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🌏 | US administration focuses on domestic investment before signing new trade agreement = Mr. Yellen


U.S. administration focuses on domestic investment before signing new trade agreement = Mr. Yellen

If you write the contents roughly
In response to a committee member's question as to whether the Biden administration plans to prioritize the conclusion of a trade agreement with Taiwan, Mr. Yellen emphasized that "the recovery of the US economy is our top priority" and "President Biden has so far been a US worker. And will not sign a new free trade agreement before major investments in domestic infrastructure are made. "

[Washington, XNUMXst, Reuters] -Former Federal Reserve Board (... → Continue reading


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Free trade agreement

Free trade agreement(Jubo station,British: Free Trade Agreement[1][2],FTA) Is an agreement that two or more countries/regions will abolish or reduce trade-restrictive measures such as tariffs and import quotas within a certain period.[3].. Remove tariff/non-tariff barriers for the purpose of expanding free trade and investment between the signing countries/regions[3].US-Mexico-Canada AgreementEtc. and bilateral agreements[4].

On the other handEconomic partnership agreement In addition to the FTA, the EPA is an agreement that includes a wide range of initiatives such as investment, government procurement, intellectual property rights, the movement of people, and the improvement of the business environment. It is an agreement to aim[3].

Relationship between Free Trade Agreement and WTO Agreement

Under the Free Trade Agreement, reducing/eliminating tariffs only between countries at the time of the agreement does not violate the WTO general MFN treatment if the following conditions are met.

As of August 2021, 3, 5 agreements haveWorld Trade Organization) As valid (in force)[5]Has been[6].. Those reported to the WTO include those called Customs Unions and Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The breakdown of the 342 agreement by ground is as follows:[6].. Many agreements provide for both goods and services trade, so there is duplication in numbers. See the WTO website for details on types[7]See.The latest report is the agreement between ASEAN, the United Kingdom and Ghana (effective March 2021, 3), which was reported on March 4, 2021. On December 3, 5, the number increased significantly because the United Kingdom reported 2020 agreements (effective January 12, 31) concluded with the withdrawal from the EU.In thisJapan-UK Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementWas also included, and the agreement between the United Kingdom and the EU was also reported.However, it came into effect on January 2020, 1.US-Japan trade agreement, The First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which came into effect on August 2020, 8, has not been reported as of January 1, 2021.[7].

  • GATT Article 24:311
  • GATS Article 5:181
  • WTO authorization clause: 61

In addition, at the House of Councilors plenary session on November 2020, 11, during a question and answer session when the purpose of the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement was explained, Mr. Shinkun Haku, a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party and the corporate citizens, responded to a question by Toshimitsu Mogi. The minister said, "The WTO website has announced that the 27 free trade agreements have not yet been reported, including the Hong Kong ASEAN trade agreement and the Australia-Indonesia trade agreement. We are here. "[8]I am answering.This WTO website is a document of the WTO Regional Trade Commission on September 2020, 9.[9][10]However, this list does not include the US-Japan trade agreement.

Difference between FTA and EPA

A "Free Trade Agreement" (FTA) is a deal with a particular country or regionTariffAgreement to remove restrictions on goods and services and to freely distribute goods and services[11].. It is also said to be the basis of trade policy[12].

"Economic partnership agreement(Economic Partnership Agreement, EPA) is not only about the distribution of goods and services, but also the movement of people,Intellectual property rightAgreement aimed at strengthening intimate relations between the two countries or regions through various cooperation such as protection of people, investment, competition policy, and cooperation in a wide range of fields.[13][12].

Regarding the rules of trade between regions,World Trade Organization Although it took the form of multilateral negotiations through the (WTO), it takes a lot of time and effort to handle each multilateral negotiation, so as a new international rule between regions that supplements the WTO, FTA and EPA are attracting attention[11].

However, we are not aware that there is an internationally established definition of "free trade agreement" in the official view of the Japanese government.[14]Therefore, the difference between EPA and FTA is not defined by the Japanese government as an internationally established definition.

Japan isSoutheast Asia,IndiaAs we have been promoting an economic cooperation agreement withGeneral agreement on tariffs and trade) And GATS (General Agreement on Trade in ServicesIn addition to areas such as trade in goods and services liberalized by FTAs ​​based on[11][12].[15][11].. The reason is that not only the elimination of tariffs, but also the expectation that a wide range of effects will be produced in terms of investment and services.[15].

Although the Japanese government divides FTAs ​​and EPAs in this way, it says, "It is not a general name and is not used in the WTO. The FTA was originally specialized in trade, but its contents are changing year by year. It's widespread and is almost synonymous with it anymore[16]] In fact, some FTAs ​​that have been concluded in the world in recent years include various new fields that are not limited to tariff elimination/reduction and liberalization of trade in services, similar to Japanese EPA.[11]It is often the case that some countries comprehensively classify FTAs ​​and EPAs into FTAs ​​without distinguishing them.[Annotation 1].. Especially in the United States, most of the signed and signed agreements are free trade agreements.[Annotation 2]Although there is no agreement on economic partnership, the contents include not only tariff elimination/reduction and liberalization of trade in services but also fields such as environment and labor.[Annotation 3].. FurtherUS-Japan trade agreementIn the question of the approval of the Diet, in response to a question from Mr. (Yu) Goto, Foreign Minister Mogi: “Comprehensive FTA, in which, in addition to trade in goods, the basics include liberalization of all services, Incorporate a wide range of rules, such as intellectual property, investment, and competition, into the agreement[17]As stated in the guide, there is no internationally-established definition of FTA, but in Japan, up to now, general trade in goods and services with particular countries and regions has been general. We have used the term FTA in that sense, an agreement aimed at the liberalization of the." In addition, the Cabinet Secretariat, Shibuya TPP and other policy coordinating officers of the Government's Countermeasures Headquarters, responded, "Since it is an agreement consistent with Article XNUMX of GATT, we recognize that it is an economic partnership agreement." Although it is a law related to tariffs and a domestic law, the Order for Enforcement of the Temporary Tariff Measures Law[Annotation 4] The term "economic partnership agreement" is mentioned in the above, and the agreement is directly applied when applying the tariff rate agreed in the economic partnership agreement.[Annotation 5], This is the rule. We recognize that this is an economic partnership agreement, which we call the Customs Law, including the TPP, Japan-EU-EPA, and this Japan-US trade agreement.[17]"That's what it means.

As of January 2020, the Japanese government's agreements with foreign countries or specified regions (which have entered into force) came into effect in December 1.Comprehensive and Advanced Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership(CPTPP) and became effective in January 2020US-Japan trade agreementAll except EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement). Signed with CPTPP in February 2018Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement(TPP) is EPA in terms of content, but the agreement name is "Partnership Agreement".Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementAlthough its name is EPA, it was only related to tariffs until the first revised protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, which regulates trade in services and investment, came into effect on August 2020, 8.US-Japan trade agreementStipulates only tariff elimination/reduction, does not fall under economic partnership agreements, and is classified as a free trade agreement.

EU FTA classification

EU has its official websiteEU Free Trade Agreement offers new opportunitiesThe EU has concluded that there are four types of free trade agreements that the EU has concluded with countries and regions around the world.

1. First generation agreements

Mainly signed before 2006, the focus is on tariff elimination. It includes agreements with Switzerland, Norway, the Mediterranean and Middle East countries, Mexico and Chile, customs unions with Turkey, and "Stabilisation and Association agreements" with the Western Balkans.

2. Second generation agreements

Targets South Korea, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Central America. It also includes intellectual property rights, services and commitment to sustainable development. The Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) falls under this category, although it has a different name.

3. Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA)

Create stronger economic relations between the EU and neighboring countries such as Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.

4. Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)

Focused on development demand in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific region. This does not apply to the Japan-EU EPA.

As mentioned above, EU generally means EPA "focused on development demand", and Japan-EU EPA refers to tariffs, intellectual property rights and services, and commitment to sustainable development. Understand that it is a second generation agreement that also includes.


US-Japan Joint Statement on September 2018, 9[18]Japan and the United States at the "Japan-US Trade in Goods Agreement (TAG)[19]About” announced that it will start negotiations. Regarding this, Prime Minister Abe said at a press conference, "This time, the TAG negotiations on Japan-US trade in goods are completely different from the comprehensive FTAs ​​that Japan has concluded so far." It's not an FTA, but it's really a negotiation on trade in goods."[20]However, the TAG is a free trade agreement itself defined in Article 24 of GATT, and is a free trade agreement limited to trade in goods that does not include the service field and other fields. The nature of the agreement is not a name but a substance, and the agreement agreed as a result of renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement ( The name does not include "Free Trade" (United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, USMCA), but this does not mean that it is no longer a free trade agreement.

In addition, it is pointed out that the term trade in goods agreement (TAG) does not exist in the Japan-US Joint Statement.[21].. The joint statement is in English[22]It is said that there is "for a Japan-United States Trade Agreement on goods,as well as on other key areas including services, that can produce early achievements".[18]"The Japan-US Trade in Goods Agreement (TAG), and about other important areas (including services) that can produce early results." However, the translation of the US Embassy in Japan[23]States, "Negotiations on US-Japan trade agreements in other important areas, including goods and services that may produce early results," and other important areas, including goods and services, modify the US-Japan trade agreement in parallel. There is. Clearly, at least, there is no TAG abbreviation. Regarding this, Yuichiro Tamaki, the representative of the National Democratic Party, said, "Speaking of a strong word, it is a fabrication. I dared to correctly translate the English sentence and found the abbreviation TAG (Goods Trade Agreement), which is not an FTA (Free Trade Agreement). It may be said that it is a forged document that was intentionally mistranslated in order to explain it to people."[24].

Also, President Trump will notify the US Congress of the start of negotiations on this agreement[25]However, it clearly states tariff and non-tariff barriers.

Advantages and disadvantages

Free trade agreements are expected to have political as well as economic benefits.

EconomicMeritas,Free tradeBy promoting and expanding theinvestmentExpected to expand[26].. In addition, the promotion of competition between regions will stimulate the domestic economy and effectively relocate industries throughout the region, which is expected to have the merit of improving productivity.

Political merits are expected to mitigate regional conflicts and political conflicts between partner countries and cultivate trust between regions, and each country will deal individually with trade issues and labor issues. Can be dealt with as a whole between the agreement areas.

On the other handDemeritIs also worried. Many countries and people in the position of promoting agreements presuppose free competition and rationalization of production and development between regions, and if their own country does not have a superior location, the industry or production base will move to the other country. there is a possibility. As a result, industries and production items that are not very competitive in Japan may be damaged.[27]However, there is a possibility that there will be disadvantages for both producers and consumers, such as flooding the market with products that do not meet the quality of the products produced by domestic consumers. Whether or not a product coming in from abroad can meet a unique need is unknown, and the same benefits that have occurred in other Free Trade Agreement (FTA) regions are also found in FTAs ​​between other countries. It does not always happen, but rather it may proceed in a direction that people do not want, both economically and politically.

List of free trade areas

All ofCustoms union, TradeCommon market,Economic alliance,Tariff currency unionas well as the Economic and Monetary UnionAlso has free trade areas, but these are only mentioned in each article.

Movement of FTA conclusion in East and Southeast Asia

In the East and Southeast Asian regions, the movement to conclude an FTA was delayed, except for the Bangkok Agreement based on the licensing clause.ASEANCountriesASEAN Free Trade Area It signed the (AFTA) in 1992 and began gradual trade liberalization. Within ASEANTariff,Non-tariff barriers The purpose is to lower the (NTB), liberalize trade, and revitalize the economy and develop it accordingly. However, East Asian countries began working on FTAs ​​after the end of the 1990s. In addition, China and Taiwan were not members of the WTO until 2001 and 2002, respectively, and were unable to conclude FTAs ​​with WTO members.

The most active FTA in the region is Singapore. In AFTA, he was the same promoter as Thailand, the advocating country. In addition to AFTA, he is enthusiastic about concluding FTAs ​​with foreign countries, and in November 2000, he concluded a New Zealand-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (ANZSCEP) with New Zealand.[28]). After that, Japan,EFTA(2002), Australia, USA (2003), Jordan (2004), India,Four Pacific countries (Chile, New Zealand, Brunei) FTA, Korea, Panama, Qatar (2005) and so on.

ASEAN is effectively at the core of today's East Asian economic integration. China, Japan, and later South Korea each signed an FTA (ASEAN + 1FTA) with all ASEAN countries and summarized it.ASEAN + 3The default route was to build a de facto East Asian FTA as an FTA. In 2002, Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi proposed the ASEAN + 5 concept, insisting that Australia and New Zealand should be included, but this was also in line with the construction of a framework centered on ASEAN.Australia and New Zealand are already ANZCERTA[29]Conclude this CER[30]The FTA concept between Japan and AFTA was also negotiated.

In addition, not only will it become the core of a regional FTA in ASEAN, but there are also moves to seek deepening of regional economic integration. In 2003, the 9th ASEAN SummitASEAN Economic CommunityAnd "2nd ASEAN Republican Declaration (Bali Concord II)" with the aim of establishing a community in two other fields[1].. However, this ASEAN Economic Community is being discussed as FTA+α,Economic Community in Europe It is not at a level comparable to (EEC) or EC market integration.FTA negotiations in these regions began in 2012Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership AgreementAs (RCEP) negotiations, negotiations were held between ASEAN and Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, India and South Korea, and in November 2020, the RCEP agreement was signed in 11 countries except India.

Japanese FTA strategy

Japan is,199812月に、日韓自由貿易協定の効果等についてのシンクタンクによる韓国との共同研究を行い(2000年5月終了)、ついで日韓自由貿易協定ビジネス・フォーラム:2001年3月 - 2002年1月、日韓自由貿易協定共同研究会:2002年7月 - 2003年10月を経て2003年10月、日韓両国首脳は交渉開始に合意した。しかし、韓国とのFTA交渉は2004年11月の日韓自由貿易協定交渉第6回会合を最後に中断となった[31]Meanwhile, JapanSingaporeProceed with negotiations with2002First in JapanEconomic partnership agreement(Japan-Singapore New Era Economic Partnership Agreement) Came into effect. After that, it embarked on bilateral negotiations with each of the ASEAN countries and concluded an economic partnership agreement with Mexico.2007Started in AprilJapan-Australia Economic Partnership AgreementWith regard to the negotiations, it is expected that the removal of tariffs on agriculture and dairy farming will overwhelm Japanese agricultural products and dairy products,HokkaidoThere was a lot of repulsion due toJapan-Australia Economic Partnership AgreementBecame effective January 2015.

Agreements already in effect (including EPA)

Agreements in which Japan has completed the signing procedure but has not yet entered into force (including EPA)

Signed EPA / FTA (under parliamentary proceedings)

EPA/FTA under negotiation

Agreements pending or suspended (including EPA)

Scholar's view

Profit group

Free trade agreements come into effect for the benefit of certain interest groups and are usually "managed" to the benefit of a particular group. In the US, USTR (United States Trade Representative) Represents the interests of a politically important group. Bilateral trade agreements cost developing countries significant sacrifice[45].

economic growth

Trade liberalizationeconomic growthThere is no evidence to bring. The lack of balance is one reason why international trade agreements have failed to lead developing countries to economic growth. Developed countries have discretionary tariff rates, while developing countries have averaged four times the tariff rate. Also, while developing countries have abolished subsidies to domestic industries, developed countries have received huge agricultural subsidies.[46].


Generally speaking, free trade does not lead to job creation because the increased employment due to exports is offset by the decreased employment due to imports.[47].. The misconception is how to set up the issue of whether trade will increase or decrease employment. Whatever the impact of NAFTA on employment, other economic policies, especiallyFinancial PolicyOverlooks the fact that[48].


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its follow-on agreements would reduce wages for workers as it facilitated outsourcing. NAFTA exposes US steel workers and automobile manufacturing workers to competition with low-paying workers in developing countries, resulting in lower wages for US manufacturing workers[49].

In the 10 years since the establishment of NAFTA, the income disparity between the United States and Mexico has expanded by more than 10%, and it has not resulted in the rapid growth of the Mexican economy. Mexico's 10-year economic growth was only 1.8% in real per capita income. NAFTA also contributed to exacerbating Mexico's poverty. NAFTA abolished tariffs, while non-tariff barriers remained intact[50].. Mexico has neglected necessary measures to strengthen its competitiveness as a result of being overly tariffed[51].


Standards for environmental protection, safety and health are regulated by a democratically elected government. Large companies can use NAFTA and other agreements to disrupt regulation. In the United States, a patent policy has given pharmaceutical companies decades of unrestrained monopoly.Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership AgreementBut the same can happen[49].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For example, the website of the Australian government (Australia's free trade agreements (FTAs))
  2. ^ Anything that is not called a free trade agreement has not yet entered into force,Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement,US-Mexico-Canada Agreementas well as the US-Japan trade agreement.
  3. ^ US-Japan trade agreementOnly tariff elimination/reduction is stipulated.
  4. ^ There are provisions in Article 10-7 of the Enforcement Order of the Tariff Provisional Measures Act. This is based on Article 3-7 and Article 8-XNUMX of the Tariff Provisional Measures Act.
  5. ^ This is a provision of the proviso of Article 3 of the Customs Law, which refers to the direct application of the treaty, but is not limited to economic partnership agreements. The provisions of the Economic Partnership Agreement referred to in the Enforcement Order of the Provisional Tariff Measures Act are for the implementation of safeguards based on the agreement.
  6. ^ Article 8 of the First Amendment Protocol to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement


  1. ^ Significance and Challenges of Economic Partnership Agreements-Is Japan's Trade Policy Changed or Is the Formation of an "East Asian Community" Coming Soon?-RIETI Law Bulletin June 2005
  2. ^ The 22nd "Effect of Free Trade Agreement (FTA)"RIETI November 2014, 4
  3. ^ a b c FTA/EPA and WTO FTA trends by theme and Japan -JETRO
  4. ^ JETRO Australia's FTA policy and its impact on industry 2004/3
  5. ^ Based on the 2006 WTO decision (WTO document WT/REG/16).
  6. ^ a b "List of all RTAs, including accessions to RTAs". WTO (September 2020, 7). 2021/1/12Browse.
  7. ^ a b "Figures on Regional Trade Agreements notified to the GATT / WTO and in force". WTO (September 2021, 3). 2021/3/6Browse.
  8. ^ "203rd House of Councilors plenary session No. 5 Reiwa November 2, 11". National Diet Library (September 2020, 11). 2020/1/7Browse.
  9. ^ WT / REG / W / 151
  11. ^ a b c d e What is EPA/FTA Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  12. ^ a b c “Trade policy (2) Covers intellectual property and movement of people”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2010, 5). http://www.asahi.com/business/topics/keizainavi/TKY201005260250.html 
  13. ^ "What is EPA/FTA?" MOFA FTA PR Video
  14. ^ "Answer No. XNUMX Cabinet Participation Quality XNUMX No. XNUMX Taro Yamamoto, member of the House of Councilors, is the answer to the question concerning Japan-US trade negotiations.”. House of Councilors (November 2018, 11). 2018/11/16Browse.
  15. ^ a b "What are the merits of EPA/FTA?" MOFA FTA PR Video
  16. ^ Yoshika Uematsu (Interview with Professor Shujiro Urata, Graduate School of Asia Pacific Studies, Waseda University) (November 2019, 11).How to read what is RCEP that both Japan and China participate". Asahi Shimbun. 2019/11/21Browse.
  17. ^ a b "The 200th Diet Foreign Affairs Committee No. 4 (Wednesday, November 11, 6)”. House of Representatives. 2019/11/25Browse.
  18. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  19. ^ TAG stands for Trade Agreement on goods
  20. ^ September 30, 9 Press conference at the 26rd United Nations General Assembly
  21. ^ Shigeaki Koga (September 2018, 10). "The reason why Prime Minister Abe used the term TAG (Goods Trade Agreement) that does not exist in the Japan-US Joint Statement|newspaper=AERAdot"Asahi Shimbun Publishing. https://dot.asahi.com/dot/2018100700011.html 
  22. ^ Joint Statement of the United States and Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  23. ^ US-Japan Joint Statement September 2018, 9, HP of the US Embassy in Japan
  24. ^ "Mr. Tamaki, the citizen," TAG is a forgery that was intentionally mistranslated, a lie "". Asahi Shimbun digital(July 2018, 10). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASLBB65J1LBBUTFK01N.html 
  25. ^ USTR HP
  26. ^ Improving the international business environment by promoting WTO and EPA / FTA, etc. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  27. ^ Free Trade Agreement [FTA] Economic / Financial Terminology Dictionary
  28. ^ British: agreement between New Zealand and Singapore on a closer economic partnership
  29. ^ British: Australia New Zealand closer economic relations trade agreement
  30. ^ British: closer economic relations
  31. ^ About the Japan-Korea Economic Partnership Agreement (Background and Current Situation) Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  32. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry HP Notice regarding start of operation of "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership (AJCEP) Agreement" between Japan and Indonesia
  33. ^ Customs HP (Archive by the National Diet Library as of April 2018, 4) Implementation of the "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP)" between Japan and the Republic of Indonesia
  34. ^ "Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement Notice for the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 6). 2020/6/17Browse.
  35. ^ "Vietnam's Notice Regarding the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol to the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 7). 2020/7/29Browse.
  36. ^ "Brunei's Notice Regarding the Effectiveness of the First Amendment Protocol of the Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/11Browse.
  37. ^ CPTPP underway – tariff cuts for our exporters on December 30
  38. ^ "Viet Nam seventh nation to ratify CPTPP”. New Zealand Goverment. 2018/11/15Browse.
  39. ^ CPTPP Agreement Article 3 Paragraph 2
  40. ^ "Exchange of diplomatic official texts for the effectiveness of the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement"Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2018, 12). https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press1_000310.html 2018/12/21Browse. 
  41. ^ "Notice for the Effectiveness of the Japan-US Trade Agreement and the Japan-US Digital Trade Agreement"Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2019, 12). https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press6_000627.html 2019/12/16Browse. 
  42. ^ “Exchange of diplomatic official texts for the entry into force of the UK-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement”Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (December 2020, 12). https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/release/press1_000474.html 2020/12/18Browse. 
  43. ^ Signing of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP
  44. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Top Page> Interview / Announcement / Public Relations> Press Release> Report on Completion of Domestic Procedures for Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement January 29, 1
  45. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitzkotoba June 2013 issue
  46. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitz, "Correcting Globalism That Disperses Disparities in the World," Tokuma Shoten, 2006, p. 53.
  47. ^ Macro Trumps Micro Paul Krugman, New York Times December 2012, 12
  48. ^ Paul Krugman, "Good Economics, Bad Economics," Nikkei Inc. <Nikkei Business People Library>, 2000, p. 219.
  49. ^ a b Want'free trade'? Open the medical and drug industry to competition Dean Baker, The Guardian, 11 November 2013
  50. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitz, "Correcting Globalism That Disperses Disparities in the World," Tokuma Shoten, 2006, pp. 117-118.
  51. ^ Joseph E. Stiglitz, "Correcting Globalism That Disperses Disparities in the World," Tokuma Shoten, 2006, p. 118.

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