Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🌏 | Rice personal consumption increased by 1% in January, the largest increase in 2.4 months. Good upward pressure on prices


写真 

Private consumption of rice increased by 1% in January, the largest increase in 2.4 months. Good upward pressure on prices

 
If you write the contents roughly
Private consumption increased in automobiles, entertainment products, food and beverages.
 

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] -January consumer spending (seasonally adjusted) announced by the US Department of Commerce on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

消费

消费(Shohi, consumption) is a good or service (consumption) to satisfy a desire.Products) Is consumed.resourceIs also to use.生産Antonym of. In addition, it should be notedJapaneseThe word "consumption" inWest ZhouIs attributed to[1].

Overview

Getting benefits from using consumer goods消费Is called. On the other hand, purchasing consumer goods by spending money is called consumer spending, and the two are distinguished. HoweverEconomicsIn, the two are often equated.

Consumer goods are mainlyHouseholdPurchased by. Also, consumer goodsDurable consumer goodsAnd non-durable consumer goods. Furthermore, depending on its use, it can be used as consumer goods.investmentIt is distinguished from goods (goods for producing goods).

Consumption pattern

  • Symbol consumption
  • Function consumption
  • Pleasure consumption
  • Conspicuous consumption

Macroeconomics and consumption

MacroeconomicsNow, add up the consumption of the entire economyTotal consumptionCalled. Total consumption excludes investments, which are expenditures for future productionGeneral spendingIt is easy to understand if you think that it points to.

Multiplier effect

In consumptioncAn acronym for onsumptionCIt is represented by.

C is incorporated as the simplest model as follows.

  • Consumption only model
National income (Y): Y = C
Equilibrium national income: Y = C + cY

c means propensity to consume and varies from economy to economy. c = 0.8 means spending 80% of income on consumption, and cY is called discretionary consumption expenditure that increases or decreases depending on income. C is the minimum required consumption expenditure and is not affected by changes in income.

Solving this equation with marginal propensity to consume c = 0.8 and basic consumption C = 10Multiplier effectTherefore, the equilibrium national income becomes 50.

  • Investment and consumption model
National income (Y): Y = C + I
Equilibrium national income: Y = C + I + cY
Total investment (I): I = 10

As described aboveinvestmentConsidering, national income will increase from 50 to 100. Of the increased national income of 50, the total savings of 40 that were not consumed 10 will be the same as the total investment of 10.

Factors affecting consumption

There are various factors that affect consumption (or savings). hereKeynesList by.

  • Subjective factors (household)
    • Reserve for unforeseen circumstances
    • Preparing for old age and children's education
    • Calculation aiming at rising interest income and asset prices
    • Standard of livingImprovement of
    • Financial independence
    • Motivation for the company
    • Satisfaction of self-esteem by bequest of property
    • Stingy
  • Subjective factors (company)
    • Securing own funds
    • Securing liquid funds
    • Income improvement
    • Intention to sound finances
  • Objective factors
    • Changes in real disposable income (real wages)
    • Changes in the difference between income and net income (such as corporate depreciation reserves)
    • Unforeseen changes in capital value
    • Changes in the time difference discount rate (exchange ratio of current goods and future goods)
    • Changes in fiscal policy
    • Changes in expectations for changes in income levels from the present to the future

Keynes hypothesized that the propensity to consume depends on changes in objective factors in the short term. ConsumptionReal incomeAlthough a fairly stable function of, consumption to maintain living standards adapts poorly to changes in income in the short term, and sees unforeseen changes in capital value as one of the major factors. It was.

hypothesis

Regarding the main factors that determine consumptionhypothesisThere are many. For example, there are hypotheses claiming current income, expected future income, interest rates, and assets, and the relative importance of these factors is controversial.

Absolute income hypothesis

The factor that determines consumption is current incomeAssumption What I did. Advocated by Keynes. According to this hypothesis, the long-term average propensity to consume should have diminished, but when it later turned out to be nearly constant in reality, this was the otherhypothesisIt was decided to encourage the appearance of.

Liquid asset hypothesis

The balance of current assets added as a factor. Similar to this, he said that rising real liquid value due to falling prices would increase consumer spending.Pigou effectThere is.

Relative income hypothesis

This is a hypothesis that considers past consumption levels as a factor. That is, people try to maintain consumption even when their income declines. thisRatchet effect That is. Also people have belonged to階層Trying to maintain a suitable consumption levelpsychologicalHave. thisDemonstration effect That.

Permanent income hypothesis / life cycle hypothesis

Considering the permanent income that is expected to be earned on a regular basis as a factorMilton Friedman OfPermanent income hypothesis Is. People in the futureincomeIf there is no prospect of increasing income, increase consumption, but conversely, if there is no prospect of increasing income in the future, people will decrease consumption.[2].. Taking such actions is called the "permanent income hypothesis".[2].. Similar to thisFranco Modigliani OfLife cycle hypothesisThen, the lifetime income that is expected to be earned in a lifetime is calculated by the lifetimeExcludedConsider average lifetime income. Both hypotheses are of consumptionLevelingAimed atsavingsTherefore, if people are rational, it is concluded that, for example, a temporary tax cut corresponding to variable income is almost never consumed and becomes invalid.

Dynasty hypothesis

People are not biological individual satisfaction, but their owndescendantsHypothesis that consumption and savings include the satisfaction level of[3].

Microeconomics and consumption

MicroeconomicsThen in general消费からutilityProceed with the analysis assuming that It is also assumed that consumers act rationally to obtain maximum utility from a given income.

Individuals have a given timeLeisure timeとThe laborAllocate to and. Then, consumption expenditure is made from the income earned from labor. ThereforeTrade-off between leisure and consumption Is established. The optimal combination of leisure and consumption is derived from the combination of leisure and consumptionutilityIndicates the level ofIndifference curve Budget constraint lineIt is decided where it comes in contact with.

Other than gaining utility by consumption, like a guardiancurrencyThere is also a model (a model that is Money in the utility) that gains utility by increasing itself.

Environmental economics and consumption

Human consumption activity (economic activity) is the earthEnvironmentAiming to solve these problems because it has various effects onEnvironmental economicsThere is also a field called.

the term

Disposable income

Household OfincomeFromtax,pensionThe balance after deducting non-consumption expenditure such as social insurance premiums. So-called take-home income. The amount that can actually be used to purchase goods and services (consumption activities).

Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHousehold surveyThen.2015の勤労世帯の可処分所得(実収入から直接税、社会保険料などの非消費支出を差し引いた額)は勤労者世帯(平均世帯人数2.71人、世帯主の平均年齢46.9歳)は1世帯当たり1カ月平均381,193円で、前年に比べ名目で0.2%の減少、実質で1.2%の減少となった。勤労者以外の世帯のうち無職世帯(平均世帯人数1.85人、世帯主の平均年齢73.0歳)は1世帯当たり1カ月平均145,459円となった[4].

Propensity to consume, propensity to save

Percentage of disposable income that goes to consumption and savings, respectively. The sum of the propensity to consume and the propensity to save is 1.

Japan was said to have a higher propensity to save than developed countries overseas, but it has been on a downward trend due to the aging of the population structure and the increase in the poor due to non-regular employment.

Fixed costs, variable costs

Fixed costs refer to expenses that do not change much depending on activities associated with life, such as housing costs and utility costs. On the other hand, variable costs refer to expenses that change depending on activities such as leisure / entertainment and shopping.

However, when the terms fixed cost and variable cost appear in reports and reports, the range of each may change significantly from time to time. For example, fixed costs include taxes and insurance pensions, and communication costs are divided into fixed costs and variable costs, so it is necessary to pay attention to the scope of use when using.

footnote

  1. ^ Mainichi Newspaper, "Story Story" PHP Bunko p.55 1998
  2. ^ a b Asahi Noguchi “Lecture on how economics works”, Natsumesha, 2003, page 71.
  3. ^ Equal Opportunity and Three Motivations for Heritage Wired Vision Archive April 2008, 4
  4. ^ Statistics Bureau Homepage / Annual Household Survey (Household Income and Expenditure) 27 --To detailed result table (27 average) <Usage classification> Monthly income and expenditure per household 2015 (real number, composition ratio, rate of increase / decrease, contribution) Total households / worker households / working Households other than

Related item


 

Back to Top
Close