US officially returns to Paris Agreement Policy change clearly in response to climate change
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Secretary of State Antony Blinken said in a statement, "Climate change and scientific diplomacy can never be treated as'attached'in our foreign policy debate and are essential in national security, immigration, world public health, economic diplomacy and trade negotiations. ".
[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] -The United States officially enters the Paris Agreement, an international framework for combating global warming, on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading
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Foreign policy(This isBritish: Foreign policy) IsDiplomatic negotiationsThestrategyIt is a comprehensive foreign policy that is planned to be carried out efficiently and efficiently. mainlyCountry OfSecurity, Formulated primarily to maintain and maximize economic and other national interests外交It is planned and executed based on a strategy.
It is natural for a nation to seek survival, peace, prosperity, and independence, but its domestic and foreign affairs vary. That is, appropriate for each nationNational strategyIt is thought that there is. The foreign strategy to achieve the national strategy is the foreign policy, and the foreign policy is the actual realization of the foreign strategy.
Foreign policy is about its securityInternational economyImprove the environment and manage crisis in emergency situations.
However, a diplomatic approach is essential to ensure the success of this deterrence. This is because, in order to make the other party aware of the cost and risk of attacking, it is necessary to make sure that the other party has a willingness to defend its national interest. However, the communication of the above intention is not effective unless it has both "intention to defend national interest" and "ability to actually defend national interest".
It is a foreign policy that is politically, militarily, diplomatically, and economically isolated in order to prevent hostile states from expanding their sphere of influence and increasing their political power.1947,X paperThe concept became widely known and adopted as the main method of US foreign policy toward the Soviet Union.
Good neighbor policy
A good-neighbor policy is a foreign policy aimed at strengthening friendly and cooperative relations with neighboring foreign countries.
Engagement policy is a foreign policy in which a less hostile nation understands our thoughts and policies and gradually adjusts them. It is also called an uptake policy. It is a new concept after the Cold War, and it is not a means to intimidate the other country with military power,Soft powerGentlyMarket economy,DemocracyIs characterized by promoting understanding by communicating the advantages of.
Forced diplomacyIs limited to prevent the opponent country from taking hostile actions.Military power,IntimidationForeign policy using. In some casesGunship diplomacy,Club diplomacyAlso say. this isMilitary powerNot to force usingMilitary powerIs a foreign policy that favorably promotes various foreign negotiations.
Policy decision process model
Several models are posted in the foreign policy decision process. Above all politiciansGraham AllisonTo answer the question "How should citizens understand the actions of the government?"Cuban crisisThree foreign policy decision process models that are modeled using the case of are well known.
Rational actor model
The rational actor model is an objective understanding of problem recognition and problem evaluation, a domestic understanding of the selection and prioritization of national interests,National interestThis is a model in which foreign policy is rationalized based on the premise that all means for achievement are presented and that means for maximizing benefits are selected in view of cost effectiveness. Also called a rational model.
However, the above assumptions and the situation in the field of policy making differ in terms of objectivity and domestic factors, and it is not possible to evaluate the concept of significant national interest in a rational actor model from an objective perspective. It is considered difficult.
Organizational process model
In the organizational process model, the government is a loose, unionized group of organizations in which multiple organizations are vertically linked, and the actions that each subordinate organization independently carries out based on existing procedures determine the policy of the government. It is a model that is doing.
It is believed that there are two characteristics.
- Sub-organizations are decided based on the flow of task setting, option selection, result prediction, result evaluation, and policy selection.
- The underlying tissues make passive and reactive decisions to external stimuli. In addition, according to the organizational process model, there are three types of policy decisions, one is that the organization repeats past decisions, the second is that the organization makes two or more conflicting decisions, and thirdly. Is a form in which an organization makes two or more overlapping decisions.
Government political model
The in-governmental political model considers an organization as a group of people, and policy decisions are made by people in the organization using their political resources (authority, knowledge, charisma) to achieve their respective tasks and objectives. It is a model that is the result. The characteristics of the actions of organizational members are that they consider themselves as the self-interest to make the best use of their position, and that they are searching for opportunities to realize their own interests.
However, the Allison model is limited to the government because it is a crisis case. Since various factors outside the government (domestic and foreign) are greatly involved in the actual foreign policy process, analysis frameworks focusing on each factor are being considered. In particular"Mutual penetration model"Or"Two layer game(two-level game)”, “Strategic interdependence(strategic interdependence), it is necessary to select an analytical framework according to the problem.
- Kume Ikuo,Yoshie Kawade,Yoshiko Furushiro,Aiji Tanaka,Masabuchi"Political Science" (Yuhikaku, 2006)
- Akihiko Tanaka"Basic Knowledge of New International Political Economy" (Yuhikaku, 2006)