Hillman (who made a fortune inHenry Hillman) Was there. Jewish soul himselfEstablishmentI was supposed to be a member, but I was betrayed.[29]

Until we sell 84 branches to PNC

In 1975Long islandHas acquired a security network (Security National Bank).

In 1982 the Florida National Bank (Florida National Bank) Was acquired. 1983å¹´At timeFederal Reserve Bank of New YorkIs a member bank of. Died in this year,SederAccording to documents left by the company's Gerard Soissons, Chemical had requested Seder to open an anonymous account. 1986 Texas Commercial Bank (Texas Commerce Bank) Was acquired.

1991å¹´, Manufactures Hanover Trust (Manufacturers Hanover Trust) Was acquired.

In 1995, PNC opened 84 branches in New Jersey (PNC Financial Services) Was sold to[25].. In 1996, it acquired Chase Manhattan, but the new company name remains the acquisition target. further2000å¹´, Chase Manhattan merges with JPM, but its headquarters function continues to be chemical, and it is a direct predecessor to legal proceedings.

Chase manhattan

The Chase Manhattan Bank1955年ToBank of ManhattanWas established by the acquisition of Chase National Bank. 1958 credit cardBang CameraRicard” was invented. To compete with this, the 1960 Chase Manhattan Bank invented the “master charge”. Present in 1962MasterCardRebranded to today. 1965, Bank Brussels Lambert (Bank Brussels Lambert) And a 49% stake in the Belgian Commercial Bank[30].1970 eraから1980 eraOver timeDavid RockefellerServed as the head of the bank. These daysBond-stockmarket,Syndicated loanからcredit card, It was a prestigious bank that had a high performance in a wide range of fields from mortgages. Established Chase Manhattan Trust Bank in 1985 (nowThe Master Trust Bank of Japan).1990 eraWhen you enterReal estateLost its former position under the influence of the market downturn,1996年Merged with Chemical.

Let's also write about the two predecessors of Chase Manhattan. Bank of Manhattan (Bank of Manhattan)1799å¹´With the founding, it has the oldest history of JPM Chase's predecessor company. OnceWaterManhattan was a business operator (The Manhattan Company) Was converted into a bank by Aaron Burr. Current JPM ChaselogoBelongs to the predecessor Chase Manhattan, and moreover to the predecessor Bank of Manhattan[31].. Anyway, the Manhattan Bank is the oldestNew York BankHowever, after becoming the original member bank of the New York clearing house in 1853, he began to have a certain personal relationship with his rivals. 1929 International Underwriting Bank (International Acceptance Bank),MM Warburg & COPaul Warburg (Paul Warburg) Became chairman[32].

Chase National Bank was founded in 1877 and is namedSalmon chaseName it. However, it seems that he had no business relationship with the owner John Thompson. Chase, in 1917, with 33 other domestic banksカナダOne foreign banking corporation was created by mixing with one bank (American Foreign Banking Corporation). In 1923 he opened an agency in London. In 1925, it acquired AFBC's Havana and Panama branches. 1929 Chase SecuritiesAmerican ExpressTook control of. In 1930, Chase bought an equitable trust (Equitable lifeMerged with a subsidiary)Multi national companyBecame. Equitable Trust President (Winthrop Aldrich) has a family relationship with the Rockefellers and became Chairman of Chase in 1934. In 1951 the Hong Kong branch was closed.Mao ZedongShould not be under the supervision of.[30]

JP Morgan

A famous biography by Ron Chanau (Morgans) Nihon Keizai Shimbun 1993 years).

Rothschild support

MassachusettsFromGeorge PeabodyIt is,UKWhile livingRothschild familyEstablished George Peabody & Company and started the financial business with support from.at firstU.S. TreasuriesTheUK OfInvestorThe main business was to mediate to. At this time, I was welcomed as a partnerGenius Spencer MorganMet.

Later, Morgan took over as the representative, and the company name became JS Morgan & Company.

Son of J.S. MorganJohn Pierpont Morgan(JP Morgan) expanded his father's business as a merchant banker in the United States,1871å¹´To become the predecessor of JP MorganDrexel Morgan & Company(Drexel, Morgan & Co.)PhiladelphiaBanker,Anthony J. DrexelCo-founded in New York with. After Drexel's death,1895å¹´Drexel Morgan & CompanyJP Morgan & Company(JP Morgan & Company). JPMAndrew CarnegieIn addition, we acquired a steel company in the United States,US SteelEstablished the company and reorganized the industry. World's firstMarket capitalizationBecame the gimmick of a billion-dollar company.1895å¹´, TreasuriesFriI took it for $6200 million and later redeemed it for $1 million in cash.

World science and warfare

JP Morgan & Company has also invested in the paper and electricity businesses and has grown even larger (General ElectricSuch). 1905Dresdner BankBecame correspondent bank. In 1914Wall streetHeadquarters built inMorgan House[33], And became a symbol of economic control by financial capital.[34].World War IInsideBank of EnglandAssumed the exclusive agent for wartime bonds issued by. In additionFranceProcured the munitions supplies of the company in advance (cumulative total of $180 billion and $60 billion in each country).Great Kanto EarthquakeThen, since 1911 he has been a partner(English edition)Approved U.S. side organization and loan[35].

JPMorgan has loaned a total of nearly $1917 billion to the following countries between 1926-120: Austria,キ ュ ー バ, Canada, Germany,ベルギー, France, United Kingdom,イタリア.. Austria isCoon robeRelationship with.

Morgan Guarantee Trust

JPM first in 1928American Depositary ReceiptIssued the following yearWorld DepressionTake a hit by. In response to thisGrass-Steagal method(Law that prohibits banks and securities from operating concurrently) was also enacted,Commercial bankWill beInvestment bankI was forced to choose. JPM chose the path as a commercial bank with relatively stable earnings before the depression, and the separated securities and investment banking divisionMorgan Stanley(MS) became. It is often misunderstood that MS's "Morgan" does not come from John Pierpont Morgan, but is named after Henry Morgan (grandson of John Pierpont Morgan) who was promoted from a regular employee in the investment banking department. There is.

The new JPM1940å¹´Acquired a legal personality. Under the Investment Company Act of the same yearMutual fundIs institutionalized and strictFamily businessI need less.1959å¹´Merges with Guarantee Trust Company of New York toEuro clearDominateMorgan Guarantee TrustBut[36], 10 years later, a holding company was established, and the company name returned to JP Morgan & Company.

Up to LTCM rescue loan

The Patman Report is about the financial world in the mid-1960sMonopolyWas clarified in the statistical data. JPMPostwar economyIs the largest investor diversified services (IDS)Mutual fundI was building a complex. Putman reports thatInstitutionalization problemArgued as.Richard NixonWas a presidential candidate and a director of IDS,Charles CorsonI was even signing a letter written by the fund lobbyist[37].. A few years later, IDSEquity funding caseCaused.

1980 eraThroughEuro bondMarket leading[38].. Most Euro bond transactions are EuroclearClear streamWas settled in. Although JPM was inclined to the settlement business,Morgan StanleyAnd IDS was a dealer. In July 1983, the Morgan Guarantee TrustNomura SecuritiesAnd jointly invested in JapanTrust companyAgreed to make[39].. This trust company targeted US corporate pensions for the time beingInvestment adviserIt was a plan to do business. At that time, pension managementTrust bankWas only accepted by life insurance companies. The public pension is the asset management department of the Ministry of Finance.FILPWas used as. Trust banks, life insurance companies, and the Ministry of Finance repelled the Nomura-Morgan Union. This is because Nomura was trying to allow the "discretionary investment account" in the investment advisory business for domestic corporate pensions. In opposition, the US-Japan Yen-Dollar Committee applied relentless pressure to allow the establishment of nine foreign trust banks in June 1985. Thus at the end of 6Offshore marketIt became. In 1987, JPMBrazilLending $13 billion without interest. JPM was active as a wholesale bank until the mid-1990s.

1997, American Century (American Century Investments) Acquired by JPM[40].. The American Century, which was the fourth largest mutual fund direct sales company in the United States at the time, has been the limb of the JPM Fund for the next 4 years, raising capital for the group. 14,Long Term Capital ManagementParticipated in a relief loan. Established in 1999Gram-Leach-Briley methodBySilver certificate separationWas abolished, the following year it merged with Chase Manhattan and became an investment bank again.

Bank One

Bank One (Bank One Corporation) Is1998年Bank One of Ohio and First Chicago (First Chicago Bank)・NDB (National Bank of Detroit) Was merged and was born. Bank One of Oh,OhioOf the local banks centered around the City National Bank of Columbus-OhioHolding companyFirst Bank Group of Ohio was established as the predecessor. As the First Bank Group changed its name to Bank One, its banks also merged to become Bank One. He continued to use the Bank One name when expanding his business to other states and acquiring banks.

After the merger with NBD (Detroit National Law Bank), business performance deteriorated, and the owner John B. McCoy, who had been the president of Bank One since his grandfather, was forced to retire. BehalfCitigroupJamie Demon, who was transferred from the company, took over as head of the board, promoted reforms, sold the company to JPM Chase, and became CEO of JPM Chase.

September 2003 Bank OneBang CameraWhile being conspired with, and suspected of making illegal profits by short-term transactions and overtime transactions using mutual funds, New York law enforcement authorities are investigating, but illegal transactions of other companies have also been caught one after another.

Ten years later,DetroitHe was in financial failure. Went bankrupt in 2009General MotorsThe Vanguard, as a loan to link public funds until 2013,Black rock,State Street,Berkshire HathawayEtc. was institutionalized.

Sales office

JPMorgan Chase has sales offices in more than 60 countries around the worldMulti national company.

Long time agoマ ン ハ ッ タ ン OfDowntownIt is inChase Manhattan PlazaWas the headquarters, but nowPark townThe headquarters for the entire group is located at 270. Chase in the retail sector2004年Is the home of Bank One, which was acquired byChicagoIs moving to.credit cardHeadquarters of the departmentWilmingtonIt is in.TexasFrom the history of the acquisition of the ground Texas Commerce Bank,HoustonPlays the role of general agent in the south. Other major branchesPhoenix,Columbus,Fort Worth,IndianapolisSuch.

BBC NewsJPM Chase from downtown New YorkConnecticutReportedly agreed with New York City/State that it would receive a subsidy committing not to move[41].American terrorist attacksSince then, other companies have received similar grants, but for JPMorgan Chase it was the largest.

(I was damaged in 9.11/XNUMX)Goldman SachsbyBattery Park CityNew York state authorities have already paid the company $6 million to build the new office. [Omitted] However, "JP Morgan Chase will receive more favorable treatment from the New York State/City authorities, including a total of $5,000 million worth of corporate taxes, reduced electricity bills, and office rent subsidies." "The rent subsidy is $1 million a year for 5,000 years, or $15 million," the report said. JP Morgan is a huge and very high profit company. — BBC article



  1. ^ Deposit, credit card, mortgage, car loan, student loan, insurance, investment trust, online banking, etc.
  2. ^ Asset management, securities business, private bank, private equity
  3. ^ Barr, Alistair (March 2007, 3). “JP Morgan is largest US hedge-fund firm”. MarketWatch. 2007/8/2Browse.
  4. ^ Total assets of $2900 billion. 1800 branches. As of September 2003
  5. ^ Total assets $3945 billion. As of February 2008
  6. ^ NewYorkBusinessJournal, JPMorgan Chase slapped with bribery allegations from Libyan fund, Sep 20, 2018, 2:40 am
  7. ^ Total assets $3070 billion. 2207 branches. As of September 2008. Acquired branch bank for $9 billion from federal deposit insurance corporation
  8. ^ WikiLeaks Whistleblower exposes insider trading program at JP Morgan March 16th 2009
  9. ^ Financial Services Agency Regarding administrative penalties for JP Morgan Securities Tokyo Branch 2006/3/9
  10. ^ Kesseler, ncent (December 2010, 12). “Global Investment Banking Review”. Thomson Reuters Data Intelligence. 2011/11/29Browse.
  11. ^ Guardian JP Morgan to pay $ 410m in penalties for manipulating electricity prices Tuesday 30 July 2013
  12. ^ Ministry of Energy Prohibition of Energy Market Manipulation See: JP Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation
  13. ^ Son, Hugh (October 2011, 10). “BofA Loses No. 1 Ranking by Assets to JP Morgan as Chief Moynihan Retreats”. Bloomberg. 2011/11/29Browse.
  14. ^ Wall Street JournalElectronic version JP Morgan Settles With Madoff Incidents-Pay $26 Billion January 2014, 1 8:07 JST
  15. ^ Reuters JP Morgan faces suit over power market manipulation claims March 11, 2015
  16. ^ Reuters Trump, Treasury Secretary Examining JP Morgan's Dimon = Related Sources 2016/11/11
  17. ^ Reuters JPMorgan US fines 290 billion yen due to hiring relatives of senior Chinese officials 2016/11/18
  18. ^ Roberta Allbert Dayer, Bankers and Diplomats in China 1917-1925: The Anglo-American Experience, Routledge, 2013, pp. 43-49.
  19. ^ Wall Street JournalElectronic version "JP Morgan, Custody rises to second place in the US with Black Rock contract" January 2, 2017
  20. ^ Reuters, "BlackRock jilts State Street, moves $1 trillion in custody assets to JPMorgan", January 26, 2017.
  21. ^ Reuters, "Swiss find serious shortcomings at JPMorgan in 1MDB case","Swiss find serious shortcomings at JPMorgan in 1MDB case", December 21, 2017
  22. ^ New York Times, "JPMorgan'Seriously Breached' Money-Laundering Rules, Swiss Regulator Says", Dec. 21, 2017
  23. ^ TheLocalCh. Watchdog says Swiss arm of JP Morgan broke anti-money laundering rules, 22 December 2017
  24. ^ Libyan Express, Belgium: 10 billion euros of frozen Libya assets disappeared from Euroclear Bank, Thursday 8 March 2018
  25. ^ a b c d e "Chemical Banking Corporation History", International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 14. St. James Press, 1996
  26. ^ ``Memorandum of the End of the Fiscal Term,'' Volume 12, Okura Finance Association 1971 pp.105, 280.
  27. ^ Minoru Ichimura "History of trade resumption after the end of the war in Japan and the history of authorized foreign exchange banks" (Foreign Exchange No. 121, July 30, 7) p.1.
  28. ^ The Bank of Japan, History of the Bank, Vol. 4, Vol. 15, pp. 385, 402.
  29. ^ Anthony Vice, The strategy of takeovers, McGraw-Hill, 1971.
  30. ^ a b Gino Cattani, An Evolutionary View of Internationalization: Chase Manhattan Bank, 1917 to 1996, The Wharton Financial Institutions Center, August 2002, pp.13-26.
  31. ^ The cross section of wooden water pipes has been designed after the old water supply business.
  32. ^ Mira WILKINS, Mira Wilkins, The History of Foreign Investment in the United States, 1914-1945, Harvard University Press, 2009, pp.283-284.
  33. ^ Euro clearBut there is no sign.
  34. ^ It became a target of dissidents,1920年In front of the headquartersBombing by terroristsOccurs. In this case, where 33 people were killed and 400 were seriously injured, "it's the limit of patience.Political prisonerIf you do not release, all of you will die.”AnarchistHas been sent by someone who claims to be.FBIWas involved in the investigation,1940年The final case report was filed with and no criminal was identified.
  35. ^ Visited Japan in 1927, second gradeShigemitsu AsahiI am worshiping the Emperor in my heart.
  36. ^ The Morgan Guarantee Trust itself existed much earlier than 1959. Discovered registrations dated 1920 May 5 and 25 April 1864. The article requires further scrutiny and review.
    Bizapedia MORGAN GUARANTY TRUST CO. OF NEW YORK Vermont Secretary Of State Business Registration
    MORGAN GUARANTY TRUST COMPANY OF NEW YORK Maine State Department Business Registration
  37. ^ Joel Seligman, The Transformation of Wall Street, Vol. 2006, Soseisha 466 XNUMX
  38. ^ JPM entered the market in 1979.
  39. ^ Nikkei newspaper morning edition July 1983, 7 front page
  40. ^ International Directory of Company Histories, Vol.91, pp.273-284.
  41. ^ "Bank subsidy for Ground Zero move”. BBC News (February 2007, 6). 2007/8/2Browse.

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