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🌏 | Chinese vaccine is "small effect" Chinese official said, fix immediately


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Chinese vaccines are "less effective" Chinese officials say, fix immediately

 
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This is just above the 50% required by the World Health Organization (WHO) for vaccine approval.
 

Chinese disease control officials say the new coronavirus vaccine developed in China is less effective ... → Continue reading

 BBC NEWS JAPAN

From the news, readings, and feature articles of BBC journalists who interview in about 100 countries around the world, we select and deliver topics that are meaningful to Japanese users who are knowledgeable.


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who

who(The worldBritish: World Health Organization,Buddha: World Health Organization,Abbreviation: WHO,WHO) IsUnited Nations OfSpecialized institution(United Nations Organization) And humanHealthTheBasic human rightsAn institution established for the purpose of achieving this.

1948Established. Headquartersスイス-Geneva.. It is the founding dateMay 4It is,World Health DayIt has become[1].. Symbol mark on the world mapoliveSurrounded by leavesUnited Nations flagIn the center ofMedicalIs a symbol ofRod of Asclepius(snakeWrapped aroundCane).

The WHO defines "health" as "a physically, mentally, and socially in good condition, not simply sick or not frail" (WHO Charter preamble), a very broad goal. Is listed. To that end, research to eradicate the disease,Medical-MedicineIn addition to popularizing people, we are focusing on achieving basic human needs (BHN) and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Abbreviations differ between English (WHO), French, Spanish, and Portuguese (OMS). In many countries including JapanWHO(WHO) is often used (hereinafter referred to as "WHO".Later).

Activities of the World Health Organization

  • Article 1 of the World Health Organization Charter "To reach the highest possible health level for all."
  • Collection and disclosure of information and setting of international standards (International disease classification(ICD) etc.).
  • Promotion of multilateral cooperation.
  • disasterSometimes emergency measures.
  • InfectionCountermeasure (smallpoxEradication, expanded vaccination measures).
  • Promote measures to protect the health of people living in cities and improve the quality of life.

Indicator items defined, statistics, and published by the World Health Organization

As of May 2019, the World Health Organization has set indicators for human resources (doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, medical social workers, etc.) and physical resources (hospitals, beds, Nursing care facilities/nursing beds, visiting medical care providers/nursing care providers, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, water/sewerage, etc., indicators of economic and financial resources (ratio of medical expenses to GDP, ratio of medical expenses to public beneficiaries, medical expenses) Public expenditure ratio, public expenditure medical cost ratio to GDP, medical expenses per capita, public expenditure medical expenses), life and health outcome indicators (survival rate by age, death rate (life table), by type of illness Morbidity, ratio by cause of death, life expectancy (life expectancy), life expectancy (life expectancy) by birth and age, etc., and about 5 types of index items are defined for changes over time. We have received reports from medical policy administrations and have published a statistical database for each country, continental region, and the entire world.[2][3][4][5][6].. Excerpts from some of the index items, World Health Publications[7], Published as World Health Statistics Annual Report[8].

組織

WHO's highest decision-making body is the annual General Assembly[9]..All member states can send representatives to the General Assembly.Treaties and agreements can be enacted by a two-thirds majority at the General Assembly.Although the treaty is not enforceable by its members, it must take some action towards its domestic adoption within 3 months, even if the treaty is opposed by its representatives.In addition, at the general meeting, members of 2 countries are elected as directors of the executive board for a term of three years, and the executive board composed of these members becomes the executive body of the general meeting.[10].. In addition, there is a permanent secretariat that carries out normal operations based on the decisions of the general meeting. The Executive Director will be the top of WHO. Secretary is elected at the general meeting[11].. WHO has approximately 8,000 employees[12].

As of May 2016, 5 countries and regions are members[13].

As shown in the figure on the right, there are six regional offices in the world: Africa, America, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific, each of which has its own jurisdiction. 6 countries that are also designated as priority areas[14]Has a country office[15].

Past Secretary General

代PortraitNameInauguration dateRetirement dateCountry/region of origin
1Replace this image JA.svg(English edition)1948th of February 71953th of February 7Canadian flag カナダ
2Replace this image JA.svg(English edition)1953th of February 71973th of February 7Brazilian flag Brazil
3Replace this image JA.svg(English edition)1973th of February 71988th of February 7 ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯
4Replace this image JA.svgHiroshi Nakajima1988th of February 71998th of February 7Japanese flag Japan
5Gro Harlem Brundtland 2009.jpgGro Harlem Brundtland1998th of February 72003th of February 7 ãƒŽãƒ«ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼
6Lee Jong-wook 1-1.jpgLee Zheng2003th of February 72006th of February 5Republic of Korea flag  South Korea
ExtraordinaryReplace this image JA.svg(English edition)2006th of February 52007th of February 1 ã‚¹ã‚¦ã‚§ãƒ¼ãƒ‡ãƒ³
7Margaret Chan 1-1.jpgChen Feng Fu Chin(Margaret Chan)2007th of February 12017th of February 7Hong Kong flag Hong Kong
8Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus-AI for Good Global Summit 2018 (40316994230) (cropped).jpgTedros Adanom2017th of February 7(Current position)Ethiopian flag エチオピア

Affiliated organization

WHO is a subsidiary of FranceLyonIt is inInternational Cancer Research Institute(IARC) and JapanKobeIt is inWHO Research Center for Health Development(WHO Kobe Center, WKC)[16].

finance

WHO has a budget of two years for the fiscal year, and funds are allocated to member countries and used mainly for administrative expenses, etc., and contributed by various organizations such as member countries and international organizations and used for various WHO projects. Funded by donations[17].. Most of the donations are given after specifying the project to be used, but donations that do not specify the purpose are also made. WHO funding for 2018-2019 was $56 billion[18].. As a feature of WHO finance, contributions account for only 17% of WHO funding.[19]The donation accounts for most of the money. Also,Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation,GAVI Alliance,United Nations Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office,International Rotary,World BankContributions from various organizations such as the above are large, and the ratio of the state is relatively small. Of the donations, designated donations account for 77% of WHO's total revenue, whereas donations not designated for use account for less than 3%.[20].

The largest investor in WHO is the United States, with the largest share and contribution. US$2018 million for 2019-2[21], Japan ($9300 million)[22],Chugoku($7600 million)[23]The order is. On the other hand, the donation amount is US ($2018 million) in 2019-6.[24], Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ($ 5 million)[25]The United Kingdom ($3 million)[26]..The total investment amount of both is also in the order of the United States, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the United Kingdom.China has the third largest share in the world, but the donation amount is only $ 3 million in 2018-2019, so it is not in the top 1000 in terms of total investment.[27].

一方寄付金の使途としては2018-2019年度においてはポリオ撲滅が9億9000万ドル、26.51%を占めて最も大きい。次いで、基本的な健康・栄養サービスの提供強化が4億5300万ドルで12%、ワクチン関係が3億3500万ドルで8.89%となっている[28]..Each investor has a different focus, for example, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation spends about 6% of its donations on polio eradication.[29]In addition, the GAVI Alliance invests 72% of donations in vaccines[30].

Ten major investors (2018-2019, until the fourth quarter of 2019) Unit: $4 million
No.InvestorContributionDonation
(Use designation)
Donation
(No purpose specified)
Grand total
(2 years)
ProportionSource
1The United States of America23765689315.9%[31]
2Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation5315319.4%[32]
3The United Kingdom43335574357.7%[33]
4GAVI Alliance3713716.6%[34]
5Germany612312925.2%[35]
6Japan931222143.8%[36]
7United Nations Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office (UNOCHA)1921923.4%[37]
8International Rotary1431432.5%[38]
9World Bank1331332.4%[39]
10European Commission1311312.3%[40]
Other investors5241,4841032,28940.7%
Grand total9574,3281615,624100.0%[41]

History

The first international public health and health agency was1907Launched in December(English edition)Is. HeadquartersParisThis organization, which was placed in[42]It was established by signingEuropeIt was intended only forWorld War ITo break out1914By the time 60 countries had joined. Established after the First World WarLeague of NationsHas established the League of Nations Health Organization as a specialized organization for international public health, but the International Public Health Secretariat is the original signatory country.The United States of AmericaDecided not to participate in the League of Nations, so it will continue to exist as a separate organization from the League of Nations.Second World WarLater, the establishment of a new international organization for health was advocated, and on July 1946, 7United Nations Economic and Social CouncilAdopted the Charter of the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization was established on April 1948, 4, disbanding the League of Nations Health Organization and the International Public Health Secretariat[43].. Japan joined WHO in May 1956 prior to joining the United Nations in 1951[44].

Eradication of smallpox

The most brilliant achievement of WHO issmallpoxHas been successfully eradicated. Smallpox was a disease with a very high fatality rate and caused a large number of fatalities in various parts of the world, but since the symptoms can be clearly distinguished, it is easy to deal with, and since it does not infect anyone other than humans, it can be taken only by humans. Can deal withvaccinationEradication was considered to be possible in principle because the complete prevention method by the From these things,1958At the general meetingUSSRBiologistVictor ZidanovSuggested[45]Although the eradication plan began with the unanimous approval of the "World Smallpox Eradication Resolution", the initial aim was to eradicate all humankind with pox, so countermeasures will be taken in developing countries where medical care and administration are not in place. It did not reach, and it was far from being eradicated. So to further promote this plan,1967A special budget will be set up for1977By that time, it was clearly stated that it would eradicate smallpox. At this time, the policy was changed, a patient was discovered by hanging a prize in the endemic area, and when a patient was found, the person who contacted the patient was uprooted and thoroughly vaccinated around it, a so-called containment policy. And migrated[46].. At that time, it was estimated that there were 1000 to 1500 million smallpox patients in the world. However, this containment policy was successful, and the number of patients dropped sharply.1970 eraWhen you enterSouth AsiaとSouth AmericaIn succession, eradication was declared,1977ToEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSmallpox disappeared from the earth finally in the patient discovered in. And three years after the patient disappeared1980, WHO General Assembly officially declared eradication of smallpox[47].

Eradication plan for polio and other infectious diseases

After eradicating smallpox, the next goal of eradication was set by WHOAcute poliomyelitisIt was (polio).1988Has launched the "Global Polio Eradication Initiative",2000The eradication of polio up to[48].. However, after that, the plan became difficult,2018As of JunePakistan,アフガニスタン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euHave polio cases in 4 countries[49].. Furthermore, in 2018 an outbreak occurred in Papua New Guinea and a project is being implemented[50].. other than this,1995Has launched the "African Program for Onchocerciasis Control"Onchocerciasis(River blindness) is being eradicated[51].

About multidrug-resistant bacteria

WHO first published a watch list of multidrug-resistant bacteria on February 2017, 2. According to this list, the highest risk is "Acinetobacter,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,EnterobacterWas mentioned. Next as a dangerous thingHelicobacter pylori,Salmonella] Was mentioned. WHO is urgently developing new antibiotics and calling for proper use of antibiotics.[1]

Controversial events

New influenza, false pandemic warning and corporate adhesion problem

2009から10OverPandemic influenza pandemicIn response, WHO Secretary-General Margaret Chan said, "Now, all human beings are under threat," and publicized the new influenza as a threat to all humankind. After that, although it was discovered that the new strain of influenza was weakly virulent, it warned that it was a phase level 6/6 which is a warning assuming a situation where significant damage of infection and death is significant.Pandemic(Global pandemic) was declared. But the first "Public health emergencies of international concernThe new strain of influenza that has been targeted by (PHEIC) has created an unprecedented system of strong collaboration between health authorities, scientists, and pharmaceutical companies.[52], In fact other seasonalityinfluenzaIt was a level of influenza that was not much different from and the damage was small[53].

Increasing criticism of a series of WHO misinformation[54]I saw this heavilyEuropean ParliamentHas begun to investigate the circumstances leading up to the pandemic declaration.European Parliament(English edition)Former Health Commissioner has raised the issue that the WHO declaration was a fake pandemic. It is highly likely that the intentions of pharmaceutical companies have had a major impact on WHO's decision-making.Pharmaceutical companies have a great influence on scientists working in research institutes, and it is said that this and the fact that WHO solicited the opinions of scientists this time helped to strengthen its influence.Meanwhile, GlaxoSmithKline (UK), the world's largest pharmaceutical company that also manufactures new influenza vaccines, interviewed that it was wrong to recognize that pharmaceutical companies are influencing the WHO pandemic declaration. Responding to[55].

By January 2010, the vaccine had become a global surplus, causing cancellations and resales one after another.

Subordinate to IAEA

Tied in 1959IAEAStipulates that "scientific papers on the effects of radiation must not be published without the permission of the IAEA (promotion of nuclear power)."[56].. Hiroshi Nakajima, the WHO Executive Director, said that WHO is subordinate to the IAEA for the study of the effects of radiation. Nuclear power is in good health.[57].

Delay in response to COVID-19 and indication of political nature

2019 Acute respiratory disease due to new coronavirusDespite the report from Taiwan that there was a possibility of human-to-human transmission as of December 2019 when the epidemic began, Taiwan's participation in the WHO General Assembly was There is criticism for not being recognized and not showing information to the international community[58].

April 2020 AmericanDonald TrumpThe President rated the WHO's response to COVID-19 as "failure". He also criticized that he was making inappropriate proposals to the world under "China-centricism" while receiving a large-scale investment from the United States, and indicated that he would stop making contributions to WHO.[59].. Same countryState DepartmentCriticized that "politics was prioritized over public health," and said, "Member countries, including the United States, should examine the issues regarding the WHO's series of responses."[58].

WHO denies Taiwan's notification that it did not mention human-to-human transmission to AFP news agency[60].. In response, the Taiwanese authorities said, "At least seven cases of atypical pneumonia have been reported in Wuhan, China. Local authorities say they do not appear to have SARS, but patients are being treated for isolation. The full text of the notice to WHO containing the content such as "is published, and" public health experts and doctors can understand under what circumstances isolation treatment is necessary. This is not called a warning , What do you call a warning?" and argued that WHO could have quickly responded to the spread of the infection if it used the information of Taiwan.[60][61].

President Trump on May 5White HouseCriticized once again that WHO is "closer to China" at a press conference at. Announced that it would sever its US$4 million annually contribution to WHO to other international health and hygiene organizations and terminate its relationship with WHO.[62]Officially notified the United Nations on July 7 to leave WHO on July 6, 2021[63].

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayJoe BidenInaugurated as successor president and signed an executive order to withdraw withdrawal from WHO that day[64]The change of government drastically changed the attitude of the United States, such as announcing participation in the international framework (COVAX) for joint purchase of COVID-21 vaccine on the following day.[65].

About reading

English style abbreviation WHO Is "WHO"WhenInitial readingIt’s correct to say “Foo”Acronym readingI don't. However, depending on the dictionary, the notation "fu" can be seen.[66][67].

International Day established by World Health Organization

World Health Organization has severalInternational dayThe International Public Health Day was established on March 3th.World TB Day, June 4World Health Day, June 4(English edition), June 4World Malaria DayWill take place in the last week of April[68](English edition), June 5World No Tobacco Day, June 6World Blood Donor Day, June 7World Hepatitis Day, World Patient Safety Day on September 9th, every week including November 17th[69](English edition), June 12World aids dayAttaches particular importance to[70].. This international day is often set anew, and in 2019 there will be World Patient Safety Day.[71]World Chagas Disease Day was enacted in 2020[72].

Recognition to the World Health Organization

Main graduate

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

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