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🌏 | Value for Arctic Sea Route in Suez Canal Accident = Ministry of Energy of Russia


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Value on the Arctic Sea Route in the Suez Canal Accident = Ministry of Energy of Russia

 
If you write the contents roughly
The NSR is a route to Asia through the Arctic Ocean, which is 4000 miles shorter than the south route through the Suez Canal.
 

[Moscow XNUMXth Reuters] -Russia's Ministry of Energy ran a large ship on the Suez Canal on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Suez Canal

Suez Canal(Suez Yeah,Suez Canal qanāt as-su wēs) Is地中海Red SeaSuezIsthmusTie withAfricaAsiaDivideEgyptArtificialSea surfacewaterwayIs. From 1859 to 1869Suez Canal CompanyIt was built by and officially opened on November 1869, 11.SuezcanalNorth via the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea大西洋と北Indian OceanIn the waterway connectingAfrican continentWithout turningEuropeAsiaTheShippingCan be connected with.For example, the cruising distance from the Arabian Sea to London will be shortened by about 8,900 km. In 2012, 17,225 vessels (an average of 1 vessels per day) crossed the canal.The canal is at the northern endPortsideAnd at the southern endSuezConnecting the city Tawfiq port, 3 north of the midpointKilometersOn the west bank of the canalIsmailiaThere is[2].

Initially constructed, the Suez Canal was 164 kilometers (102 mi) long and 8 meters (26 ft) deep, but has undergone several expansions since then and is now 193.30 kilometers (120.11 mi) long and 24 meters deep. (79 ft), 205 meters wide (673 ft)[3].

The Suez Canal operates one-way from north to south, and ships pass by the Ballah By-Pass andGreat bitter lakeIt is possible in 4 places such as[4]..On the canalLockBecause there is no water, seawater flows freely, and water flows mainly from Great Bitter Lake to the north in summer and to the south in winter.Front changes occur south of the lake[5].

The canal was the property of the Egyptian government, but in July 1956NacelleUntil the president nationalizes the canal, European shareholders, especially France and the United Kingdom, will operate the canal.ConcessionI own a company, which was from October to November 1956Suez crisisCaused.Suez Canal is Egyptian stateSuez Canal AuthorityOperated and maintained by (SCA).Treaty on Freedom of Navigation on the Suez Canal"All ships in commerce or wartime can be used without distinction of flags, both in wartime and in peacetime."However, the canal is a Navy shortcutChoke pointAs a result, it has played an important role in military strategy.Navy with coastlines and bases in both the Mediterranean and the Red Sea (Egypt andイ ス ラ エ ル) Is particularly interested in the Suez Canal.

In August 2014, the Egyptian government began work to expand and widen the Rose Bypass by 8 km to reduce transit time on the Suez Canal.The expansion is aimed at doubling the capacity of the Suez Canal from 35 to 1 per day.It costs Egyptian pounds 49 billion ($ 97 billion) and was issued exclusively to Egyptian businesses and individuals.Interest-bearing investment certificateIt was covered by.The expansion, dubbed the New Suez Canal, opened spectacularly at the ceremony on August 2015, 8.

On February 2016, 2, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened a new side channel.This side channel is located on the north side of the eastern extension of the Suez Canal and is for berthing and leaving the East Terminal.Since the East Container Terminal is located on the Suez Canal, it was not possible to berth or leave the terminal while the destroyer was running until the new route was opened.

Traffic standards

The canalDraft20 meters (66 ft) or less orDeadweight tonnageShips of 240,000 tons or less, height above water level of 68 meters (223 ft) or less, and maximum width of 77.5 meters (254 ft) or less can navigate.[6][7]..The standard with this as the upper limit is called Suezmax.By this standard, super largetankerCannot navigate.If the deadweight tonnage is exceeded, a portion of the cargo may be temporarily placed on a ship owned by the canal and then reloaded after passing.

Cleaning up

Land transportation of Thomas Fletcher Waghorn until the canal opened in 1869Post,Robert Stephenson OfTrainBetween the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, such as roads, the method of unloading from ships and transporting on land was often used.

If you do not pass through the Suez Canal, at the southern tip of the African continentCape AgulhasMust be circulated.Ships that exceed Suezmax, which still need to take this route,CapesizeCalled.UK - YokohamaTaking the distance as an example, it takes 14,500 nautical miles (26,900 km) for a round trip to Africa, but the distance is 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 km) through the Suez Canal, which is a 24% reduction.[8]..However, in the early 21st centuryPiracy off the coast of SomaliaMore ships take this route to avoid high premiums[9][10].

Operation

There is almost no difference in sea level between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea across the Suez Canal, and it is in the canal.LockIs not installed.Only one lane is set for the canal, and the places where ships pass each other are(English editionLimited to 5 locations, including the nearby Balla Bypass and Great Bitter Lake[8].

So usually about 10-15 ships[8]It will sail in a fleet of three.Taking one day as an example, a fleet from the north enters early in the morning, anchors at Great Bitter Lake, waits for a fleet to climb from the south, and passes by here.This fleet from the south stays here as it travels to Balla Bypass, passing by the second fleet from the north.

It takes 8 to 15 hours to cross the canal at a speed of 11 knots (16 km / h).By sailing at such a low speed, the shore of the canal becomes a wave.erosionIt prevents being done.The Suez Canal operates XNUMX hours a day, XNUMX days a week[8].

The canal has been completely renovated since the 1960s.The first phase of construction1961It started inSuez upheavalSuspended for a long time1975Reopened in1980The expansion plan, which cost $ 13 billion, has been completed.As a result, the width of the channel has increased from 89 meters to 160 meters, the depth of water has increased from 14.5 meters to 19.5 meters, and the scale of vessels that can pass through has expanded.[11][12].

1995By the time it was consumed in EuropeoilTwo-thirds of them were carried via the Suez Canal.3% of vessels on the world's near sea routes use the Suez Canal,2008According to statistics, 21,415 vessels passed and a total of $ 53 million was paid.[6].. The average price per vessel is $ 1.The Suez Canal has both the size of vessels that can pass and the total traffic volume.Panama CanalSurpass.

The Suez Canal Authority (SCA) Board revised the rules for canal passage for ships and tankers on January 2008, 1.Most importantly, it allowed 1-foot vessels to pass and increased the maximum width of the vessel from 62 meters (32 ft) to 105 meters (40 ft), within the boundaries of the canal.DiverYou may be fined if you don't get SCA permission in advance.Also,Radioactive material,CombustibleVessels loaded with dangerous goods such as these are also allowed to pass if they comply with the latest regulations stipulated in international agreements.

Also, SCAwarshipUsed when passing throughTugboatHas the authority to negotiate the number of vessels and ensures high safety during navigation.[13].

Economic impact

Economically, mainly due to the completion of the Suez CanalMediterranean countriesBenefits have been brought to the maritime trading nations of.Countries on the Mediterranean coast were connected to the Near East and Far East at a much faster rate than the sea traders of Northern and Western Europe, such as Britain and Germany.[14] [15]..The main trading port of the HabsburgsTriesteWas directly connected to Central Europe and achieved rapid growth during this period.[16] [17].

By a 19th century steamshipBombayAssuming a trip toBrindisi, 37 days from Trieste,Genoa32 days fromMarseille31 days fromBordeaux,LiverpoolIt took only 24 days from London, Amsterdam and Hamburg.At that time, it was also necessary to consider whether the goods to be transported could withstand the tariffs on expensive canals.As a result, Mediterranean ports with land routes to Central and Eastern Europe developed rapidly.According to information from today's shipping companies, the route from Singapore to Rotterdam via the Suez Canal is 6000 kilometers shorter than the route around Africa for nine days.As a result, liners connecting Asia and Europe will have 9% CO44 (2% COXNUMX) due to this route shortening.carbon dioxide) Can be reduced.The Suez CanalEast AfricaPlays an important role in connecting the Mediterranean region with[18] [19] [20].

In the 20th century, trade through the Suez Canal was interrupted many times due to the two World Wars and the Suez Canal crisis.Also, many trade flows have shifted from Mediterranean ports to Scandinavian terminals such as Hamburg and Rotterdam.Cold WarEnd, progress of European economic integration, consideration of CO2 emissions, ChinaSilk Road conceptAnd so on,PiraeusMediterranean ports such as Trieste and Trieste are once again the focus of growth and investment[21] [22] [23] [24].

Structures that cross the canal

Environmental impact

With the construction of the Suez CanalNile DeltaからWadi TumilatIt led to the southern part of Suez and the northern part of Portside viafreshwaterThe canal was divided.These freshwater canals1863Was completed and was responsible for transporting fresh water to arid areas.This fresh water was initially used for canal construction and later for agricultural and domestic water along the canal.[29].

The Red Sea is about 1.2 meters (3.9 ft) higher than the eastern Mediterranean coast[30]However, in Great Bitter Lake, seawater flows north in winter and south in summer.Ebbs occur on the southern shore of the lake, but their height is different from the coast of Suez.[5]..The Great Bitter Lake was once a hypersalted lake, and for decades after the opening of the canal in 1869, its high salt content prevented the movement of organisms between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.However, after a long period of time, when the water changed and the salt content of the lake decreased, the flora and fauna of the Red Sea advanced into the eastern Mediterranean Sea and created a habitat.Red Sea is generally大西洋Higher in salt and less nutritious than.Therefore, the Red Sea species have become more familiar with the environment than the Atlantic species in the eastern region of the high salt and poor in the Mediterranean, but on the contrary, the Mediterranean species rarely breed in the Red Sea.This migration phenomenon is "(English editionCalled "[Note 1][31].

This impact on the eastern Mediterranean ecosystem was in 1968.Aswan High DamIt was also involved in the start of operation.Nile RiverWith various developments throughout, the total amount of freshwater flowing into the Nile Delta and the Mediterranean has decreased and is rich in nutrients.SiltThe kind has stopped spreading.This reduces salt dilution in the ocean and occurs naturally.TurbidityAlso declined, bringing the environment in the eastern Mediterranean closer to the Red Sea.

The Red Sea species that invaded by the construction of the canalIntroduced speciesAs a result, it breeds to a non-negligible number in the Mediterranean ecosystem and has a serious impact on the environment.Mediterranean regional species andEndemic speciesThere are many of them that are under pressure and are concerned about their decline.More than 300 species have already been identified from the Red Sea, and potentially more are thought to have already moved to the Mediterranean.The Egyptian government wants to expand the canal,Bio-oceanographerThey are concerned that this may lead to further expansion of the Red Sea species invasion.[32].

Ancient canal

Ancient egyptIsNile RiverThere is a freshwater canal in the east-west direction that extends from to the Red Sea.Canal of the Pharaoh"It is called[33][34][35]..The same route is still used todayCairo cityFrom to Suez cityIrrigationThere is an irrigation canal.

this is,Senusret II[36]OrRamses II[33][34][35]A narrow canal was excavated by the contribution of[33][34] Necho IIEfforts began in this eraDarius IIIIt refers to the canal that was completed around that time.[33][34][35].

2th millennium BC

Egypt 12th DynastyPharaoh's Senusret IISenusret IILegendarySesostrisThey are said to have embarked on the construction of a canal connecting the Nile and the Red Sea between 1897 BC and 1839 BC.[36][Note 2]..This is because the Red Sea at that time transgressed north of the present day, and the present Great Bitter Lake.[33][34],(English editionWas also in the sea area[37][38].

ア リ ス ト テ レ スIsMeteorological theory], It is described as follows.

One of their kings tried to make a canal to it (for it would have been of no little advantage to them for the whole region to have become navigable; Sesostris is said to have been the first of the ancient kings to try), but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it.
One of the kings embarked on a canal construction that would give the kingdom an immeasurable advantage in shipping.Sesostris is said to be the first person to work on this in ancient times.But he came across the fact that the sea level was higher than the ground.So he, and laterDariusHowever, he gave up the construction of the canal for fear that seawater would mix with the river and impair water utilization.[39].

StrabongWrote that Sesostris started construction of the canal.Gaius Plinius SecundusIsNatural history』, Egyptian King Sesostris with a port of the Red Sea on a ship canalNile DeltaThe extension distance was 60 miles, laterPersiaKing Darius has the same idea, andPtolemy IIIAlso notes that a 100-foot wide and 30-foot-deep ditch was created over 100 miles to Great Bitter Lake.[40].

In the late 19th century, FranceGeographyDiscovered an ancient canal connecting north and south that runs through the eastern side of Lake Timsah to near the northern end of Great Bitter Lake.[41]..It is probable that this canal was different from the one mentioned above, and that the ship that had been transgressing along the Red Sea coast to the vicinity of Lake Timsah went north as it was.[38][41].. In the 20th century, traces of construction work to extend from Lake Timsah to Lake Balla (near the current Balla Bypass) were discovered.[42], This is from an ancient ruin built along the canalMiddle Kingdom of EgyptPresumed to be later[42]..It is not known if this is the same as the ancient canal of the Sesostris era, to the eastTrenchThe possibility of is not erased.

1470 BCHatshepsutMade during reignPuntoI drew an expeditionReliefExpresses that the expeditionary force was on a voyage on the way back from Punto.From this, there is a suggestion that there was a route connecting the Red Sea and the Nile at that time.[43][44][Note 3]..From this relief, it is assumed that the canal existed until around the 2th century BC during the reign of Ramses II.[33][45][46][47]

Canals of Necho II, Darius I, Ptolemy

The remains of the canal connecting east and west are from ancient EgyptTell Basta, Avaris (Pel Ramesses,British: Pi-Ramesses),(English editionTie this1799Led a technician and a cartographerNapoleon BonaparteDiscovered by[34][48][49][50].. this is"(English edition』It was summarized in.

Greek OfHerodotusWritten byHistory"according to[51], Around 600 BCNecho II TheTell BastaIt is said that the construction of a canal that runs through Pishon (Heliopolis) from east to west and passes through Wadi Tumirat[34], It(English editionIt is thought that it was extended to the Red Sea[33]..However, it is also reported that his business was not completed.[33][34].

According to Herodotus, the numbers are suspicious, but 120,000 people were killed in the project.[Note 4].Gaius Plinius SecundusIn the words, Necho II's canal expansion spans 2 miles.[34], This corresponds to the distance from Tell Basta to Great Bitter Lake through the valley[34]..Distance 1,000 stated by HerodotusStadionThe above (114 miles or more) is the distance that completely connects the Nile River and the Red Sea at that time.[34].

The business was suspended when Necho II died.Herodotus warns why, the completion of the canal benefits other countriesoracleBecause there was[34][Note 5].. actually,Nebuchadnezzar IVThe war with and made business continuity impossible.

Necho II's canal is a Persian conqueror of ancient EgyptDarius IIIWas completed by.At that time, it was located just south of Great Bitter Lake between Heliopolis Bay and the Red Sea.[34][38]Shaluf[34], Chalouf[52], Shaloof[38]) Natural passing through the suburbs of the town[34]There was a waterway[33]..But this isSilt[34]Was filled with[33]Therefore, it is said that Darius the Great dredged and made it possible for ships to pass.[34]..The canal thus built has two ships, according to Herodotus.Trireme AllIt was wide enough to pass each other in the state where it was put out, and it took 4 days to go through the total length.Darius the Great commemorates this project, many on the banks of the Nile, such as near Kabret, a few miles north of the city of Suez.graniteMade ofStone monumentWas set up.this"(English edition』Tells as follows.

Darius the Holy King: The King of Persia, I left my homeland and conquered Egypt.I ordered a canal to be built from the Nile river in Egypt to the sea at the edge of Persian territory.The open canal connected the sea route from Egypt to Persia at my will.[52].

The canal was connected to Tell Basta on the Nile.According to the inscription on the memorial pillar in Pichon, Ptolemy II was in 270 BC or the following year.[53], In Heliopolis Bay in the Red SeaArsinoe[34]ToLockluckSluiceIt is said that the canal was reopened by devising ways to maintain fresh water so that seawater would not flow into the canal.[34].

Regression of the Red Sea and reduction of Nile basin area

According to historian studies, the Red Sea coastline gradually recedes, and centuries later Lake Timsah[37][38]And Great Bitter Lake[33][34]It is believed that it has descended to its current position, far south of its position.In addition, on the NileAccumulationTomudThe existence of the canal also made it difficult for the countries through which the canal passes to maintain and repair.About 2 years after Ptolemy IICleopatra VIIBy that timeNile Delta OfPelusiumBy silt accumulated in a tributary[33][34], All the canals connecting east and west have become inoperable[33][34].

Road from Old Cairo to the Red Sea

Until the 8th century,Old CairoThere was a canal connecting the Red Sea and[33][34]..However, there are multiple theories as to who built it.Trajan,Amr ibn al-earth,Omar Ibn HatterbIs thought to be one of[33][34]..This canal is Old Cairo along the Nile[34]Was connecting the current suburbs of Suez[33][54]..Geographer Dicuil was in the first half of the 8th centurySacred placeThepilgrimage officialThe United KingdomMonk Fideris reported that he had sailed the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea along the way.[55].

767IsAbbasid OfCaliphIsMansour Arabian PeninsulaIt is said that the canal was closed to counter the hostile forces of[33][34].. Around 1000HerkimSome say that he embarked on a canal repair between Old Cairo and the Red Sea, but only for a very short period of time, and the canal was once again buried in sand.[33][34]..However, some structures remain, and the annual Nile洪水When you fill it with water[33][34].

Discovery of Napoleon's Ancient Canal

Napoleon BonaparteIs enthusiastic about discovering the remains of the canal1798In the second half, a group of archaeologists, scientists, cartographers and engineers were asked to investigate.[56]..The results were compiled in the Description de l'Egypt, with a detailed map explaining the discovery of an ancient canal extending north from the Red Sea and turning west towards the Nile.[56][57].

The United KingdomWas dominated byIndiaTo interfere with trade[58], Napoleon地中海We seriously considered the construction of a modern canal that connects the Red Sea to the north and south.However, a preliminary survey revealed that the water level of the Red Sea was 10 meters (33 ft) higher than that of the Mediterranean Sea.LockThis plan failed due to the high cost and long period of construction of the canal using.However, the results of this survey were incorrect, and this was a result of the accumulation of calculation errors due to the fact that measurements had to be made during the war.[59][60].

Although still unclear, the ancient canal route from Tell Basta to the Red Sea had some water-filled areas until around 1861.[34].

History

Consideration

The height difference of the sea level that stands in the way of construction continued to be conscious, but the desire for a canal that drastically shortened the sea route from Europe to the east did not disappear.1830,Francis Rawdon ChesneyIn a report submitted to the British government by the United Kingdom, it was stated that there was no sea level difference between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, and it was possible to construct a canal, but this did not take any action in the United Kingdom.(English editionConnects the Suez Land GorgeCarriageImproved transportation and shortened the postal route between Europe and India from about 3 months to 35-40 days[61].

FranceAdventurer(English edition The(English editionBecame the chief engineer ofSinai PeninsulaWas investigated and the plan for the construction of the canal was made.1833, Mainly composed of a group of engineers in FranceSaint SimonHowever, I was interested in the canal from the viewpoint of the harmony between the East and West.One of the founders of the religion(English editionIt is,Muhammad AliI tried to get my attention to the canal, but this was a waste of time.1836ToAustrian EmpireTrainMade an effort to open(English editionAlso focused on the canal.In such a flow1846In Anfantan, the Suez Canal Study Group (Société d'Études du Canal de Suez) was held.Robert Stephenson, Negrelli, Paul Adrian Bourdaloue and others examined the Suez Canal with the cooperation of Bellefons.From the results of Bourdaloue's investigation at this time, it became widely known that there was no difference in sea level between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.But Britain has influenceIndiaConcerned that trade could be threatened by the opening of a free-flowing canal, whileAlexandriaI thought it would be preferable to lay a railroad from Cairo to Suez.The railroad was later opened by Stephenson.

construction

18541856ToFerdinand de LessepsAbout the establishment of a company to build the Suez Canal, which is open to all over the world, EgyptGovernor OfSa'id of EgyptObtained a concession from.The company has also acquired business rights for 99 years since the opening of the canal.Behind this was the relationships that Lesseps cultivated when he was the French ambassador to Egypt in the 1830s.As it is in the concession, Lesseps has 7 experts from 13 countries as members.(English edition(Commission Internationale pour le percement de l'isthme des Suez) was held.Among themUKcivil engineeringMcLean, President of the Engineers' Association, and Alois Negrelli, who were asked to explain the plans of Linant de Bellefons and advise on their feasibility and optimal canal routes, participated.Surveying and analysis in EgyptParisIn December 1856, the Commission unanimously compiled a report on the overall picture and details of the canal, with many discussions in the canal, incorporating various ideas from Negrelli and considering the canal from all angles. Raised[62].1858May 12,Suez Canal Company(The Suez Canal Company, Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) was established and is nowPortsideConstruction has begun on the coast.

The excavation is of EgyptianForced labor(Corvée, Corvée, "賦役It took about 10 years while being used.According to one theory, 30,000 people remained in service at all times, and a total of 150 million people from various countries engaged in this work.And it is estimated that thousands have died in this labor.[63]..Also invented in France for constructionSteam driveCivil engineering ladder excavator was also used.

Britain, which was consistently opposed to canal construction, treated workers in canal construction as one of its diplomatic tactics.1830Banned in EuropeslaveOfficially accused him of being a target.On the other handRoyal NavyArmed against the backdrop of the mighty naval power ofBedouinAnd fueled the rebellion of the workers.Harsh working conditions in construction have improved and the governor-general has stopped Corve, which hinders plans[63]..Lesseps was very angry at this British action and was built by Britain a few years ago.Egyptian National RailwaysAt that time, the government sent a letter to the British government condemning the labor forced on the workers and the resulting deaths.

The international reputation of the Suez Canal Company was not good, and its shares were initially unpurchased.Sold out in a blink of an eye on the French stock market, but in the UK,The United States of America,オーストリア,ロシアThen it didn't sell at all.There was the following skepticism in Britain at that time.

One thing is for sure ... the local market isn't feeling good about this big business, and it's doubtful that the canal's revenue can even cover its maintenance costs.By all means, (the canal) cannot be something that large vessels can navigate.[63].

Opening

Many technical, political and financial problems have been overcome, but the total cost of building the canal has doubled from what was initially expected.[59]..And November 1869, 11, 17:8 am[64], The Suez Canal has opened.

"to East MalaysiaWest Ofmarriage"WhendescribeAt the opening ceremony[58],Empress of FranceEugénieThe imperial-owned Aigle on which the car rides takes the lead[64], Of the British EmpireP & O linerCompany ship continues[65]A total of 48 ships cross the canal from Portside[64],Austrian emperorMore than 1000 guests from all over Europe attended[58].

Since 1867Dainichi this empireBritish Empire Diplomat stationed inMittfordReturned to Japan in 1870,SingaporeからMarseilleHe recalls that the Chinsurah, which he had boarded until, became "the first ship since the opening of business, except for the ship that was used for the opening ceremony."[66].

Immediately after the opening of the canal, the Suez Canal Company was in financial difficulty.Completion1871The number of canal uses was lower than expected for the first two years.Lesseps to improve profitability,1854Introduced into the British Merchant Shipping Act in theoryGross register tonnIn addition to the Moorsom System, which determines tolls in, the revision was made by adding an additional amount (tonneau de capacité) based on the actual loading capacity of the ship.As a result of subsequent commercial and diplomatic negotiations,ConstantinopleThe International Committee was held in Japan, and the Protocol dated December 1873, 12 stipulated the standard and price list of net tonnage (NT).[67]..It is still used todaySuez Canal Net Tonnage, SCNT) And the Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate (SCSTC).

The opening of the canal has had a dramatic effect on world trade. It was completed 6 months agoNorth America OfTranscontinental railroadBy connecting withAround the worldThe time to do it has been greatly reduced.Further by European countriesColonization of the African continentWas spurred on.Consistently opposed to canal constructionBritish EmpireHowever, when I opened the lid, 8% of the ships passing through the Suez Canal were British-registered.[58].

In 1873, the Empire of JapanIwakura MissionOn the way back, he was sailing on the Suez Canal, and the state of the canal at that time is recorded.[68].

British intervention

Egypt at that timeOttoman EmpireIt was under control.1875,Sa'id of EgyptSuccessorIsma'il PashaIs forced to hold 400 million shares of Egypt's Suez Canal Company due to its bulky external debtlbI decided to let go.Having received this information, Britain changed its national policy and hurriedly raised funds to buy this stock, becoming the largest shareholder in the Suez Canal with a 44% stake.[58]..Made this decisionBritish Prime MinisterBenjamin DisraeliIt is,ParliamentProceed without approval and raise funds for purchaseRothschild familyBorrowed fromBritish ConstitutionIf it goes against the systemWilliam GladstoneWas accused of[69].

1882ToUraby RevolutionBritain continued to intervene in Egypt, using the riots that took place in Egypt as an excuse.1888ToTreaty on Freedom of Navigation on the Suez Canal(Convention of Constantinople) The Suez Canal is under British jurisdictionNeutral zoneWas determinedWorld War IAfter that, the British troops continued to be stationed.It became a strategically important line of defense when attacked by the Ottoman Empire in 1915.[70]("Middle Eastern Theater of World War (World War I)See also).1936Under the Anglo-Egypt Treaty (British-Egyptian Alliance Treaty), Britain claimed control of the canal and stationed troops on the Suez Canal.[71].

1951May 10, Egyptian governmentSecond World WarHe declared the Anglo-Egypt Treaty abolished and demanded the withdrawal of the British troops, who remained excessively sedentary.furtherstrikeAnti-British behavior spread to Egyptian residents, including canal workers who started in.EnglandThe United States of America,France,トルコWhile calling on Egypt for an alliance to defend the canal jointly with the government, it also took measures such as firing on resident demonstrations and occupying facilities in the name of maintaining security.This situation is caused by the popular movementGuerrillaDeveloped into ethnic struggles such as activities,Kingdom of EgyptThe British troops were kept stationed, with the King playing a central role in making compromises.However, this incident revealed a contradiction in Egypt's social and economic system, six months later.Egyptian revolutionBecame a factor leading to[71].

Suez crisis

Take a neutral foreign policyRepublic Egypt USSRBritain and the United States because they had negotiations withAswan DamEgypt's commitment to construction support was withdrawnGamal Abdel NasserThe President nationalized the Suez Canal on July 1956, 7Suez Canal AuthorityDeclared to transfer management to[72]..In response to this, England, France,イ ス ラ エ ルMade a secret agreement and took military action, called the Suez CrisisSecond Middle East WarBroke out.Israel invaded from land, and Britain and France engaged in air force and support operations.However, the United States did not participate in this operation, and the United KingdomArab countriesAnd anti-colonial public opinion began to receive severe criticism[72].

To save Britain in a dire state as the front expandsカナダ OfForeign MinisterLester B. PearsonHowever, for the first time, the purpose was to secure the passage of the Suez Canal and to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula in Israel.United NationsHe advocated the creation of a peacekeeping force.1956May 11Until most of the UN member states have UN peacekeepers stationed on the Sinai Peninsula and Egypt and Israel withdraw both forcesMandateAdopted in support of Pearson's proposal to do[72]..The United States also supports this,British PoundPressured Britain to sell and reduce its value, allowing the country to withdraw its troops.Pearson was later praised for this achievementNobel Peace PrizeWas presented.The Suez Canal was forcibly closed by Egyptian troops intentionally sinking the ship.[73],1957It was removed with the support of the United Nations in April and reopened.To maintain the neutrality of the canal and the Sinai PeninsulaUnited Nations Emergency Force(United Nations Emergency Force, UNEF) was established.

Third and Fourth Middle East Wars

1967In May, President Nasser called on UN peacekeepers to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula, including the Suez Canal.Israel opposed, but the United Nations acknowledged this and withdrew the army, Egypt stationed the army up to the Israeli border,Straits of TiranBlockade the navigation of Israeli flag ships.The use of Israeli ships on the Suez Canal is1951 - 1952Except for a short period of time1949It has not been recognized since.

This situation prompted Israel in June 1967 to launch a preemptive attack on Egypt, embarking on the control of the Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal.This happenedThird Middle East WarDuring the period, it was closed.Furthermore, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel advanced to the Suez Canal, which became the front line between Egypt and Israel.As a result, the canal remains impassable.(English editionFourteen freighters, which would be called, were trapped for eight years.197310 of the monthFourth Middle East WarMeanwhile, the canal invades mainland Egypt with Egyptian troops heading for the Israeli-occupied Sinai Peninsula.Israel Defense ForcesAnd each other are carrying out a river crossing operation.The remains of this war, such as tanks, are left as monuments around the canal.

After the Yom Kippur War, Israel and Egypt are heading towards peace and moving towards reopening the canal.On the Sinai PeninsulaSecond United Nations Emergency ForceDeployed and separated the troops of both countries.1974From May to December, it was sown on the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War.mineTo eliminate the AmericanAssault shipIo JimaOf 12RH-53DLoaded and headed to the site,MinesweepingWork andUnexploded ordnanceOf removalOperation Nimbus MoonWas executed.This wiped out 99% of the mines on the canal, including the lakes.[74], Canal traffic resumed in 1975[75].

Second United Nations Emergency Force1979The deadline for deployment has been reached.Countries such as the United States, Egypt, and Israel in 1979Egypt-Israel Peace TreatyAttempts to strengthen the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping,(I.e.The Soviet Union received the oppositionUnited Nations Security CouncilI didn't agree with it, and this didn't happen.Therefore,1981ToMultinational Force and Observatory(MFO) was created to support Israel's gradual withdrawal.This was done under the agreement of the United States, Israel and Egypt.

Expansion work

Expansion of the canal for about a year with a construction cost of $ 80 billiondredgingOf the 190 km section, 72 km section of the new waterwayNew Suez CanalWas built and opened on August 2015, 8.The Egyptian government expects this to double the average daily traffic volume from the current 6 vessels to 1 vessels and 49 times the traffic volume.[76][77][78][79].

Egyptian government along the canalSpecial Economic ZoneWe are promoting the attraction of factories[80].

Traffic blockage by Ever Given

On March 2021, 3, a large container ship was misguided due to strong winds and poor visibility due to a sandstorm.Ever givenGrounded in the form of blocking the canal.Caused heavy traffic[81]..The economic impact was great, and it was reported that the scale exceeded 400 billion yen per hour.[82].

References

  • “[Suez Canal]”. Britannica Encyclopedia (The new Encyclopædia Britannica) (15 ed.). London: Encyclopædia Britannica. (2007). Pp. 28. ISBN 1-59339-292-3 
  • BS Galil, A Zenetos (2002). “A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea”. Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts, and managementBoston: Kluwer Academic. Pp. 325-336. ISBN 1-4020-0837-6 
  • Ervan G Garrison (1999). “Boca Raton”. A history of engineering and technology: artful methods (2 ed.). London: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9810-X 
  • Eva Matthews Sanford (1938). The Mediterranean world in ancient times, Ronald series in historyNew York: The Ronald Press Company. P. 618 

Japanese literature

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注 釈

  1. ^ Ferdinand de LessepsThe phenomenon named by.Also known as Erythrean invasion.
  2. ^ (English editionThought that the early days of the ancient canal construction through the canyon were the work of Senusret III. JH Breasted, " Ancient Records of Egypt, Chapter 1, p642-648, 1906,Chicago
  3. ^ RecentExcavation of Wadi GawasisTherefore, there is a theory that shipping in ancient Egypt started from a port on the coast of the Red Sea, and the canal was not used.
  4. ^ WW How and J. Wells co-authored A Commentary on Herodotus in this regard: "The number 12 is certainly exaggerated.Muhammad AliThe Mahmudiyah Canal, which connected Nile and Alexandria, was also killed by 1 people. "
  5. ^ Herodotus said, "The prophecy said that Necho II was working hard for the barbarians, so the continuation of this business was put on hold. For the Egyptians, all the people who speak other languages ​​are barbarians. I was thinking. "

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外部 リンク

Coordinate: North Latitude 30 Degrees 42 Minutes 18 Seconds East longitude 32 degree 20 min 39 sec /30.70500 degrees north latitude 32.34417 degrees east longitude / 30.70500; 32.34417

4000 Kairi shortened


 

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