The rise of China is a "decisive issue", NATO Secretary General feels a sense of crisis
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"China and Russia are trying to rewrite the rules for their own benefit," he said. "The rise of China is a decisive issue for societies across the Atlantic, affecting our security, prosperity and livelihoods." May bring about. "
[Brussels XNUMXth Reuters] – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Secretary General Stoltenberg is XNUMX ... → Continue reading
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National security(Koka Anzensho,English: national security) Is to ensure that a group is safe by doing something valuable, such as survival or independence, by taking some measures so that some threat does not come. It may also refer to a system or organization for that purpose. Security in international relations mainly focuses on defense from other countries.
Security mainly refers to protecting some irreplaceable value such as survival, independence and property for a certain group/subject by some means so as not to be exposed to threats, but the concept is very diverse. Historically and traditionallyMilitaryThe main threats toCold WarAfter thatWeapons of mass destructiondiffusion,United Nations peacekeeping operations, And developmentallyEconomy,EnergyThe research area has expanded to include resources, etc.Environment issues,human rightsThere is also a claim that includes. The major security between nations today isMilitary powerBased on the elements of外交,Economy,EnvironmentIt includes a wide range of such things.
To give an example of the research target,Military strategy, Security system, cultural policy (Soft power), public relations and educational promotion policy (propaganda), regional policy,Economypolicy·金融Policy, international human exchange,Geopolitics(Geopolitics),International relations,EnergySecurity, space policy, RMA (Revolution in the military),disarmament,Small firearmSecurity (DDR etc.),Weapons of mass destruction,地雷,Environment,populationProblems, water resources, poverty problems, food problems, etc. In particular, it is important for domestic problems such as poverty and ethnic/tribal conflicts to lead to security problems.SecurityThat.
There is no firm definition of security in modern times, and it has been pointed out by many experts.
Security comes from Securitas, which means spiritual peace in ancient Rome, and is described as Security in English, Sécurité in French, Sicherheit in German, Sicurezza in Italian, and Seguridad in Spanish. As a result of importation by Japan and other countries, the concept of security as Kanji notation was established. The concept of securitas in ancient RomeStore philosophyIt is one of the basic concepts of "Peace by Rome" in the Roman Empire, that is, as a result of its political and social significance.Pax RomanaIt came to be linked to the concept of (Pax Romana).
The traditional concept of security has been considered in terms of military peace and independence or relations between nations, but nowadays human security and other non-national and non-military This concept is derived, and that concept changes with the times, and its meaning may differ depending on the context, user, school, and values. Therefore, it is necessary to use it carefully in order to accurately grasp the concept of security.
In modern times, theoretically there is a strict distinction between security and defense. Whereas security is aimed at "guaranteeing a safe state by preventing the threat from reaching it", defense is "to counter the threat that has come and to eliminate it by some force". Is the purpose.
Below, we will explain the typical security concepts that are currently being discussed in international politics, including traditional security and new security concepts.
What is traditional security?territoryAnd politicalindependentExternal threatsMilitaryThis is the most basic concept of security, with the main purpose being to protect it by means of restraint by physical means.National defenseCorresponds to this. Even todayMilitary powerUsingCountryGuaranteeing the survival and independence of the people, the property of the people, and the security are considered to be one of the extremely important roles of the state. NowadaysNational Warとnuclear weaponsWith the advent of戦 争Since it became a disproportionate item, if sufficient deterrence is put in place, a war between developed countries will be less likely to occur.
Human securityIs the order of the international communityA human-社会Recognized as an extension ofCountryRather than its smallest building blockA humanTo prevent the use of forceシステムEstablish its basichuman rights,equality,DemocracyAiming at the development of平和It is a concept of security of the globalism school that creates the. AlsoAIDS,Environment issuesIn some cases, such as the subject of research, it is a concept that encompasses a wide variety of elements.
Comprehensive securityIs a means against threatsMilitaryNot limited toMilitaryIt is a concept of security that takes into consideration the maximum of the national and natural threats, and at the same time, the threats to be targeted are not only foreign, but also domestic and natural threats. In 1980OhiraIt was theorized in the report of the Prime Minister's Policy Study Group on Comprehensive Security Studies.
Collective securityAnd in the United Nations,Military powerThe use of force was prohibited in principle, and force was used in violation of that principle.CountryAgainst theMilitaryIt is a concept of security that imposes collective sanctions that also include social measures.League of NationsWas first adopted inUnited NationsMakes this collective security workInternational organizationHowever, it has not been realized yet,United Nations CharterThe system stipulated in XNUMX. is not in place.
戦 争Working with the enemy, recognizing that avoidance is a common benefit戦 争It is a security concept aimed at avoidance.Cold WarperiodEuropeIt is a concept that was born in denial of traditional competitive and confrontational security, and emphasizes interdependent cooperation with enemy forces. As a concrete example of this,European Security Cooperation Council(CurrentEuropean Security Cooperation Organization) Is mentioned.
In unstable areas where the enemy andCountryHave joined the system,外交,TradeControl dangers and threats by戦 争Prevent戦 争It is a concept of security that aims to control the spread of the outbreak even if the outbreak occurs. NonMilitaryHowever, all major countries in the region, including potential eligible countries, need to participate in the system, and all major countries in the region jointly act. The prerequisite for the system to function is that it has the intention to participate in the system and that there is no explicit enemy country in the system.
As can be seen from the above, the concept of security is a comprehensive concept that requires attention because it changes with the times, worldviews, ideas, and policies.
Since ancient times, survival has been the most important issue for humankind, and for that reason politicians in history have put a lot of effort into ensuring the security of their country.
19st centuryIn the international community up to, the order is stabilized by the equilibrium of the powers of the opposing nations (alliances). The way of thinking was dominant. Therefore, the research area of security at that time wasCountry OfMilitary policy,Foreign policyAnd so on.
However, under this individual security,Arms raceTo raise tension and distrust between conflicting nations戦 争Will increase the risk of. There is also a small conflict around the world戦 争The possibility of expanding toWorld War IIs the first world war to show the danger of individual security.
So thisWorld War ILater,Collective securityBased onLeague of NationsWas established.Collective securityThis is a security system in which all countries all over the world participate in the system, prohibit the use of force in principle, and the member countries cooperate with and sanction the violating countries. However, the system of collective security is considered to be contingent on the participation of all countries and the absence of any apparent enemy. This alleviates international tension,disarmamentThere is also a possibility.
HoweverLeague of NationsIs defective in authority and system,Second World WarCould not prevent the start of. thisHistoryWas established based onUnited Nations TheCollective securityThe system has been further strengthened. However, the United Nations could not function smoothly as originally thought due to the US-Soviet conflict. Against the Soviet Union due to the malfunction of the United Nations even after entering the Cold War and the conflict with the Soviet Union in the United StatesMilitary policySince the research was centered around, military theory was the main focus.
First silence of security research
From the late 1960s to the late 1970s, security research was silent. This silence periodUS-Soviet strain relief diplomacyThere is a strong reason for the impact of the fact that there was no particularly serious conflict. The increase in security research since the 1970s is strongly influenced by the fact that the effectiveness of US-Soviet diplomatic diplomacy is no longer shown.
Second silence of security research
1991 year 12 month,USSRCollapsed, but no researchers were able to predict this. Also, no researchers were able to explain the collapse even after it happened. After that,International political scientist, Among them, those who study security were silent. There was even an opinion that the security research died due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. After the Cold War, the strengthening of international interdependence,International economySecurity is broad due to the development ofPoliticsof,EconomyProfits as well as military means外交,economic power,cultureWe came to point to protecting using such as.
PFP Agreement and Reassurance Security System
Soviet threat disappeared,Western EuropeMany of the 7400 tactical nuclear weapons owned by the company were no longer needed and most were discarded. This NATOHowever, NATO dismantlement will continue as aggravating the regional situation. January 1994 NATO expansion and strong opposition to itロシアAs a compromise PFP agreementWas proposed. In September 1997, revision work on the guidelines of the Japan-US Defense Agreement was conducted,JapanNot only the mainland defense ofMaterial impact situation)” is also decided. This security system is called a reassurance type (reassurance type) security system.
The theory of international security system
From the perspective of the international community, the theory of an international system that maintains a stable world order is also a major issue in security. Here, typical models and theories are described.
The international order is an imbalance of power,International economyIt has been in a stable and unstable state for many years due to the influence of. Here, we will describe the theory that formulates international relations in which a stable international order is maintained.
- Monopolar peace theory
- It is a theory that the existence of a great power with overwhelming power makes the world peaceful. Much of this peace theoryPax AmericanaMeaning, but there are also world government thoughts.
- Bipolar peace theory
- It is a theory that the existence of two countries (powers) with overwhelming power will make the world peace by competing with each other. Most of this peace theory means the US-Soviet Cold War period.
- Multipolar peace theory
- The theory is to maintain peace in the world order through equilibrium and antagonism by multiple countries. That is,United NationsSuch asInternational organizationMeans peace theory centered on.
- Democratic peace theory
- Democracy OfPolitical systemIt is a theory that there is little possibility of appealing to the war between nations that adopt. mainlyBruce LassettAlthough democratic nations are not necessarily militant, the historical rule of thumb states that democratic nations tend to have relatively few wars. Therefore, it is the basis of the idea that world security can be ensured by democratizing the national systems of the world. It stands apart from other security theories in that if a mutually advanced democratic system can be established, peace relations can be maintained regardless of military balance. The origin of that ideaCantIt is said to be in the peace thought ofInternationalismIt is also said. However, there is debate as to why the democratic system suppresses war in international relations.
hegemonyA model (hegemony model) is just to overwhelm other countries in a region.National powerThere is a “Hegemonic State” that has the sovereignty, which is one of the models of the international order that leads the neighboring countries.
This hegemony model is further divided into two types. directlyMilitary powerA "despot empire" that governs countries by using, for example, treats neighboring countries as belonging countries, and if there is rebellion from the belonging countries, suppress it with force. The "Democratic Empire" (also known as "Liberal Empire" or "Imperial Republic"), which indirectly guides countries by using economic power, has common interests in a wide area with the cooperation of neighboring countries. We will provide a security system and an international economic framework to stabilize countries in the sphere of influence.
Power balance model
Balance of powerA model (balance of power model) is one power (Country, A group of nations) becomes more powerful,Military powerIt is a model of the phenomenon that tries to antagonize the power by increasing the power.
ThisBalance of powerThere are also two models, "bipolar power balance model" and "multipolar power balance model". A bipolar power balance model is one in which only two powers try to balance powers,Cold WarPeriod米 国とUSSRIt is believed that the relationship ofHistoryThis is a rare case. The multipolar power balance model is one in which multiple powers try to expand and balance powers at the same time.HistoryIn many cases,World War I,Second World WarIs believed to fit this model.
Great power cooperation model
It is a development model of the multipolar power balance model, and is a model in which some major powers compromise and cooperate with each other and process them to maintain order. 1815Vienna conferenceSinceWorld War IFor up to about a centuryEuropeIs basically considered to be a multipolar power balance model, but it is also said to be an era when there were coexistence models of large powers at the same time. But,AfricaColonyAgenda is divisionBerlin conferenceThen, the problem that could not be cooperated became apparent,Trilateral allianceとMikuni Kyosho Of国際 関係When was established, it went back to the multipolar power balance model.
Collective security model
Collective securityA model is a state in which a nation enters a specific system, and in principle prohibits the use of force, and if a member violates this, other members cooperate with each other.Military,EconomyIt is an international security model in which sanctions are added by such means. This model is based on the reflection that the power balance model brought about World WarUnited NationsIt will be realized in the form of. However, even in regional unions, there are cases where collective security models are adopted,Americas Organization,African Union Organization(CurrentAfrican Union),North Atlantic Treaty Organization,Warsaw PactAnd is called the Regional Collective Defense Treaty Organization.
Even today, for securityMilitaryIs a very fundamental entity. Because it is an essential issue of securityCountrySurvival, independence, territorial defense, etc. are still closely related to military power.
Military power(Military capability) is the physical destructive power, the power of control, and the force of force that the nation uses to achieve its political purpose and national interest. It The role of military power in security is to show the functions of coercion, resistance, and deterrence to the outside world, and to make them aware of the expected damage to attacks and the strategic and tactical difficulties of attacks.
Types of nuclear deterrence
- Existential deterrence (existent deterrence)
- nuclear weaponsIn the case of, the idea is that it has the power to extinguish the nation with a few shots, so just by saying that there is a nucleus, the restraining function (deterrent) works regardless of the way of thinking and policy of state leaders and politicians.
- Strategic deterrence
- The idea is that even with nuclear weapons, deterrence cannot be achieved if they function properly in the event of a crisis, rather than relying solely on their existence.
- Punitive deterrence
- The idea is that if the Soviet Union invades the Soviet Union, punitive and aggressive retaliation will be added to the Soviet cities and industrial zones to provide deterrence.
- Rejective deterrence
- The idea of refusing to achieve the Soviet political and military goals, or having a deterrent to recognize that the cost of achieving the goals is too high.
Deterrence strategy model
Deterrence strategies against hostile states (or potential hostile states).
- DeductionLegal deterrence strategy model
- This idea was central to the 1970s, which was to say that a deterrence strategy was to be established deductively.
- InductionLegal deterrence strategy model
- This concept has been central since the 1970s, when it says to establish a deterrence strategy inductively.
Criticism of deductive legal deterrence strategy model
Alexander GeorgeNuclear deterrence, regionConflictOf the three deterrents of crisis, other than nuclear deterrence, there are many variables (purpose, means, options, possibility of a vicious cycle of the situation), and he criticized that a simple profitable account cannot explain the outbreak of war. From this point on, the idea of the induction deterrence strategy model has become mainstream. For exampleImperial Japanese Army OfSouthward policyThe attack on Pearl Harbor cannot be explained by a simple theory of interest based on the deductive deterrence strategy model.
Mutual confirmation destruction
Sometimes security"How to attack the enemy" "How to damage the enemy"Paradoxically,"How to keep peace"Use the means to search for. The famous idea isnuclear weaponsof"Mutual confirmation destruction(Mutually assured destruction, MAD).
When the Soviet Union changed its nature from a nuclear weapon as a deterrent to a nuclear weapon as an attack in 1965 and attacked the United States, the United States retaliated with a nuclear attack and destroyed 25% of the Soviet population and 50% of industrial power. The idea is to say so. However, when this idea came out, the Soviet Union announced that it would strengthen its destructive power against the US, and expanded the army by investing 15% of Soviet GNP in armaments. During this time, between the US and Soviet UnionNuclear warThe idea that the "mutual corroboration destruction theory" was effective for a time became mainstream for the time being, but the nuclear deterrence by the mutual corroboration destruction theory resulted in excess.Military expansionBecause of its deterrenceArms controlAs SALTWas carried out, and disarmament progressed especially between the US and Soviet Union. With this as a lesson, the idea of a counter-value attack strategy (a counter-value attack strategy) has emerged. In 1971, the idea that the nuclear strategy should be selectively utilized spread, and the idea of “full retaliation” in the “mutual confirmation destruction theory” receded. In 1974, the flexible target setting was announced, and the attack from the adversary country had a stage of retaliation on the premise that the accuracy of the weapon's accuracy was high (high).
Disarmament and armament management
disarmamentWhat is (arms reduction, disarmament)?戦 争This refers to the process of reducing armaments in order to control the risk of.Arms control(Arms control) refers to the restraint measures imposed on armament policy. in recent yearsArms controlIs becoming the mainstream.
Discussion on non-military aspects
However, as to how far the concept of security should be expanded, there remains a debate as to whether the concept of security can be applied to anything. For example, when studying environmental issues from the perspective of security, suppose that the "object to ensure security" is a nation, a specific region, or the entire earth, or if the whole earth is protected. Then, there is an argument that it may be an ordinary “environmental problem”.
Also, in national politics, securityPolitical conflictIn some cases, political methods may be used to help increase one's power by raising a sense of crisis by linking all events and matters to security. However, if everything is concerned with security, it may give more people a sense of crisis and anxiety than necessary. In addition, although peaceful solutions such as dialogue are originally included in security, if a foreign policy biased toward security is laid, diplomacy will become rigid, leading to isolation as a non-compromising, non-cooperative state. there is a possibility. At the same time, in countries with collective security, it may lead to excessive concessions to the allies and damage national interests. It cannot be said that the original purpose of security is to "keep the state of nations and people in a safe state", and there is a situation in which security states "to drive the nation into a dangerous state and bring people into anxiety." Will end up.
The purpose of economic security is to maintain and improve the economy of the nation and the economic life of the people.EconomyIs the very life of the human living in the country. Therefore, economic power is a very important national power, and maintaining competitiveness in the international economy and achieving economic independence are directly related to the survival of the country.
EconomyDefining safety inMilitaryDifficult because the safety and its nature in is fundamentally different.Market economyInherently has instability and is a protectionistTariffBy means such as settingMarketExcessive intervention in the domestic market may reduce the competitiveness of domestic industries. AlsoMarketA market monopoly is needed to controlMarket economyIt is an act contrary to the principle of. From abroadDirect investment,輸入It is almost impossible to aim for self-sufficiency by cutting off such problems because of the progress of economic interdependence in recent years. Therefore, when implementing an economic security policy,EconomyCharacteristics ofMarketIt is extremely important to fully understand and implement the principle of.
The United States of America OfTrade Expansion ActArticle 232 stipulates that import restrictions can be imposed for security reasons.2018May 3After that, it will be imported to the United StatesSteel-aluminumAdditional tariff measures were taken on the product.
Natural resource security
resource-Energy TheEconomyCarry out activities,capitalIs essential to grow the value ofNational powerIt is a prerequisite of. Historically, there are many territorial disputes over resource areas.strategyThe most important resources and energy are鉄,Aluminum,ク ロ ム,cobalt,platinum,coal,oil,Natural gasEtc., these are recent科学Technology,IndustrialIt has become an important value due to the development of and the expansion of mass consumption society.
Threats to resource security include embargoes and price hikes by reducing supply. As a typical exampleOPEC OfCrude oil priceThere is a raise. AlsoNatural disasters,戦 争Due toSupplyThe threat of system shutdown is also possible. secondOil shock TheIran revolutionWas caused by the main factor.
As a means of resource security, natural resource self-sufficiency and domestic消费There are methods to prevent the occurrence of threats such as the suppression of disasters, and methods to try to minimize the damage caused by threats such as stockpiling for emergency situations and preparation for countermeasures in the event of a crisis. However, these are expensive measures and must be carefully considered.
Of modern mass production/mass consumptionEconomyActivity and globalpopulationIncreasenatural environmentHave a great influence on. Environmental security is like thisnatural environmentIs to try to ensure that its impact on human survival is not seriously adversely affected. Not all environmental issues are subject to security, basically the survival of the people,CountryThe main issues are those that may have an indirect or direct effect on the profits of the company. Environmental security became active in the 1990s, and there was a lot of discussion in the United States. However, environmental security debates in the United States were often confused about what environmental security aims for and how it actually works. As a result, discussions on environmental security were sluggish. At present, discussions on environmental security from the perspective of civic activities, the role of the state, and corporate responsibility for the environment continue. However, concrete and clarified rules have not been established.
Thought culture security
thought-cultureSecurity is the principle of governanceculture-thought-Religious・NationalitythoughtTargetCulturalICountryIs to protect the essential elements of.electionThrough the publicPoliticsThe greater the relationship topublic opinion PoliticsHave a physical influence. At the same timeTransportation,communicationWill become faster and closer,thoughtAnd culture will come in. By doing so, you can utilize these to promotepublic opinionCan be indirectly guided from the outside. For example,MediaBy asserting the legitimacy of the country through, it is possible to form a positive impression on the international community. When advertising, disseminating overt false information reduces the credibility of the advertiser. Therefore, the information disseminated in advertising activities is not explicit advertising, but is casual and continuous.strategyIt becomes a popular publicity. However, in recent years, objectivity is required for advertising, and the difference from advertising is becoming vague. Joseph NyeCold WarAfter国際 関係Pointed out that there is "ambiguity in the type and degree of threats".
The content of security varies greatly depending on the viewpoint of the observer. Here we describe the major schools and views on security.
A threat is used in security to refer to an enemy or potential enemy. There are various political, ideological, and economic threats, but a purely military threat is generally judged by "ability" and "will". That is, even if a country has a national will to invade itself, if there is no military force to execute it, or if its own military power is overwhelmed, The country is not a threat. Moreover, even if a certain country possesses a vast amount of military power, it is not a threat even if it has a very friendly relationship and there is no will of the state to invade.
There is also the word asymmetrical threat. This is not a traditional symmetric threat of state versus state, but a non-symmetric threat of state versus non-state. In other words, the symmetrical threat refers to the threat that occurs between state bodies, while the asymmetrical threat refers to the threat that occurs between state bodies and non-state bodies.
National interestIs value or profit for the nation. In a narrow sense, national survival and independence, in a broad sense, the economic prosperity of a nation and its position in the international community are the national interests.RealismIt is one of the important concepts of theory, and we think that every nation is acting in pursuit of this national interest. On the other handIdealism,LiberalismThen, the national interest, which is the interest of one country, is not emphasized. Because more international and common interests such as international public goodsInternational regimeThis is because the content of national interest changes depending on the subjectivity of policy makers.
Neo realismIs a theoretical system that assumes that the international structure affects the behavior of all nations.Waltz International politics by (KN Waltz)AnarchyAnd power distribution Theory of International Politics (1979)Gilpin (R. Gilpin) war only changes the international structure War and Change in World Politics (1981).
Is a neo-realistWalt (SM Walt) proposed the bandwagon theory. This is the idea that the alliance system not only counters threats, but is also formed when tuned to the threatening country, that is, it exhibits bandwagon (win horse) behavior. For example in the 1930sCentral Europe,BalkanSmall and medium sized countriesGermany(Hitler) One after another and cooperated. AlsoJapan-UK Alliance,Japan-Germany Ikoku UnionHe points out that the current Japan-US alliance is not based on the theory of balance of power, but is based on the bandwagon theory.
Liberal international politicians consider the "state" to be "necessary evil" for protecting individual freedoms and rights, and establish a forum for discussion between the "necessary evils" to form peacebuilding and international order. I aimed at (Detail is Functionalism (international relations) (See item)
Reflections on functionalism and the advocacy of neofunctionalism by liberal forces.In short, the idea is that diplomacy by the private sector (non-state actor), not the state (national body), stopping the runaway of the state, multinational corporations, and the non-state actors can even restrict the national sovereignty of the national body as they develop. Come out (details Neo-functionalism See item).
GeopoliticsIn terms ofHeartland,RimlandAndLand powerとSea powerObserve international relations very comprehensively and comprehensively from conflicts. The theory of sea power is "The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783" (1890),Mahan(Alfred Thayer Mahan) wrote,Sea power(oceanPower, maritime power). And the theory of land power isHalford McKinderIs a concept advocated by, and the power of the continental states that control Heartland,Nicholas SpikemanArgued that there was a conflict between Sea Power and Rimland.
Structural violenceIs a certain social system or order itselfpoverty,hungerHowever, there is an idea that this is indirectly violence when it brings about oppression. this isPeace studiesIn the field ofJohann Gartung(J.Galtung) advocated. Gartung defines that the condition of structural violence is called social injustice.
Schools that had a very strong influence on security research and international politics. The Chicago School World War I,Second World WarThe effects of both wars can be seen. 1900 Charles Merriam(CEMerriam) From his inauguration, a big trend of the Chicago School is born. Specifically, I did the following:
- politicsIntroduced adjacent science to and developed the analysis.FreudApplication of psychoanalysis, etc.
- Strong in analysispower,authorityI had. Thorough verificationPoliticsAnd made it possible to analyze security scientifically.
- United States ConstitutionI feel distrust of the gap between the American society andEconomyInterpreted the Constitution
- Emphasis was placed on policy science.propagandaAnalysis etc.
World Final War Theory
Kishi IshiharaWas published in 1940,World Final War Theory"so,Friedrich the Great"Endurance War" in the age ofFrench RevolutionAfterNapoleonIt is roughly divided into "decision battle"戦 争It has been divided into two, that is, holding and holding battle. But these ideas are not based on scientific theory,BuddhismUnderlying values. AlsoWorld War IPosition the next World War as the final war of humanity,Greater East Asia mutual prosperity area) Became the world's winnerEmperorArgued in the book that he would become the world leader.
Soft powerAndMilitary powerIt is an antonym of (hard power) and is a collective term for the ability to elicit certain actions and attitudes of the other party by indirectly giving influence or empathy to the other party, rather than forcing it. Military power aloneSecurity policyIt is believed that the above is incomplete, and the idea that such capabilities should be used comprehensively has been around for a long time, but in recent years, attention has been paid particularly to the trend of illegalization of war.
In particularmovies,classic,Entertainment,Food culture:,DramaOf overseas promotion and expansionPolitical thought,Religious,ideologyPenetration, science, etc.TechnologyPower and economic power are examples. recent years,JapanThen worldwideAnime,ComicThere are many opinions that these should be used as soft power against the background of the popularity of.
Air powerIs a collective term for the nation's aviation capabilities.Italian Doue (Giulio Douhet) wrote "Air Control Theory" in 1921, discussing the importance of air power. The importance of this was not immediately recognized due to the resistance of the Army and Navy at that time, but it is also regarded as important by the military of each country due to the emergence of nuclear weapons, the development of missile technology, and the sophistication of air force. It started to happen.
United Nations and security
Collective securityAs for the system, the constituent countries do not use force外交If the problem is resolved through negotiations and the member states violate their force, the members of other systems will cooperate.Military powerIt is a system that stabilizes the international order by implementing sanctions including those.
United Nations Army
United Nations ArmyAndUnited Nations CharterOn the basis ofSecurity CouncilForce sanctions at the request of軍隊Is. However,Cold WarIt is an organization that does not exist until now because the United Nations malfunctioned due to the US-Soviet conflict.United Nations ArmySee).
United Nations peacekeeping operations
United Nations peacekeeping operationsAnd (PKO, peace-keeping operation)United Nations OfCollective securityDue to the historical background of the US-Soviet conflictCold WarIt was a conflict management activity that developed as an alternative because it was dysfunctional during the period. Since it was developed as an alternative,United Nations Charter,United NationsHas never been publicly defined by. (Detail isPeacekeeping(See)
fundamentallyPeacekeepingIs the disputeCeasefireIt is carried out from a neutral standpoint, on the premise that the agreement is reached with and the agreement for the activity is obtained. Specifically, small-scale peacekeeping forces (PKF) and military observers are dispatched,electionSupportSecurityPerforms functions such as maintenance and separation of force. It does not carry out duties such as armed sanctions, to the extent that it is not compulsory平和Support the state.
- Preventive diplomacy(Note: There are more than 50 definitions of preventive diplomacy, and there is no clear definition.)
- Creation of peace by peaceful means (ConflictPeacefully using peaceful means)
- Take compulsory measures,平和To create (peace enforcement)
- Peacekeeping (such as ceasefire)
- Post-conflict peace construction, construction
Of the above five peace functions,United NationsThe only thing that is involved (judging legitimacy and unfairness) is "to take compulsory steps and create peace (peace enforcement)".
this isUnited Nations CharterIt is a proposal that combines the ideas of Chapter XNUMX and Chapter XNUMX of the Charter of the United Nations, but has been criticized by many countries and experts. Much of the criticism has been due to the fact that peace enforcement has placed a greater weight on the United Nations becoming more "aggressive" in ignoring the intervening state sovereignty.
Therefore, the Peace Enforcement Unit (Peace enforcement units) indicated by Gari's concept was pointed out by many people and its effectiveness was questioned.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euGari himself declared that he would not do it in the future because he failed to resolve conflicts in Japan.
When country A and country B are in conflict and country A establishes and strengthens clear security for country B, country B also strengthens security for country A. These become a vicious circle, and security for peace paradoxically causes arms expansion and military tension.
Creating a threat
Security policyIs often the nationpublic opinionAs well as in neighboring countries and the worldpublic opinionSecurity is often used as a tool of political disputes by political forces who have a specific intention in a particular direction.
"Civilization clashIs the author ofSamuel P. HuntingtonOnceUSSRLooking for new threats after the collapse,TradeTaking up friction, assuming Japan as an economic enemy,Economy戦 争He raised the need for economic security. This did not go as far as destroying the Japan-US relationship, but it caused a very serious conflict of opinion. In addition, in economic securitySpin-offCan not expect in the future, especiallyShintaro IshiharaThe book "Japan that can be said to be NO" isAmericaStimulated many of its security researchers. Shintaro Ishihara points outU.S. ForcesBut advanced in JapanMilitary technologyThe idea that all advanced technology should be made domestically has spread to the United States because of the security problem in that it depends on the. But to make it happenFree tradeDenied,ProtectionismIt has been found that this will lead to economic decline as a result of the need to strengthen economic security, and the debate on economic security is currently sluggish. Huntington then searched for new threats,ChugokuHe raised the theory of threats, followed by the threat of religious confrontation and conflict of civilizations. Rather than say that Huntington's argument is wrong, people conducting security research must look at things, minus what they say they tend to "seek" and "incite" threats.
Oppression of freedom
Dainichi this empireWas in 1928Public Security ActWas revised. ThisJapan Communist PartyAnd party members and their supporters, as well as labor unions, farmers (farmers) unions,proletarianCultural movement, etc.Left wingParticipants were caught. This results inSpecial police, Gave birth to a small independence judiciary and accelerated the suppression of basic human rights and freedom of speech. According to the Security Act, the number of arrested people, including unexamined ones, was said to have exceeded hundreds of thousands. According to the government's announcement, the number of arrested persons including 7 inspectors, 5681 indictments and uninspected persons was unknown.
Exaggeration of threats
Crisis that does not exist or that is not yet a crisis is arbitrarily overestimated as a "crisis" or "threat."public opinionAttempts to induce and obtain a national budgetMilitary industry complexMay be done by.
911 terrorismLater in 2003The United States of America TheHomeland SecurityHowever, the Ministry of Homeland Security has only 4% of the budget allocated to them, and 4% of that budget will be exhausted by personnel and equipment costs. The remaining 96% of the budget has a fixed purpose, which is extremelyPoliticsIt depends on your intention. In the name of security, this leaves the Department of Homeland Security with the risk that certain political powers will use the budget for the interests of their political powers. Also with the Department of Homeland SecurityDepartment of DefenseIt has been pointed out that the purpose and work content of the. In addition, the Department of Homeland Security Homeland Security Council and the Department of DefenseNational Security CouncilIt is also pointed out that there is no contact network between the two meetings.
JapanThe security ofRepublic of ChinaMade betweenSino-Japanese warand,米 国-The United KingdomBroke out betweenPacific WarAfter being defeated in the United States, after the occupation of the Allied Forces centered on the United StatesWestBecame a member of the camp and under the influence of the Western camp leader, the United StatesPacifismAs a nation advocating for, it has taken a self-restraint security system.
With the defeat in the Pacific War,The Constitution of JapanAnd has abandoned its armed forces as an act of national power under the pacifism that was the spirit of the Constitution.Cold WarWhen we enter the period, the world資本主義Western countries made up of countries andUSSRWas the leaderCommunismAs the bipolar power map was formed with the country, Japan played a role as a ally of the United States as a member of the capitalist camp in the post-war rule led by the US military. The Far East region around Japan at that time had strong communist power, and Japan wasChugokuIt is recognized as an important security center for the United States and the United States of the capitalist camp as a country adjacent to the two major communist countries, such as the United States military bases established in various parts of JapanBridgeheadWas said. Under US military guidancePolice reserveWas formed, and since thenSecurity forces,SDFIt has come to today through the reorganization to. Against this backdrop, Japan's security strategy has basically been constructed under the US global strategy even after the independence was restored.
Whether or not to maintain self-defense is a major issue in the postwar constitutional debate and public opinion,1960ToUS-Japan Security TreatyBased on the above, the Japan-US alliance was concluded. Domestic public opinion was in the midst of postwar recovery and was in the process of reconstruction, and there was a mood that public security was averse to discussing security.60 years security,AlsoJapan-US Security TreatyAt the time of conclusion70 years securityJapan has continued to own the Self-Defense Forces under the principle of monopolistic defense, despite the great opposition of public opinion sometimes after struggles. Has been in power for a long time after the warLDPIs to maintain self-defense andRight of collective self-defenseAlthough it has argued for an emergency legal system and constitutional amendment over issues such as the possession of the United States, while the memory of World War II is still vivid, the U.S. forces are in a very restraining security system due to opposition from the Socialist Party and other guardian constitutional forces. Has maintained a security order in the Far East with the deterrence of military forces. It can be said that even after that, the public opinion was widely divided about the necessity of the minimum self-defense force, and it could be said that it was understood in society, but there was a restraining view on military power due to constitutional amendments and the like. It can be said that it covered public opinion.
However, after the collapse of the Cold War, it has been hidden behind the US-Soviet confrontationPeopleAnd regional conflicts due to religious valuesPKOThe search for peaceful ways to contribute, centered on the, has led to an increasing number of opportunities for the Self-Defense Forces to dispatch overseas.
In Japan's security todayMonopoly defenseThe U.S.-Japan Alliance, the Japan-U.S. alliance, and the scope of the SDF's operations are causing a lot of debate. A constitutional reform theory that seeks more active military contributions under thePacifismIt is divided into the constitutional theory that the ideal should be embodied, and the public opinion is divided into two.
Specialties and related terms in the field of security
- Nordic balance
- Right of collective self-defense
- Collective security
- Emergency law
- Monopoly defense
- Virtual enemy
- Balance of power
- Maritime security
- Comprehensive security
- Food security
- Economic security
- Security community
- Democratic peace theory
- Material impact situation
- Peace and security legislation
- ^ "US steel tariff, applied to Japan Excludes Korea and EU”(May 2018, 3). 2018/7/14Browse.
- National Defense Academy・Society for Security Studies, "New Edition, 4th Edition, Introduction to Security Studies" (Aki Shobo, 2009)
- [Tetsuo Maeda, Shigeaki Iijima] ed., "Introduction to the Japanese Military Read by Q & A" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2014)
- Hiroomi Kurisu"Introduction to Security" (Book Business Associates, 1997)
- Kensuke Ebata"What is Security?" (Heibonsha Shinsho)
- ,Kazuhiko Noguchi"International Relations Theory" (Keiso Shobo, 2006)
- Naoko SajimaVolume "Modern Security Terminology Dictionary" (Shinzansha Publishing, 2004)
- Hiroshi Nakanishi"What is International Politics?" (Chuokoronsha, 2003)
- "Modern International Relations" (Koyo Shobo, 2001)
- Gordon A. Craig/Alexander L. GeorgeWritten "Military Power and Modern Diplomacy: Conditions of Peace Learned from History and Theory" (Yuhikaku)
- Geopolitics(Strategic Geopolitics）
- War philosophy
- United Nations
- World war
- Security trade control