Demonstrations calling for the release of Russian opposition leaders, "detaining more than 3000 people" and human rights groups
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At Pushkin Square in Moscow, protesters said, "Freedom for Navalny," "Leave Putin!
On the 23rd in Russia, a protest demonstration calling for the release of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who was detained immediately after returning to Russia, was held in Russia ... → Continue reading
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Moscow(Russian : Москва ́ IPA: [mɐˈskva] Mask ver, pronunciation) IsRussian Federation Ofcapital.Federal cityAsCity83 of the Federation aloneFederal constituentsIt is one of the surroundingsMoscow OblastIt is also the state capital of.However, it is distinguished from the state and "Moscow city (Moscow city) ”.
The population is about 1,268 millionEuropeLargest and influentialWorld cityIs.Kanji AtejiMoscow.EnglishWhen pronounced in, Mascow in the United States, in the United KingdomMoskau(Moscow [Rice: mάskaʊ][English: mɒskoʊ])become that way.
It is located at latitude 55 degrees 45 minutes north and longitude 37 degrees 37 minutes east.In the center of the cityMoskva riverMeanders and flows.City areaareaReaches 2,511 square kilometers.Vegetatively northConiferous forestIt is located at the point of contact between the belt and the mixed forest belt in the south.The soil isPodzolIs the main, not so fertile.
According to a 2010 survey, 91.65% of Russians, 1.42% of Ukrainians, and 1.38% of Tatars are among the settled population, but these do not include immigrants or illegal immigrants and are mainly central. It is estimated that more than 100 million immigrants from Asia live.
This areaMoscow time zone OfStandard timeIs using.The time difference is+3 UTCIn time,Daylight saving timeThere is no. Until March 2011, standard time is UTC + 3, daylight saving time+4 UTCHowever, from March of the same year, the daylight saving time system was abolished with daylight saving time as the standard time. From October 3, it became UTC + 2014 throughout the year.
Köppen climate classificationThen.Subarctic humid climateIt belongs to (Dfb).The annual rainfall is 707 mm, which is the highest in the summer from June to August, while the finest weather and the most sunshine hours are from May to August.In winter, the amount of precipitation is low, but cloudy weather continues, and the hours of sunshine are very short.In recent winters, the average temperature has risen compared to before due to the effects of climate change and urbanization, and it is now from 6 to 8.Average priceThen, the average temperature in January increased by 1961 degrees and in February by 1990 degrees from the old normal value from 1 to 2.8.Considering that the average temperature in January 2 was -1.0 degrees Celsius, it has risen by about 1990 degrees Celsius.However, even after the 1s, in 12.0, 5, 2000, 2006, and 2010, it was affected by strong cold waves and cooled to around 2011 degrees below zero.Also,Heat islandDue to the phenomenon, the coldness of winter differs greatly between urban areas and suburbs, and the difference may be around 10 degrees Celsius.It gets relatively hot in the summer, and it is not uncommon for it to exceed 30 degrees Celsius.
The highest temperature ever was 2010 degrees Celsius on July 7, 29, and the lowest temperature ever was -38.2 degrees Celsius in January 1940.
Moscow meteorological observations are adjacent to the suburban Ostankino Park, about 10 kilometers from the centerAll-Russian Exhibition CenterIt is held in (commonly known as ВВЦ, VCC) and is located in a green area.
|Moscow (VVC) 1981–2010 average, extreme 1879–current climate|
|Highest temperature record ° C (° F)||8.6|
|Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)||−4|
|Average daily temperature ° C (° F)||−6.5|
|Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)||−9.1|
|Minimum temperature record ° C (° F)||−42.2|
|Precipitation amount mm (inch)||52|
|Average number of rainfall days||0.8||0.7||3||9||13||14||15||15||15||12||6||2||105.5|
|Average number of snowfall days||18||15||9||1||0.1||0||0||0||0.1||2||10||17||72.2|
|Average monthlyDaylight hours||33||72||128||170||265||279||271||238||147||78||32||18||1,731|
|Source:  |
|Moscow (VVC) 1961–1990 average climate|
|Average maximum temperature ° C (° F)||−6.3|
|Average daily temperature ° C (° F)||−9.3|
|Average minimum temperature ° C (° F)||−12.3|
- 20107/29, The temperature reached 38.2 degrees. Recorded the highest ever observed, which started 130 years ago.The highest so far is 1920 degrees in 36.8.
- 20108/10The Moscow City Registry revealed that 7 people died in Moscow in July, 1 times more than 4340 people died in the same month of the previous year.RecordIntense heatAnd forest / peat firesmogIt is believed that the health hazards caused by this are affected.Germany, Australia, Canada, etc. were affected by the temporary evacuation of diplomats and their families at the embassy in Moscow.According to the Ministry of Emergency Situations, forest and peat fires have continued in more than 500 locations in the country, and the area of fires has expanded to 17 hectares.
2011The city of Moscow was the second largest city in the world after New York City.New York City had a budget of $ 2 million for a population of 818 million, and Moscow had a budget of $ 659 billion for a population of 9100 million..
2014The total production of the Moscow metropolitan area was $ 7944 billion, which was the 10th largest economy in the world...In europeLondon metropolitan area,Paris metropolitan areaIt was the third place after.
2016, American economic magazine "ForbesHas more than $ 10 billion in personal wealth, according to statistics published byMillionaireThere are 60 people,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Hong KongBecame the third most popular city after.
1147ToKiev Grand Duchy OfYuri DolgorukiThe oldest record is mentioned as the place where (Chief) met.1156Since the fort was built in, it gradually became a small city. From 1237 to 1238Mongolian EmpireReturned ashes by the army (Siege of Moscow).
1271,Grand Duke of VladimirAlexander NevskyIs the youngest child ofDaniel AlexandrovichAcquired Moscow as a relic, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow was established. 3rd generation of the Duke of MoscowIvan IVInstead ofKipchak Han CountrySince I got the right to collect taxes from the Rusian princes, I strengthened my strength.Grand Duchy of MoscowIt became.1382In Kipchak Han countryTokhtamysh HanAlthough it was sometimes occupied by1480,Ivan IVBy completely ending the Tatar yoke, Moscow became Russia's largest capital.HeUspensky Cathedral,Brago Vesichensky Cathedral,Alhangerisky CathedralWas constructed and rebuilt to make the Kremlin magnificent.Before the KremlinRed SquareWas built during this period.1534から1538To the northeast of the KremlinKitay-GorodWas surrounded by the same wall as the Kremlin, and the area has since developed as a commercial and industrial area.
1561ToIvan IVBySt. Basil's CathedralWas built. With the Kremlin around 1590Kitay-GorodThe city of Moscow was greatly expanded with the construction of walls on the outside of the building and the construction of earthworks on the outside.The inside of the new wall was called Bely Gorod (white town), and the space between the earthworks and the wall was called Zemryanoi Gorod (earth town)... At the end of the 16nd centuryTime of TroublesAnd,1610ToFake dormitory IWithPoland and LithuaniaThe armyRussian-Polish WarOccupied Moscow, but of the merchantsKuzma MininAnd the national army organized around the Duke Dmitry Pojarski1612Regained Moscow and the next1613ToMichael Romanov ツ ァ ー リElected toRomanov morningWas established.
During the Romanov era, Moscow continued to grow as the country expanded,Peter the Great 1712At the northwestern tip of RussiaNeva riverAt the estuarySt. PetersburgIt gave up the position of the capital by constructing.However, even after that, it continued to maintain its position as the vice-capital, and successive Russian emperors used to hold coronations in Moscow.Many of the old aristocrats lived in Moscow even after the transfer of capital, and while St. Petersburg was the window for incorporating Western ideas, Moscow became the center of old Slavic ideas.1755Is Russia's first universityMoscow State UniversityHas opened.Around this time, the walls of Bely Gorod were removed and the Privar Ring Road was built on the site.1812ToNapoleonInvasion of Moscow (Great Patriotic War), The town was returned to ashes, but was soon reconstructed. In the 19th century, the earthworks of Zemryanoi Gorod were also removed, and the site wasSadovoe Ring RoadIt became.1851A railroad was opened between St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg.1862Nizhny Novgorod,1864In Ryazan, in 1868Kursk,1870Railroads to Yaroslavl opened one after another, The position as the center of commerce and industry in central Russia is unwavering,Serf liberationDue to the influx of labor and the development of light industry, the population exceeded 19 million at the end of the 100th century.
SovietBy1918The capital function was relocated toSoviet UnionAnd became the capital of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic (now the Russian Federation).Great Patriotic WarSometimes up to 40 kilometers northwest of the cityGerman armyAlthough it advanced, it did not fall due to the resistance of the military and civilians.Long time agoCold WarThere was a conflict byAmerica OfWashingtonAt the same time, Moscow was divided into two as the capital of a superpower,StalinHas a sense of opposition to the skyscrapers of New YorkStalinist styleI built many buildings.It remains the capital of the Russian Federation after the collapse of the Soviet Union and is now the political and economic center of Russia with a population of over 1000 million.
|1400から1856For up toMoscow OfpopulationOf|
|4 million||20 million||16 million||14 million||13 million||16 million||18 million||27 million||21 million||24 million||34 million||36 million|
|1868から2002For up toMoscow OfpopulationOf|
|41 million||60 million||75 million||103 million||161 million||102 million||210 million||460 million||613 million||814 million||897 million||1038 million|
Features of the city
Moscow is in the centerKremlinIt is a town that extends concentrically from the Kremlin, and trunk roads extend radially in all directions from the Kremlin.The Privar Ring Road, which connects the main roads,Sadovoe Ring Road,Moscow Ring Road 3, Moscow No. 4 Ring Road,Moscow Ring RoadThere is.The Sadovoe Ring Road was built on the site of the earthworks of Moscow in the 1590s.Inside, the old town is home to historic buildings.The Moscow Metro Ring Road runs under this road.
The Kremlin1156It has been the center of Moscow since Yuri Dolgoruki built the fort, and the royal palace was located from the time of the Grand Duchy of Moscow through the early days of the Russian Empire.After the establishment of the Soviet Union, the government was placed here, and it is still the center of Russian politics where the presidential office of the Russian Federation is located.In front of the KremlinRed SquareSpreads around the squareGUM department store,St. Basil's Cathedral,Mausoleum of LeninThere is.The northeastern part of the square is called Kitay-Gorod, which has been a commercial and industrial area since the time of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and is now part of the city center.Once to the northKGBThe headquarters ofLubyankaAndBolshoi Theaterand so on.
Extends northwest from the KremlinTverskaya StreetHas been a main street since the 19th century and is still a downtown area.Tverskaya Street is then renamed the Leningrad Road and extends to St. Petersburg.Extends west from the KremlinArbatIs a pedestrian paradise, with many shops and souvenir shops lined up and visited by many tourists.
On July 2012, 7, the area equivalent to Novomoskovsky District and Troitsky District was incorporated, so the area of Moscow city area increased by about 1 times at once.Since then, the city of Moscow has been in the following 2.5 provinces (Административные округа, АО) Is divided.Previously opened in the 1960sMoscow Ring RoadWas almost in line with the border of Moscow, but now the city area is about three times larger than it was then.
- Chuo-ku(Central AO）
- Kita(Northern AO）
- Northeast(Северо-Восточный АО）
- Higashi Ward(East AO）
- Southeast(Юго-Восточный АО）
- South ward(Southern AO）
- Nanxi District(Юго-Западный АО）
- Nishi-ward(Western AO）
- Northwest(Северо-Западный АО）
- Zelenograd District(Zelenogradsky AO）
- Novomoskovsky District(Новомосковский АО）
- Troitsky District(Троицкий АО）
In addition, this administrative district is furtherRayong(area) (Pronounced lion in Russian).
The city council has a fixed number of 35. In the election on October 2009, 10,United RussiaWon overwhelmingly. Inaugurated in 1992Yuri RuskovUnder the mayor, the city of Moscow actively developed its economy, and the government recorded high economic growth by thoroughly developing infrastructure and attracting foreign capital.Furthermore, the city government actively works to protect and nurture small businesses to solve the unemployment problem.Unemployment rateBecause it was suppressed to 10/1 of the national averageWith the high support of the citizens, he maintained a long-term administration for 18 years.But in 2008Lehman shockLater, as the economy slowed down, corruption and corruption associated with the long-term administration began to be dealt with, and on September 2010, 9.Dmitry MedvedevDismissed by the president.
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
- Isaak Zelensky(First generation,1921 - 1924）
- (2nd generation,1924 - 1928）
- Vyacheslav Molotov(3nd generation,1928 - 1929）
- (4nd generation,1929 - 1930）
- Lazar Kaganovich(5nd generation,1931 - 1934）
- Nikita Khrushchev(6nd generation,1934 - 1938）
- (7nd generation,1938 - 1938）
- (8nd generation,1938 - 1945）
- (9nd generation,1945 - 1949）
- Nikita Khrushchev(10nd generation,1949 - 1950）
- (11nd generation,1950 - 1952）
- Ivan Kapitnov(12nd generation,1952 - 1954）
- Yekaterina Furtseva(13nd generation,1954 - 1957）
- (14nd generation,1957 - 1960）
- Pyotr Demichev(15nd generation,1960 - 1962）
- (16nd generation,1962 - 1967）
- Viktor Grishin(17nd generation,1967 - 1985）
- Boris Yeltsin(18nd generation,1985 - 1987）
- Lev Zaykov (19nd generation,1987 - 1989）
- (20nd generation,1989 - 1991）
- Gavriil Khari(First generation,1991 - 1992）
- Yuri Ruskov(2nd generation,1992 - 2010）
- Vladimir Resin(Temporary deputy,2010）
- Sergey Sobyanin(3nd generation,2010 -)
13 tracks, 9 by directionTerminal stationThere is.The place name of the destination of the train is the station name.
- Kazansky railway station - Kazan-Bishkek-Tashkent-Dushanbeaspect
- Kievsky railway station - Kiev-Chisinau-Sophiaaspect
- Kurskaya station - Kursk-Donetsk-Simferopolaspect
- Savyolovsky Station - Direction
- Paveletsky station - Domodedovo airport・ ・Baku-Almatyaspect
- Belorussky Station - Sheremetyevo International Airport-ベ ラ ル ー シ-Vilnius-Warsaw-Berlin-Parisaspect
- Yaroslavsky Train Station - Yaroslavl-Vladivostok-Ulaanbaatar-Beijing-PyongyangDirection(Siberian RailwayRun "Russian issue'VladivostokLines arrive and depart)
- Moscow Rizhsky Station - Rigaaspect
- Leningradskiy Station - St. Petersburg(Old name: Leningrad) ・Tallinn-Helsinkiaspect
Electricha(Suburban train) runs endlessly on the line connecting Moscow city and the suburbs, and the infrastructure equipment isRussian Railway, The service isCentral Suburban Passenger CompanyIt has become.In the Moscow metropolitan area, we are trying to modernize the suburban train network, and in November 2019Moscow Central DiametersTwo lines (МЦД) have opened.This is not included in the metro, but it is listed on the route map and can be used interchangeably.Over the next few years, it will be a railway network with 2 lines and a total length of 5km.
In 2016, the existing track was improved and turned into a passenger.Moscow Central Circle(МЦК) was opened, but this is the infrastructure equipmentRussian Railway, Operated by the Moscow Metro, which is included in the subway network and is on Route 14.
There are 15 subway lines in the city, making it one of the busiest subways in the world.Also,Joseph StalinThe station, which was built during the administration, is decorated with gorgeous decorations, and is the pride of Moscow citizens.Light metro (mainly elevated lines) starting from the end of the subway lineлёгкое метро) 2 lines (1 line is under construction), andmonorailThere are 1 routes.
Depending on the line and station, the Moscow subway is characterized by a luxuriously decorated station built in an extremely deep place and a long ultra-high-speed escalator that connects the station to the ground.
The tram line network is laid out mainly in the suburbs, and plays a complementary role to the subway.
In Moscow cityTverskaya Street,ArbatThere are relatively well-known streets.Roads radiate from the city center to the northwestSt. PetersburgHead toLeningrad Highway(Tverskaya Street, Is only partially open on the way), in the northeastYaroslavlstreetTo the eastNizhny NovgorodHead toGorky Highway, In the southeastRyazanstreet, To the southWarsawstreet, To the southwestKievstreet(Leninsky Prospekt) AndSmolenskstreetRoads that traditionally named their destinations are nowRussian federal roadIt is connected to the main road, which is organized as M number.In the cityRing roadFrom the insideSadovoe Ring Road,Ring Road No. 3(Completed in 2004), (Under construction),Moscow Ring Road, Small ring road, central highway,Large ring roadand so on.
In the city center adjacent to the KremlinManege SquareBut"Road standard"It has become.With the spread of automobiles in recent years, chronic traffic congestion and lack of parking space in the city have become major problems.
4 in the city and suburbs空港There is.International flights arrive and depart north of the citySheremetyevo International Airport(I, II) and south of the cityDomodedovo airportWhen,CaucasusDirectionVnukovo International AirportThere are three.Besides, for domestic flightsBykovo AirportHowever, the handling of passengers was terminated in 2010.Also, in recent yearsZhukovsky AirportIs positioned as the fourth airport, and the passenger terminal was completed in 4.
During the former Soviet Union, international flights departed and arrived at Sheremetyevo International Airport, and domestic flights of the former Soviet Union mainly departed and arrived at Domodedovo Airport.After the collapse of the Soviet Union, this distinction disappeared, especially2000Since then, foreign airlines have changed their destinations to the well-equipped Domodedovo Airport in place of the aging Sheremetyevo International Airport, and Domodedovo Airport has effectively become Moscow's main airport.Sheremetyevo International Airport is in RussiaFlag carrierIsAeroflot Russian Airlines Hub airportHowever, it was notorious in terms of access and facilities.However, from 2007 to 2010, railroad access was improved and a new terminal was completed.
"River South Station" on the Moskva River,Moscow canal(Moskva River ~Volga river) Has "Kawanokita Station", except in winterWater transportationIs also popular.In the part where the Moskva River meanders in the cityPleasure boatIs also in operation.Along the Moscow and Volga riversWhite sea,Baltic Sea,Caspian Sea,Sea of Azov,Black SeaIt is called "Port Town to the Five Oceans (портом пяти морей)" because it can come and go.
The oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755Moscow State UniversityAnd has received the same evaluation as thisMoscow International Relations University,Moscow ConservatoryThere are many higher education institutions, vocational schools, and research institutes.
- All-Russian Communication System Financial and Economic University(All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics)
- Moscow Conservatory(Moscow Conservatory,TchaikovskyCommemorative)
- (en: Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics）
- (en: Moscow University for the Humanities）
- (Moscow State Art Institute,SrikovCommemorative)
- (en: Moskov Institute of Physics and Technology）
- Moscow International Relations University(Moscow State Institute of International Relations)
- (en: Moscow State Linguistic University）
- (Moscow State Medical University,SechenovCommemorative)
- (en: Moscow State Pedagogical University）
- Moscow State University(Moscow State University,LomonosovCommemorative)
- Russian People's Friendship University(Peoples' Friendship University,LumumbaCommemorative)
- (en: Russian State Geological Prospecting University）
- Russian Academy of Economics(Russian University of Economics,PlekhanovCommemorative)
- Kurchatov Institute
- Sternberg Astronomical Institute
- Steklov Mathematical Institute
- Moscow Institute Agat
- Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology
- Lebedev Physical Institute
- Russian Institute of Space and Astronautical Science
- Professional soccer club
- Professional basketball club
- Professional Volleyball Club
- Professional Ice Hockey Club
- 1980 Moscow Olympics : Luzhniki StadiumAs the main stadium1980Was held in.First ever in the communist blocOlympic GamesHowever, more than 50 countries boycotted the tournament, asking the relationship between "sports and politics."
- Professional tennisKremlin Cup(Held every year)
- 2018 FIFA World CupBecame one of the host cities ofFC Torpedo MoscowHome ofLuzhniki StadiumとFC Spartak MoscowNewly built to be the home ofSpartak StadiumWas used as the venue.
From the Red Square, the Kremlin and the Museum Theater to the Moscow River Cruise, the Circus and the Zoo, Moscow is open to tourists of all ages.
- St. Basil's Cathedral
- Cathedral of Christ the Savior
- Dormition Cathedral(Uspensky Cathedral)
- Living Gods Gospel Cathedral(Cathedral of Bragoveschensky)
- --In Moscow cityOrthodox church大 聖堂Is known as a large scale.This cathedralBe in
- All-Russian Exhibition Center
- Moscow International Business Center(Moscow City)
- Triumph Palace
- Moscow State University(Stalin chic・ Seven Sisters)
- Hotel Leningrad (Star Ringo Chic Seven Sisters)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia(Star Ringo Chic Seven Sisters)
- Hotel Ukraine(Star Ringo Chic Seven Sisters)
- Bolshoi Theater
- Marui Theater
- Taganka Theater
- Russian State Library
- Moscow Art Theater
- Tretyakov Gallery
- Luzhniki Stadium
- Locomotive Stadium
- Dynamo Stadium
- Eduard Streltsov Stadium
- Moscow Zoo
- Bolshoy Moscow National Circus
- Dream Island (Moscow) - Theme park
Like a palaceMoscow subway
People from Moscow, who should have been the center of politics, economy and culture since the Soviet Union was established, cannot be the supreme leaderJinxExists.
- Vladimir Lenin - UlyanovskBackground
- Joseph Stalin -Presentジ ョ ー ジ ジ,GoriBackground
- Georgy Marenkov - OrenburgBackground
- Nikita Khrushchev - KurskBackground
- Leonid Brezhnev -Presentウクライナ, From
- Yuri Andropov - Stavropol Krai, From
- Konstantin Cernenko - KrasnoyarskBackground
- Mikhail Gorbachev - Stavropol Krai, From
- Boris Yeltsin - YekaterinburgBackground
- Vladimir Putin -PresentSt. PetersburgBackground
- Dmitry Medvedev -PresentSt. PetersburgBackground
It has become.
Major sister cities
Moscow appeared in literature and art
- "Moscow nights"
- Former Soviet UnionSong-"March of the Defenders of Moscow"
- Michael jacksonSong-"Stranger in Moscow"
- Genghis KhanSong-"Aim Moscow"
- ^ a b "Asakura World Geography Course: The Story of the Earth and Humans 10 Eastern Europe / Russia" p255 Asakura Shoten January 2007, 1 First Edition 25st Edition
- ^ Ranking of world urban population (updated April 2016) Demographia Retrieved October 2016, 10.
- ^ a b "WMO averages". 2011/1/12Browse.
- ^ "Pogoda & Climate (Weather & Climate)”(Russian). 2011/1/12Browse.
- ^ a b "Climate monitor 2005-2011”(Russian). 2011/1/12Browse.
- ^ a b "Average monthly Sunshine hours”(Russian). Meteoweb.ru. 2011/1/12Browse.
- ^ "VVC info”(Russian). 2011/1/12Browse.
- ^ Moscow City Budget No. 2 in cities around the world: The Voice of Russia
- ^ Cities Rank Among the Top 100 Economic Powers in the World Chicago Council on Global Affairs Retrieved October 2016, 10.
- ^ The Cities With The Most Billionaires Forbes Retrieved June 2016, 10.
- ^ "Moscow" in "New Edition of the Encyclopedia of Russia" Heibonsha Published January 2004, 1
- ^ "Asakura World Geography Course: The Story of the Earth and Humans 10 Eastern Europe / Russia" p244 Asakura Shoten January 2007, 1 First Edition 25st Edition
- ^ "55 Chapters for Understanding Contemporary Russia" pp98-101 Nobuo Shimotomai, Hiroshi Shimada ed. Akashi Shoten June 2002, 6 First Edition First Edition
- ^ Russia: President Medvedev dismisses Mayor Luzhkov of Moscow Bloomberg, viewed June 2012, 6
- ^ http://www.chijihon.metro.tokyo.jp/gaimuka/shimaiyuukou/sistercitytop.htm Tokyo Sister City of Tokyo Retrieved February 2013, 2
- ^ "Twin Towns”. Www.amazingdusseldorf.com. 2009/10/29Browse.
- ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta (May 2005, 5). As of October 4, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/8/29Browse.
- ^ "Prague Partner Cities”(Czech). 2009 Magistrát hl. M. Prahy. 2009/7/2Browse.
- ^ "Sister Cities of Manila”. 2008–2009 City Government of Manila.As of August 2009, 8オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2009/7/2Browse.
- ^ Moscow and Rejkjavik sister cities. Archived August 2009, 1, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2008-03-11
- ^ "(PDF)". Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. As of October 2011, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2009/6/23Browse.
- ^ Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. Www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
- ^ "Cooperation Internationale”(French). © 2003–2009 City of Tunis Portal. As of May 2008, 5オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2009/7/31Browse.
- Moscow city
- Moscow (asteroid)(Named after Moscow小 惑星）
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