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Immigration controlWhat is (Shutsu Nyukoku Kanri)?国境,空港,HarborEtc., people are differentCountryWhen going in and outCountry(政府) Is the immigrationManagement・ It means to grasp.ObjectRegarding the entry and exit of goods, etc. are performed along with the immigration inspection,TradeWhen the purpose is only to get in and out of goods, it is usually called "import / export" rather than "immigration".Even within the same country, immigration control from areas where immigration operations are performed separately, such as overseas territories, may be performed at the same time, so it is sometimes called entry / exit management or entry / exit management.
EnglishThen. Immigration Control Or immigration I called it and read this as it was "immigration, Omitting it "Immigration"Is as it isJapaneseIt has become.To be precise, "Immigration" means entry only, and departure is "Emigration".
Purpose of immigration control
- Criminal suspect国境To prevent it from moving over.国家の主権外に出た人間に対してFor humans who have gone out of national sovereigntyPolicemenBecause you can't exercise your rightsArrestCan't (if you want to be arrested)International Criminal Police OrganizationAskInternational wantedAnd request repatriation if the local police notify you to secure the criminal, orCriminal delivery agreementThere is no choice but to tie and hand it over).For this reason, immigration control plays the role of inspection.
- In addition, when a person moves between nations, a certain amount of goods is allowed to be carried, but regarding thisCustomsInspection,quarantineThere are procedures such as.
- To understand the import and export of banned goods in that country.The main inspection target isarmsKind,drug,Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and FaunaAnimals protected by (Washington Convention).
In modern times地球Behind the scenes, etc.EcosystemBig difference世界The ability to move people and goods between them can significantly disrupt the ecosystem.plant-food-Biology (EspeciallyPathogenIt is one of the important purposes of immigration control to prevent the movement of) at the water's edge.特定のspecificInfectionTravel restrictions may be placed with areas where the disease is endemic, and landing may be denied if there is a suspicion of infection.
Large economies when economic disparities between nations are largeImmigrationApplicants may arise.しかしその人数が余りにも多い場合、渡航先国民のHowever, if the number of people is too large,unemployment,住宅It causes problems such as shortage.From this point of view, many countries limit the number of immigrant applicants to a certain number.
Passport and visa
passport(Passport) is for travelersCitizenshipNationality issued by the government of a certain country and required to be presented at the time of immigration controlIdentificationIt also has the character of an immigration record book.In all countries, possession and carrying of a passport is mandatory for immigration.
In Japan, passports are available at the passport counters of each prefecture.Overseas missionApply and obtain at (Since 2006, there are some areas where the city hall, town / village office, etc. are the window instead of the passport window of the prefecture).
It should be noted that there is no clear statement in international treaties, etc. Therefore, although it cannot be said that it applies to all nations, it is generally an international practice.Head of state(In principle, one person from each country) is not subject to immigration (immigration)kingOriginally did not create a passportPresidentCarry a passport but do not use it). But the royal familyMinister(prime ministerAlso includes. In the case of), it is said that there are many cases where procedures such as permitting on the passport are required even for public travel because he is not the head of state (the person himself is the so-called VIP route, that is,Airport terminal buildingFollow the road that you don't have to enter. Also in JapanPrime MinisterFor public travel in Japan, usuallyHaneda airportからGovernment machineIs used, and the officials of the bank apply on behalf of them after the fact).JapanEven inEmperorOther thanQueenincludingroyalSince he becomes an ordinary person in a foreign country, he travels with a passport issued.
visaIs a certificate required to enter the destination country, and is the certificate of the destination country before travel.Overseas missionApply to and obtain. Visas are usually stamped or affixed to passports. Countries with a system that regards visas as de facto immigration permits and rarely refuses them at the time of immigration examination (the so-called immigration control laws are so-calledContinental law(Many countries are defined by the method) and countries with a system that conducts strict immigration examinations again, assuming that the visa is nothing more than a "recommendation document" for immigration (so-called immigration laws and regulations)Anglo-American lawIt is often found in countries defined by the method. Japan is included here), and for those who travel to the latter country, obtaining a visa is not always a guarantee of entry.
Immigration is approved or denied in accordance with laws and regulations, but in reality, it is in charge at that time, such as "behavior is suspicious", "insults the examiner", "misleads or lies to the question". In many cases, the examiner's feelings made it clear that the purpose was illegal entry or illegal employment, and the decision to deny entry resulted in deportation.
In today's world of increasing international traffic, there are increasing cases of mutual visa exemption agreements being signed between countries, and only those who wish to stay for sightseeing in a short period of time are going to travel to the diplomatic missions abroad in advance. Increasingly, people are allowed to enter the country even if they do not have a visa.(However, immigration is not exempt).
Those who have been examined before entering the country (entry) and are authorized can enter the country. A person with nationality must also pass immigration when returning from a foreign country. At immigration, questions such as the purpose of entry and the length of stay are asked (it may be discovered that you are trying to enter the country illegally because the purpose or place of stay is ambiguous). Also,CustomsExamination andquarantineReceive.
In the past, there may be a preliminary examination before entering Japan.Garuda Indonesia AirlinesHowever, for passengers on boardインドネシアPre-immigration inspection,Korean Air,Asiana AirlinesTo the passengersNarita International AirportでSouth KoreaWas conducting pre-immigration inspection. If you have pre-immigration, you can pass through the immigration lanes (mainly crew and diplomat lanes) dedicated to arrival. All of them are for those who wish, and can undergo normal immigration inspection after arrival without undergoing pre-screening.
In addition, immigration in the country of arrival may be conducted at the same time in the country of departure, and on international routes to / from the United States, Canada,アイルランド(Shannon Airport,Dublin Airport),アラブ 首長 国 連邦(Abu Dhabi International Airport), US immigration is done at the airport (when you arrive in the US, you arrive at the domestic terminal instead of the international flight).Euro starThen,Gare du NordIn the UK immigration,Murray RailwayThen,Woodlands Train CheckpointImmigration in Malaysia is being conducted in.
American terrorist attacksSince then, immigration inspections around the world have continued to become stricter until now. As of 2019,America,Japan, South Korea,Taiwan,Malaysia,ChugokuObtaining biometric information at the time of immigration (face photography, etc.)fingerprintWith collectionDatabaseRegistration to) is now being done. In a country where biometric information such as facial photographs and fingerprints is obtained at the time of immigration, it is decided whether or not to permit immigration by strict examination after collating with the biometric information database of past criminal history and persons requiring attention. There is.
When foreigners enter Japan,Immigration officerUnder landing examination byReason for landing refusalAfter confirming that it does not hitLanding permitMust be obtained (usually a landing permit sticker is affixed to the passport).2007年(Heisei19 years)11/20Than,J-BISWas introduced.
in Japan,US Army in JapanThe soldierUS-Japan Status AgreementBy U.S. military facilities (of the Air ForceAirfield, Of the Navy and Marine CorpsMilitary port), You can freely enter and leave the country with only a military ID card without going through the following procedures. Also, in some countries, including Japan, international aircraft can be transferred without immigration procedures unless they leave the restricted area of the airport.
US Department of Homeland SecurityIt is,2009年1/12Than,aircraftOrShipEnter the country withVisa exemption program72 hours before departure for US immigrants from the target countriesインターネットUse to declare your name, passport number, and accommodation in Japan, and collect a fee.Electronic travel authorization systemMandatory. The content of the declaration is the same as the I-94W examination card.
Submit your passport, immigration card, return ticket or itinerary confirmation to the official at the immigration counter for immigration.
Similar examinations may be conducted when leaving the country. You will be required to show valid passports and various forms of documents in order to identify and confirm the person leaving the country. There may be restrictions on departure due to criminal history, the defendant in the court in dispute, or other reasons, and the criteria for these judgments vary from country to country. In general, departure is often not as strict as immigration. For example, in the United States and Australia, airlines check passports and visas at international boarding check-in, but most airports do not have "immigration" by the government. It is the airline's responsibility to check the passport and visa at the time of international boarding check-in if the entry is denied due to unqualification (incomplete passport or visa) in the country of departure. It is also because it has to be.
In the case of Japan, when leaving Japan, it is necessary to obtain confirmation of departure regardless of whether it is a Japanese or a foreigner. It is said that you must show your passport to the immigration inspector, receive the departure confirmation from the immigration inspector, and receive a seal certifying that in your passport before you leave the country. In addition, the act of leaving Japan without confirmation of departure is subject to criminal punishment for "smuggling" (Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActArticle 71).
Previously, it was necessary to fill in the address, name, travel destination, etc. on the departure / return record (ED card) in addition to the passport and submit it at the time of examination.Japanese nationalityRegarding the return of the holder,Heisei 13(2001年）7/1Since then, it is no longer needed.. For foreigners, it is no longer necessary to submit short-term stays, excluding those planning to re-enter Japan, from April 28, 2016 (when entering Japan, it is necessary to submit entry records as before). ..
In addition, of the schoolSchool excursionな どGroup travelIn the case of, it is possible to receive confirmation of departure in advance. In this case, the departure certificate with the date of departure is stamped on the passport in advance, and on the day of departure, the "pre-departure examination certificate" given in advance through the staff passage may be given to the immigration officer. In addition, some CATs (City Air Terminals) overseas can undergo immigration inspection in advance at the immigration office attached to them.
Submit your passport, boarding pass, and departure card at the counter for immigration.
Immigration offices in most countriesphotographIt is prohibited. AlsoMobile phoneUse of禁止Has been done. The reason isSmugglingIt is said that this is to prevent it from being used as a reference material for doing so.
Immigration control stamp (stamp)
- Departure certificate
- Upon departure, a stamp with the country name, departure date, departure place, etc. will be stamped on the passport. Depending on the country, the signature of the departure examiner may be recorded. Part (formerlyJohor Bahru StationIn some cases, the departure date and place of departure may be handwritten by the departure examiner instead of the stamp. In addition, it should be notedAutomated gateIt is not stamped when passing through. An increasing number of countries, such as the United States, omit the departure certificate.
- Immigration stamp
- In your passport when you enter JapanlandingA stamp with a permit, entry permit, etc. is stamped. The country name, entry date, place of entry, conditions of entry (duration, employment availability, permitted area, etc.) are recorded. In some countries, the signature of the immigration inspector may be recorded. Part (formerlySingapore stationEtc.) may not be stamped. Also, if you are denied entry to a hostile country if you have a passport stamp (イ ス ラ エ ルEtc.), the passport may not be stamped if desired.
- Passport holder enters the passport issuing country (Home countryThe seal stamped when returning to Japan)Return stampThat is. Normally, a special return stamp is prepared, but in some countries, it may be combined with an entry stamp for foreigners, or the stamp may be omitted.
For the purpose of simplifying and speeding up the procedure, the installation of automated gates that automatically perform immigration inspections, which was conventionally done by manned people, is progressing in each country. To use it, if you register personal information such as fingerprints and facial photographs in advance (registered in the database of the Immigration Bureau),IC passportIn some cases, the information registered in the IC chip of is used (in the former case, it can be used even if it is not an IC passport). Japan(J-BIS) And Hong Kong (e-road), Macau, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Australia and New Zealand (Smartgate) Etc., it is installed at checkpoints at airports and overland routes. Normally, if you are a national, you can use it in principle, but for foreigners, the correspondence is different in each country. (Thailand is only for its own citizens. Japan, Taiwan, China, South Korea, etc. can be used by foreigners who have already registered as foreigners. Hong Kong can also be used by non-resident foreigners who meet the conditions)
In addition, in some cases, mutual agreements have been signed to enable the use of automated gates in the partner country for registrants of automated gates in the partner country, and are currently being conducted between the United States, South Korea, and Korean ports (Smart Entry). Service). However, each automated gate registration procedure must be done (because data is not shared in each country).
Immigration / Customs Procedure Support Device (Kiosk terminal) Has been introduced in the United States and Canada. Fingerprint collection, photography, input necessary information on the terminal, present the receipt and passport printed from the device, and be examined by the examiner. In China, fingerprints will be collected in advance at the "Fingerprint Self-help Reservation Zone for Foreigners Immigration" set up in front of the immigration office, and immigration will be carried out with the registered receipt... In Japan as well, by utilizing the waiting time for landing examinations, a device called "Bio Cart" for collecting fingerprints and taking facial photographs has been introduced at major airports.
Residence permit and alien registration
Residence permits are divided into several types in most countries.
- Passage-A residence permit given when passing through (including accommodation) the territory of the country for transit of aircraft / ships, via international trains, etc. Usually 72 hours (3 days).
- Short-term stays (sightseeing, short-term business) --A residence permit given when staying in the country for a short period of time. Immigration is relatively simple. Usually up to 89 days (note that it is not 3 months.Big moon91-92 days if included, up to 48 hoursIllegal stayIs established).
- Long-term stay (school, work) --A residence permit given when you need to stay for a long time, such as school or work. The screening criteria are strict, and in addition to proof of acceptance (admission permit, employment contract, etc.), a certain level of achievement (university graduation certificate, work background, skills, etc.), especially in the case of employment.) Is not given. Usually 90 days or more and 4 years or less.
- permanent ――A residence permit given when the nationality does not change, but it is permitted to permanently reside in the destination country. Conditions such as long-term marriage and employment, having a stable living base in the destination country, and no criminal history above a certain level are required. If you intend to stay in the country after the expiration date of your residence permit, you must renew your residence permit. Depending on your performance during your stay, you may be refused to renew your residence permit, in which case you must leave the country.
- Japanese peopleIf you set up an address abroad and stay for 90 days or more, JapanOverseas mission(Embassy,Consulate GeneralEtc.)Notification of residenceMust be submitted. In addition, depending on the country of stay, alien registration, etc. is required in that country.
- Foreigners residing in Japan for a medium to long term, other than "short-term stays", "public use", "diplomatic" or equivalent qualifications for more than 90 days in JapanStatus of residenceIf you are staying withSpecial permanent residentExcept for, you must notify the municipality of your place of residence.
International zone (British: International zone) In the territoryImmigration controlBecause not only policies are implementedExtraterritorial lawIs in a state of having. The most common example isInternational airportThis is the area after the departure procedure in Japan and before the immigration procedure. In such areas of the international airportBonded duty free shopIs often established, but it does not have full extraterritoriality that the legal system of the home country does not reach "at all". Green zone in conflict areasgreen zone) With an international control areaDiplomatMay be guaranteed not to be at risk, and an international zone may be set up to separate the parties to the conflict.
Example of international zone
- (I.e. OfKhmeimim Air Force Base TheロシアGovernment for 49 yearsleaseIn the meantime, the Russian government has extraterritoriality over the air force base and its personnel..
- Saint HelenaDespite British territoryNapoleon BonaparteWas the residence ofLongwood HouseIs owned by the French government.
- From 1920 to 1939Free City of Danzig(CurrentポーランドAreaGdansk）
- Clear country OfConcession
- (I.e. OfGreen zone
- ^ "The strongest passports, Japan and Singapore are still top”. CNN (July 2019, 10). 2019/10/8Browse.
- ^ About the start of provision of biometric information in Malaysia
- ^ a b "Kotoripp Overseas Edition Singapore" Shobunsha Publications, 2016, p. 96
- ^ "Abolition of Japanese departure / return record (ED card)" (Press Release), Immigration Bureau, (June 2001, 6) 2010/3/9Browse.
- ^ Pudong International Office Entrance Foreigner Fingerprint Self-help Fingerprint
- ^ If you are a language teacher, you will need a teacher's license and a document that describes your background. If you are a professional athlete, you will find personal achievements certified by the team. Of course it needs to be written in the local language
- ^ Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic on the deployment of an aviation group of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic (as amended on January 18, 2017)(Russian)
- ^ Vasiliev, Alexey (19 March 2018). Russia's Middle East Policy. Taylor & Francis. Pp. 511-. ISBN 978-1-351-34886-7
- Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act - Passport law - Customs law - Quarantine Act - Domestic animal infectious disease prevention method - Plant Protection Law
- Overseas mission (Embassy, Consulate) - Customs - Immigration Control Agency(Regional Immigration Bureau)- US-VISIT/J-BIS
- Illegal stay (Illegal immigration, illegal immigration)- Stowaway - smuggling - Deportation(Deportation,Departure order)- List of people who lived at the airport
- Immigration - refugees
- Tariff - customs clearance - Duty-free shop
- Travel - Foreign travel - Traveling
- ICPO - WHO - WTO
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna
- Schengen Agreement
- Barrier - Border checkpoint
- Ticket gate - Boarding procedure -
- Guest room