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🌏 | U.S. Colorado gun shooting, suspect accused of murder Mr. Biden's gun control proceedings


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U.S. Colorado gun shooting, suspect charged with murder Mr. Biden's gun control proceedings

 
If you write the contents roughly
President Biden said on the 23rd, "You don't have to wait an hour or even a minute to take common-sense measures that will save lives in the future," banning attack firearms and tightening gun control. Requested action.
 

[Boulder, Colorado, USA, XNUMXrd Reuters] – XNUMX people at a supermarket in Boulder, Colorado, USA ... → Continue reading

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Gun control

Gun control(XNUMX years old)銃It refers to laws and policies that restrict or prohibit possession, carrying, use, sale, etc., or impose conditions.army,PolicemenThere are also rules and regulations regarding the handling of guns, but in generalCivilianOften refers to those for guns.This item is exclusivelyRegulations on civilian gunsI will explain.

Japan

History

The early modern period

16st century OfTraditional gunOr later,JapanThen.matchlockType ofgunWas mass-produced.Sengoku periodIt is said that there were more than 50 in the country at the end of the period, and it is considered to be the world's largest gun-holding country at the time.[1][2].

The national gun control isRebellionAs a preventive measure againstHideyoshi ToyotomiCarried out bySword huntBegins with.Tensho16 years(1588The sword hunting order that was ordered nationwide) was forbidden for vassals to possess swords, spears, bows, guns and other types of armor. Until then JapanSengoku periodIt is not uncommon for farmers to participate in the war, and people other than samurai openly owned armor. However, sword hunting prohibits anyone other than a samurai from arming, and the status of the samurai and the rest is clearly fixed. In addition, in the sword hunt at this time, the gun was confiscated to some extent, but it seems that a considerable amount actually remained without being confiscated.[3].

Edo PeriodThe early Shogunate banned the use of weapons, including guns, in battles, but allowed possession and use of guns for birds and beasts.[4].

Tokugawa TsunayoshiEra ofSacredness4 years(1687), the nationwide gun restrictions were applied. Guns other than samurai guns are hunter's guns, intimidating guns (guns to drive away birds and animals that devour crops), and caution guns (especially allowed guns for self-defense), provided that they are not used by anyone other than the owner. Recognized, the rest confiscated[5].. This policy is a series ofThe Order of MercyAlso has the meaning of being part of[6], At first, it was supposed to not use live ammunition to ward off birds and beasts. It doesn't have the effect of driving it away,Genroku2 years(1689) In June, live shots were allowed[7].. According to the shogunate's orders, the lords confiscated or permitted guns and reported the number to the shogunate, but with the death of Tsunayoshi, the enthusiasm of the shogunate diminished and the reporting duty disappeared.[8].. However, the gun control itself did not disappear, and the system of prohibiting guns other than the guns authorized by the shogunate and various domains continued until the end of the Edo[9].

Although there were considerable variations among villages within the same region both during and after the revision of guns in various countries, there were many clan whose number of guns in the territory far exceeded that of samurai.[10].. Still, the populace refrained from using guns in battle, for examplePeasant,SmashNever brought a gun to[11].

Foreigners at the end of the Edo perioddefenseDeregulation from the need forHiroshima DomainThe presence of a large number of guns was confirmed in some clan. There is still debate as to whether this increase is the actual increase in the number of guns due to mitigation or the manifestation of hidden guns.[12].

Modern

From the Meiji era until 1945, gun control was the same as it was at the end of the Edo era in terms of accepting the regulations in principle. Meiji government1872In (Meiji 5), it was established that the possession of guns should be permitted. Apart1884(Meiji 17) There was enactment, and this was integrated with the gun control regulations,1899(Meiji 32) was established. The Gunpowder Control Law1910There was a big revision (Meiji 43 Law No. 53)[13].. The pistols that the postman has1873Possession is allowed,1887Increased demand for registered cash deliveryMail protection gun rules”

The Gunpowder Control Law divided guns into military and non-military. Military guns are those that are currently used by the Japanese army or have capabilities comparable to them. For example, a gun capable of killing when hit at a distance of 1000 meters was treated as a military gun even if it was not in the military. In addition, even if the performance was poor, it became a military gun if the military used it. Non-military guns are inferior to military use, and are typical of old-fashioned guns that were dismissed from the Army as hunting guns.[14].. With regard to military guns, it is necessary to obtain permission from the police station for both the transfer and the transfer, but non-military guns could be acquired and transferred without permission. No restrictions on possession[15]..Obsolete in the military as part of a profitable businessMurata gunBy converting a part of the gun into a shotgun and selling it to the private sectormatchlockWas usingMatagiAnd poison arrowsAinuPowerful firearms have also spread.

Military personnel were allowed to carry pistols and daggers for self-defense, even when off duty[16].

Apart from1910According to Article 44 and Article 16 of the enactment regulations of the enacted gun and gunpowder control law (Meiji 39 No. 40), weapons of a shape and size that can be easily concealed regardless of military or non-military use are "handguns, "Sniper rifles, guns, swords and other disguise weapons". Weapons that can be hidden are regulated so that "swords for training" are included[17].. These had permission, possession, transfer, transportation, and carrying. The police station could voluntarily disallow it if it thought that there was a problem maintaining the peaceful order, but since it basically permits it, possession and carrying of a pistol for self-defense was normally permitted.[18].. As an exception, pistols held by Army soldiers for formal wear and pistols held by postal mailers in remote areas to protect postal items were not required to be licensed for their duties.[19].

modern

Old by Koreans in the turmoil of the defeat in 1945Japanese armyStolen fromMilitary gunWas released in large numbers.1946May 6Enforcement of the Potsdam Emergency Royal Decree, (Showa 21EdictNo. 300) prohibits possession of private guns except for hunting.1950May 11ToPotsdam Ordinance, Is enforced,1958ToLaw on possession of guns and swords(Gunto Law, 33 Law No. 6) was enacted,1965The official nameLaw on possession of guns and swordsIt has been revised and has been revised since then. Since possession of military guns has subsided, possession of illegal guns isGangsterAnd some of the citizens' remodeled and imported pistols.

To date, few Japanese political parties or politicians have opposed gun control.Renaissance Sasebo shotgun shooting incidentHowever, the regulations have been tightened further due to the influence of the above, but since the regulations are too strict and it is difficult for new hunters to enter the market, there are requests from the Hunting Association and others to relax the regulations.[20]However, there is no movement to relax gun control for self-defense, which is for hunting only.

Current status

The current gun regulation in Japan is mainly based on the Law for Controlling Possession of Guns and Swords (Gunto Law). The law is for pistolsrifle-machine gun-Gun・Hunting guns and others金属sexbulletHas the function of firingCharge gunandAir gunIs defined as a gun, and as a general rule, possession is prohibited, except when possessing it for work in accordance with the law. This is a strict regulation worldwide殺人The ratio of firearms in the case was 3.5%, the second lowest in the world. In Japan, hunting andShooting competitionIs not recognized, and the ratio of people who own firearms is about 0.3%, the lowest in the world[21].. Since there are few crimes using such strict possession restrictions and firearms,Model gun,Airsoft gunIt is forgiving to the distribution ofPlay guncultureHas developed.

However, for model guns made of metal among play guns, due to the frequent occurrence of crimes using these1971Appearance regulation (Imitation handgunRegulations),1977Structure and distribution regulations (Simulated firearmsRegulations are enforced, and also for airsoft gunsinjury-Property damageDue to the increase in incidents,2006Power regulation (Semi-air gunRegulations) are enforced. Other than these regulations, although the gun sword law was not directly amended,1986ToInternational industryReleased byM29 Power Up Magnum,1994ToAsahi FirearmsReleased byM40,2008ToTanaka WorksReleased byCassiopeia seriesIt is ordered to ban the sale and collect it after receiving the result of the appraisal that it hits the genuine gun.

While elaborate game guns are in circulation, they were once used by the world's firearm manufacturers due to their high technical standards.OEM supplyDomestic pistols, rifles, shotguns, and air gun manufacturers, which had been highly evaluated as a source, had stricter regulations on the sword law.1980 eraAfter that, the selection gradually progressed,2010 eraCurrently, there is virtually only one company for each gun type[22]That is, it is almost dead as a private industry.

Each gun possession permission isPrefectures OfPublic Safety Commission jurisdictionHowever, it is said that the examination criteria and the degree of difficulty of the examination for permission are not constant throughout the country, but vary from prefecture to prefecture. It is said that it is more difficult to obtain a new possession permit for the prefectures in which there were cases where firearms were used in the past,Bank of Mitsubishi hostage caseThere has occurredOsaka, SuccessiveMayorWas shot twice (Nagasaki mayor shooting case-Nagasaki mayor shooting dead)Nagasaki,CarbineStanding basket case in (Kim Happiness Incident)There has occurredShizuokaPossession of a rifle inAsama Sanso IncidentThere has occurredNagano,Shonen Rifle Devil CaseThere has occurredTokyoIt is said that the examination criteria are strict.On the contrary, hunting is popularbearIn the Tohoku region where countermeasures are required, for the purpose of huntingHunting PartyIf you belong to, it is said to be looser than the above-mentioned area.

There are restrictions on the types of rifles that can be possessed, and possession of military type rifles whose pistol grip is independent of the stock is not allowed. Japan alsoM16It is possible to own AR-15 Sporter, which is a civilian model of (unlike the military model, not capable of fully automatic shooting),caliber6MmThe above conditions and the refurbishment to thumbhole stock are required. Also, with regard to the sword device that is often installed near the muzzle on military rifles,bayonetIt is said that it is necessary to destroy and remove it due to the possession restriction of theHowa M300,Sturm Ruger Mini 14,(English edition)Such,.30 carbineBox, etc.MagazineThe rifle of the type loaded withOverseasIt is said that it is difficult to obtain a new possession permit or transfer permit because it is easy to illegally modify it, such as exchanging it with a large number of bullets sold at.

In this way, the conditions for obtaining a gun possession permit are strict, so in recent years the hunting population andClay shootingThe competition population itself is decreasing,deer,boarThe number of individuals such asFeeding damageAnd the number of cases where natural forests are destroyed is increasing.[23]Therefore, there are several proposals to ease the conditions of possessing a gun.[24][25][26].. Even in shooting competitions, under the age of 18Rifle shootingIf the competitor owns the gun himself, he cannot keep it at home.[27]For the pistol competition, the competition population is limited to 18 for air pistols aged 500 and over and 50 or less for pistol pistols.[28]However, the growth of the competitive population cannot be expected.

Firearms for military and public safety agencies such as automatic riflesHowa IndustryIs manufactured byOutputThe delivery destination is the domestic police,Japan Coast Guard,SDFEtc.Mass productionThe effect is not exhibited,Type 89 5.56mm riflelikeProcurementThere are many cases where prices remain high.

2013January,Japanese shipsPrivate security guards armed with rifles (Foreign countriesBoarding)Act on Special Measures concerning Security of Japanese Ships in Pirate Frequent Areas(25 Law No. 75) was established.Gulf of AdenSuch asPirateThis is the first law in Japan to allow gun armament for defense purposes, although it is limited to high-occurrence areas[29][30].

There have been several incidents of illegally manufacturing firearms,Aum Shinrikyo OfAutomatic rifle stolen caseStarted2014To3D printer gun manufacturing caseIs occurring. AlsoMaruyama Gonzales 2017Toフィリピン OfCebu IslandWhen I interviewed a gun smelting factory in China, he said that the frame imports products manufactured in Japan.YakuzaFilipinos hired byCraftsmanIs getting better[31].

Asia

East Asia

ChugokuAlthough possession in Japan is strictly regulated, illegally manufactured firearms may be found due to the leakage of blueprints and operation manuals on the Internet and the presence of manufacturing facilities in Japan.Black societyAre traded between[32].

South KoreaThen,Shotgun,rifle,HandgunAlthough you can get it with permission, you must always keep the firearm in the police station, borrow it from the police station each time you use it for shooting, and return it again after use. With the increase in cases of firearms, further strengthening of gun control is being considered[33].

TaiwanRegulation is strict and possession is not easy[34].. Hunting gunNative TaiwaneseAlthough it is permitted as a cultural tradition of the[34].. HoweverTaiwan black societyAnd smuggled firearmsAirsoft gunIt is a problem that illegally modified firearms are in circulation[34].

South Asia

IndiaSince it is also permitted to possess for self-defense purposes, about 2016 million people have been licensed as of the end of 340.[35].

PakistanIllegal possession of firearms would result in imprisonment for up to 7 years, fines, or both[36]Also, if you have misleading items such as imitation bullets, you may be denied boarding or arrested.[36]It is strictly cracked down. HoweverPeshawarIn the suburbs, etc., because it is a firearms manufacturing industry[37], Since it is available to everyone at a bargain price, there are many gun robbers in urban areas.[36].. In addition, there are cases where tourists purchased as souvenirs are arrested.[36].. Since the firearms have been handed over to terrorists in South Asia and other parts of the world, the authorities have tightened crackdowns, and as a result, the number of firearms is decreasing.[37].

Southeast Asia

Pirates of the Straits of MalaccaAnd because it is armed with firearms illegally obtained by the anti-government guerrillas, the sailors of foreign merchant ships navigating nearby also possessed firearms for self-defense.

SingaporeThen you get permission for competition, but the competition population is small[38].. Crimes using weapons, including firearms, as defined by the Arms Offences ActWhippingPenalties and death sentences are imposed[39].

MalaysiaIn general, possession of ordinary people is allowed for self-defense, but there are strict examinations[40].

フィリピンThen the regulations are loose,Cebu IslandFactory that builds firearms in tourist destinations such as[41]There are guns that the government can not grasp such as there are gun crimes occurring frequently in various places[42][43].. There are also many shooting ranges for tourists.

IndonesiaIn principle, possession is stipulated by the Firearm Explosives Act, but gun crimes are frequent because it can be purchased cheaply in the city[44].

North America

The United States of America

From the beginning of immigration, self-defense with guns is natural,Western pioneer eraToBank robberyAnd train robbery,Indigenous peopleDue to the frequent conflicts with the gun, the tradition of protecting oneself has taken root and is affecting gun control.In addition, due to the strong independence of the states, there are differences in the regulation range, and there are various states from states where fully automatic firearms are permitted to states where it is difficult to possess.

カナダ

Due to high hunting in Canada, demand is high, and handguns and rifles are licensed. The gun control law is federal law, and the contents are common throughout the country, and there is no legal difference between states like the United States. The guns that can be owned are categorized into three types: Non-Restricted Weapon (unregulated), Restricted (prohibited), and Prohibited (non-restricted weapons are not directly translated License or registration required). Non-Restricted corresponds to hunting rifles, shotguns, etc., Restricted has pistols and some assault rifle type semi-automatic guns, Prohibited was previously permitted, but semi-auto rifles that were banned afterwards And pistols are included. Although prohibited, the owner is legal at the time of purchase of the gun, but possesses a gun whose possession is prohibited due to a revision of the law. Is only for those who own the same gun. The possession of a gun that can be fired in full auto is not allowed, and handguns with a barrel of 3 mm or less, silencers, etc. are also illegal.

You need a PAL (Possession and Acquisition License) to own a gun, and you need to pass a prescribed course and pass the test.

In order to own a gun in the Restricted category, it is necessary to take a Restricted Weapon course and pass the test. Bill enacted in 1998,C-68As a result, all guns were obliged to register with the government, but the problem of exceeding the cost of registering and managing guns more than expected was a problem. It is in a state. In particular, there are some movements to abolish the obligation to register hunting rifles and shotguns, but as of 2006, it has not been abolished.

Guns are not generally allowed to be carried, and very few guns can be carried by the police, the military, the judicial affairs and private companies that carry cash. All pistols are in the Restricted category, and are only allowed to be transported between registered storage locations and shooting ranges where you practice shooting. .. In addition to the gun registration certificate, you also need a Transport Permit that includes the authorized shooting range and address for normal shooting training. Rifles and shotguns in the Nonrestricted category are allowed to be carried in a trunk without being loaded with ammunition.

Up to 10 magazines and 5 rifles for handguns. Among the pistols, .25 and .32 calibers are banned from possession, because many Saturday Night Specials (crude pistols) have this caliber. Many of the guns used in center fire pistols for international competition are of this caliber, so possession of major competition pistols is permitted.

For the semi-automatic rifle in 1989Montreal Polytechnic University MassacreでMini 14Regulations were tightened by the use of. The incident also changed the police response to the act of shooting. laterDawson College shooting caseIt is said that this led to efforts to reduce victims.

One of the objectives of gun control is to prevent crimes using guns, but in reality, firearms smuggled from the United States, which has become a land continuation, are often used for crimes. The number of gun-murder cases in 2005 was 100,000 per 0.6 inhabitants.

Justin TrudeauWhen the prime minister gave flowers to the shooting scene in Toronto in 2018, he said that he was considering ``wide range of options'' when asked about gun control.[45].

May 2020, 5, Prime Minister Justin TrudeauIndiscriminate mass murder in Nova ScotiaIn response, it announced that it would ban the sale of about 1500 models of "assault type" firearms.[46]..Those who have regulated firearms are required to destroy them within 2 years[47].. In response, the Canadian Coalition for Firearm Rights held a 5000-person protest in Ottawa.[48].

South America

Brazil

BrazilNow on the ban on the sale of guns and ammunitionReferendum 2005May 10The regulations were not enforced due to the opposition.[49].

Oceania

Australia

AustraliaThen,Port Arthur incidentStrictly triggered by, the indiscriminate shooting and shooting killings that had occurred several times until then completely disappeared.[50].

University of SydneySurvey shows that possession rate is 100 per 13 people[51].

New Zealand

New ZealandThen, hunting became popular after animals for sports hunting were brought in during the British rule.[52], Possession rate is higher than UK or Australia because possession license is granted if you pass the class or test at the age of 16[51].. Also, tourists from overseas can experience hunting and shooting with rifles, and there are guides for guests from their home countries.[52].. Semi-automatic firearms are also permitted, but the government does not know the exact holding rate because there is no registration system,University of SydneyAccording to the survey of 100 people per 33 people[51].. Occurred on March 2019, 3Christchurch Mosque shooting caseIn responseJacinda AdernPrime Minister announced that it would tighten regulations[51].

European countries

In the past, postmen were allowed to carry pistols as a countermeasure against robbery aimed at mail, cash, and checks, but nowadays it is not permitted in many countries.

Orient ExpressSince he runs in remote areas for a long time, passengers were initially required to carry self-defense firearms as a countermeasure.[53].

アルバニアExcept for the license system, a license is required. Although there are differences depending on the country, in some states the possession conditions are severe compared to the US where guns are sold in supermarkets, but for competition and huntingJapanIt tends to be easier to get permission. However,The United KingdomThere are countries as strict as Japan. Also, it takes some time to get a license. In addition to police officers, private security guards may carry pistols with permission.[54].

Since shooting games and hunting are popular, the proportion of households with firearms is about 5 to 20%. Lowest NetherlandsIt is in the 1% range. You can get pistols that you can't carry in Japan and semi-automatic rifles that are difficult to carry with permission. RecentlyGermanyNow the pistol grip can carry a gun of a type independent of the stock.スペインThen, we are doing unique tests such as personality tests and psychological tests.Basically, the longer the gun body, the easier it is to get permission to possess it.This is because if the gun is long, it will be difficult to hide it in clothes or a bag, and it will be difficult to use it for crimes.[Source required]..In many countries, weapons other than guns are prohibited from being brought into stores.

Germany,FranceFor example, some countries allow guns for self-defense purposes to the people. Security guard(Escort guardThere are many cases in which it is permitted for self-defense even in occupations that are easily exposed to risks such as (in charge only) and jewelers.ノルウェーIn some areas, possession is permitted for self-defense from wild animals.

National Rifle AssociationBecause there is no large gang lobby group like, regulations are tightened every time a violent crime occurs[55]There is a tendency.

スイス

スイスSince ancient timesNational soldiersIn some states in the past, men could not marry unless they had a gun, and there was a law against the opposite direction of modern times. In 1999, enacted a gun control law at the federal level and introduced a ban on possession of some firearms and a permit system for possessing firearms. Guns and ammunition are also being tracked at all times. In 2011, demanded to stop storing military rifles at homeReferendumHas been made but has been rejected[56].

Switzerland has the highest possession rate in Europe, and in 2016, 24.45% of households had one or more firearms, and it is possible to store it in the local armory as well as at home.[57][58].

On May 2019, 5, a referendum was held to decide whether gun control should meet EU standards and was passed with 19% approval.[59].

ノルウェー

ノルウェーWill give you permission to carry hunting and competition guns (rifles and shotguns) at the age of 18 or older, but will be revoked if you have a health problem.[60].. In addition to this, a permit for shooting competitions and hunting is required[60].. Handguns are restricted to 21 years and older[60].. Since hunting is popular, those who have obtained permission can rent and hunt from the gun store by showing the permission and license of the local governor, but if you have more than 4 weeks, you need another permission. Become[61].

Norwegian terrorist attacksA report by the investigative committee in Japan recommended that semi-automatic rifles be regulated, and it was regulated from 2021 onwards, but since many hunters use it, hunting exceptions Became[62].

Long Yale BeanSo when you go out of your living quarters,Polar bearEven if you are unfamiliar with handling as a countermeasure[63]It is compulsory to carry a rifle or accompany a person who has a possession permit[64][65].. Note that hunting for polar bears is prohibited, so in principleSignal pistolIt is recommended to drive away with noise[66]Shooting killed as a last resort when you can't get rid of[67].. Permission is given to guides for sightseeing tours in addition to local people[66]Or at the research center at Svalbard UniversityFieldworkIf you apply for a researcher or a guide who will accompany you, permission will be granted. In addition, some tourist guides are immigrants from abroad and some have been granted permission to own it.[68].. All students learn how to handle rifles due to fieldwork training at a local university[67].. In Longyearbyen, gun stores rent self-defense rifles for residents.[61]There are many owners, but it is prohibited to bring in the store[63].

Africa

In African conflict countries and civil war areas, guns are being diverted from government troops to militia, and there is no gun control. In addition, these firearms have flown into neighboring countries, leading to the deterioration of security in neighboring countries.Republic of South AfricaEven in such developed countries, gun control is loose, and gun crimes are frequently occurring in urban areas.

Washington ConventionThen as an exceptionNational parkThere are no restrictions on sports hunting in Japan, and hunting large wild animals "Trophy huntingMany customers are visiting[69].. Since this is a tourism resource,NamibiaFor example, foreigners can hunt with hunting guns.[70].

Middle East

In areas where police enforcement is out of reachHEATSuch asIslamic extremistsArmed with firearms that the organization obtained illegally.

イ ス ラ エ ル

JerusalemSacred places such as are prohibited areas.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Noel Perrin, Heita Kawakatsu (translated), 1991 (Heisei 2), "Japanese who have abandoned guns: disarmament learned from Japanese history,"Chuokoronsha(Original 1984) ISBN 978-4122018006 ASIN 4122018005"Japanese who have thrown away guns-disarmament learned from Japanese history" Chuko Bunko
  2. ^ Noel Perrin (1988-01-01) (English). Giving Up the Gun: Japan's Reversion to the Sword, 1543-1879. David R. Godine. ASIN 0879237732. ISBN 978-0879237738 
  3. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 15-16.
  4. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 16-18.
  5. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paperback edition, pages 23-25. Hideki Abe, "Actualities and Characteristics of Buy and Sell Guns in the Setouchi Rural Area," 49-50.
  6. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 41-42.
  7. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, "Politics over Living Things", page 25, library edition.
  8. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 66-67.
  9. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 67-74.
  10. ^ Tsukamoto Manabu, Politics over Living Things, paper edition, pages 12-14. Takashi Watanabe, "Bakumatsu Restoration of the Peasants" pages 194-196.
  11. ^ Takashi Watanabe, “The Bakumatsu Restoration of the Peasants” page 209.
  12. ^ Hideki Abe, "Actualities and Characteristics of Gun Trading in Setouchi Rural Areas," 52-56.
  13. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun Gun Explosives" (1935), page 7.
  14. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 68-82.
  15. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 181-184.
  16. ^ Sanyo Railway Train Robbery Murder CaseI had it, but I didn't use a gun because I was struck by falling asleep.
  17. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 311-312.
  18. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 330-334.
  19. ^ Senkichi Hara, "Control of Gun and Explosives", pp. 318-322.
  20. ^ “The LDP presses for deregulation of hunting guns. Victims of firearm crime repel.”. 47News(July 2003, 2). http://www.47news.jp/CN/200302/CN2003021501000221.html 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  21. ^ The rigor of gun and weapons regulation in the UK is comparable to Japan,Self-defense pocket stickEven if it is found, it will be confiscated, but there is high recognition of hunting and shooting competition, and 500 million are distributed. About four times as many firearms cases as in Japan have occurred.
  22. ^ HandgunMinebeaMitsumi, The rifle is Howa Kogyo, the shotgun isMiroku, Air guns are Custom Technics (CTC) only.
  23. ^ Collection of statistical data on capture (PDF) - Ministry of the Environment
  24. ^ “Continue to strengthen measures against seriously harmful birds and animals/Securing financial resources and human resources is an issue”. Agricultural mutual aid newspaper. (December 2011). https://web.archive.org/web/20140316080528/http://nosai.or.jp/mt/2011/12/post-2058.html 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  25. ^ About revision such as birds and beast damage prevention special measures law (PDF) - LDP
  26. ^ “The LDP presses for deregulation of hunting guns. Victims of firearm crime repel.”. 47NEWS(July 2003, 2). https://web.archive.org/web/20140316064104/http://www.47news.jp/CN/200302/CN2003021501000221.html 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  27. ^ FAQ - Japan Rifle Shooting Association
  28. ^ Sports ranking with a small population of competition (Japan) -Toushirou LAB
  29. ^ "The Japanese rifle guards have passed the Anti-Piracy Measures Law". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2013, 11). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASFS1204N_T11C13A1EB1000/ 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  30. ^ "Armed guards OK for Japanese ships OK Special law enacted as a countermeasure against piracy, first provision of civilian armament". Sankei Shimbun(July 2013, 11). https://web.archive.org/web/20131113061843/http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/131113/plc13111312400007-n1.htm 2014th of February 3Browse. 
  31. ^ Maruyama Gonzalez "The Philippine gun was "made in Japan"!?" - AERA
  32. ^ Increasing gun darkness and illegal possession in China (Page 2/4) - Sokoku Shimbun
  33. ^ http://www.recordchina.co.jp/a103452.html South Korea, where the shootings have occurred frequently, Park administration strengthens gun control = GPS mounting is obligatory to know the position-Korean media
  34. ^ a b c Gun ownership rate in Taiwan is 100 per 5? Police "impossible" -Central company focus Taiwan
  35. ^ UP is the top gun holder in India
  36. ^ a b c d Basic data for safety measures Pakistan -Overseas safety website
  37. ^ a b Pakistan towns where guns are cheaper than smartphones - AFPBB
  38. ^ Asian clay shooting championship -Asia held in Singapore in 2006Clay shootingRecord of gun shop owners who participated in the championship
  39. ^ Guide to Singapore-related major laws related to life -Embassy of Japan in Singapore
  40. ^ Is extremist organization IS the target of kidnapping Chinese millionaire? Increasing number of self-defense gun possession applications in Malaysia-Chinese media (February 2015, 2)-Excite News
  41. ^ Maruyama Gonzalez "Preliminary killing notice of "I'll kill you" at a pistol shaving workshop in the Philippines!?" (1/3) - AERA
  42. ^ Korean bullet killed in Cebu Island, exposed to XNUMX bullets - JoongAng Daily News
  43. ^ Japanese woman shot dead in Cebu Island, Philippines
  44. ^ Basic data for safety measures Indonesia -Overseas safety website
  45. ^ Canada's prime minister announces'wide-ranging' options under gun control - Reuters Communications
  46. ^ "Justin Trudeau announces federal ban on assault-style firearms in Canada (Full transcript)-Macleans.ca". www.macleans.ca. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  47. ^ Canada tightens gun control - West Japan Newspaper
  48. ^ "Thousands march for gun rights on Parliament Hill". https://tnc.news.. 2020th of February 9Browse.
  49. ^ Brazil: Opposition opposition victory over gun control referendum(Internet archiveSaved inMSN every dayArticle. )
  50. ^ ""It's a mistake to aim to ease the Gun Control Law."”(May 2018, 3). 2018th of February 3Browse.
  51. ^ a b c d NZ to strengthen gun control, shooting incident, dead 50 people (Photo = Reuters) - Nihon Keizai Shimbun
  52. ^ a b New Zealand Hunting Tour Guide for Japanese New Zealand Hunting Guide
  53. ^ "Orient Express-The man who ran the dream luxury train-" --BS World Documentary - NHK
  54. ^ Research report on gun administration in major overseas countries Nikko Gumi Social Security Foundation
  55. ^ For example, France 2002, Germany 2002, Finland 2006, etc.
  56. ^ "Gun lovers in Switzerland, history of regulation”. Swissinfo.ch (October 2017, 10). 2018th of February 9Browse.
  57. ^ "Guns in Switzerland: Facts, Figures and Firearm Law". Gunpolicy.org. University of Sydney School of Public Health (2016). 2017th of February 4Browse.
  58. ^ Adrian Meyer (February 2014, 2). “Waffenkammer Schweiz: So viele Waffen liegen bei Schweizern zu Hause”(German). Zürich, switzerland: Blick. 2015th of February 10Browse. “Damit kämen in der Schweiz rund 250 Waffen auf 1000 Einwohner.”
  59. ^ "Tightening gun control, passed by majority, Swiss referendum (photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2019, 5). 2021th of February 3Browse.
  60. ^ a b c "Lov om sky tevå pen og ammunisjon mv”. Lovdata.no (June 1961, 6). 2014th of February 4Browse.
  61. ^ a b Weapon rental-Spitsbergen Travel
  62. ^ Norway bans semi-automatic rifles Shooting incident in 2011 - French news agency
  63. ^ a b Trip to Svalbard 3 -He was a visiting professor (Kyoto UniversityRecord of staying in 2006 by Professor, Graduate School of Medicine
  64. ^ Field survey at Ny Olsund, Svalbard -Yasuo Iimura (Shiga Prefectural UniversityAssistant Professor, Department of Biological Resource Management, Faculty of Environmental Science)
  65. ^ What is "Long Yale Bean", the northernmost town on earth? - GIGAZINE
  66. ^ a b Concentrated on shooting sailors polar bears Norway-(1/2) - CNN
  67. ^ a b Arctic islands change in symbiosis between humans and polar bears. Is climate change also a cause? - French news agency
  68. ^ The -50°C ice world is the city of migrants and migrants - Courier Japon
  69. ^ President Trump puts elephant hunting memorabilia on hold, overturning permit policy -French news agency
  70. ^ A golden wildebeest is over 1000 million yen!? Trophy hunting situation in Africa with no wild -Daily SPA!

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