US recommends suspension of J & J vaccine use Report of 6 cases of "rare thrombosis"
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"Even if there is a causal link between blood clots and vaccines, it is considered a very low-risk case," said Dr. Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease expert at the Johns Hopkins Health and Security Center.
[Reuters] – US health officials announced on the XNUMXth that Johnson & Johnson (J & J)'s new Coronau ... → Continue reading
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Causality(I'm sorry,British: causality, Cosality) and twoEventIs a concept that is related to the relationship between cause and effect, or whether or not it is related. In Japanese, the expression "causal relationship" is also used.
First, as an introduction, the Oxford DictionarycausalityIf you introduce what kind of explanation is used as the meaning of "the relation between the result and the cause" and "the cause is in everything"principle”.
In other words, causality is the relationship (sex) between two things when one thinks that something causes or produces another thing, and the other is the cause of everything. There isprincipleIt refers to (a statement placed in advance).
For example, it is said that "causes of C are B1 and B2", "as a result of A, Z occurs," "because of A caused B."
When we consider the cause of an event, we often cite just one thing. For example, the idea is that "I was late this morning because I drank too much yesterday." However, there is room for doubt as to whether it is appropriate to say that "drinking too much yesterday is the reason for being late this morning." For example, if you drank too much yesterday, you might have got up if you didn't forget to wear an alarm clock last night. It might have happened if there was no noise in the neighborhood at night and sleep was disturbed. Furthermore, it may be because the curtains were closed and the sunrise did not come in. The event happened because there were countless other conditions that could not be written. In other words, there are, in fact, countless causes for a single event that is "late".
On the other hand, what people believe to be causal includes a large number of things that are merely misunderstandings/illusions and not causal relationships. In other words, one of the causal errors is the recognition of causality between two events occurring at the same time. For example, the time when the consumption of ice cream increases and the time when the number of deaths from water increase are roughly the same. However, it is short-circuiting to say, "Because people ate ice cream, more people died." this is,CorrelationNothing more than. In fact, there are only common causes: "hot → increase in ice cream consumption" and "hot → more people play in the water and more people die of water."
Western philosophySince then, various considerations have been made regarding causality since ancient times.ア リ ス ト テ レ スExamined the causes by classifying them into four. This may still prove useful. Hume also questioned the existence of causality.
Ancient greeceThen,NATUREHas the ability to change itself." In other words, nature was considered as a dynamic thing, one that changes by itself... In other words, it is the understanding that "the cause and the cause are in nature and in the existence of each individual". It was a general understanding (Even in the East, the general understanding of nature still recognizes the ability to transform itself into nature itself).
In western EuropeRene DescartesWrote the manuscript when he first conceived and wrote "Theory of the World", building a theory recognizing the ability to develop into nature itself (similar to the Greek view of nature).[Note 1].. However, after finishing the manuscriptGalileoDescartes, who heard the result of the judgment of the trial, himselfBourgeoisSince it was a class and a human being of the system itself, the theory was stopped from publication in order to avoid turning the church of the system into an enemy.Changed the content of the theory.. As a result, Descartes changed his theory to a world view that "the nature is dead and is always moving by God's work" as a Christian God is needed, Published.
Originally generally in the world,PowerIt was said that (factor/cause) had internal power and external power. However, it was modified by Descartes' political intent. In the explanation of the book written by Descartes, the internal power was completely cut off. The theory thus modified had a great impact on contemporary and posterity. As a result, an explanation method that lacked the view of "nature as a dead thing" and the internal power (motive force) of individual existence appeared, and it became popular in the world.
20st centuryDeveloped intoQuantum mechanicsAccording tosystem OfQuantum state TheDeterminismBehavior, but the observations obtained from itprobabilityBehave.. There was no causality in the classical sense,LocalityとRealityAre incompatible. In this way, there is a theory that the result is not uniquely determined even if the state is determined.Non-determinismSay.
Aristotle classifies the cause of the existence of things into the following four types (thisFour cause theory").
- Material factor (material factor)
- Form factor
- Cause (starting factor)
For example, if there is a single wood carving in front of you, it means that someone uses the "material" of wood and adds the "effect" of carving with the "purpose" of expressing something. This is because the "shape" was created. In this way, Aristotle classifies the causes into four categories.
In addition, Aristotle traces the causes of various events in the world to the cause of the cause, and further to the cause...First cause" In another context, this first cause is "Immovable person", and this term神It is also used in the same meaning as.
Hume's causal theory
In Western modern timesDavid HumeHowever, causality is spatially adjacent and temporally continuous, and when two types of events occur, humans imagine between these two types of events (born on the human mind and spirit side). ) It is an inevitable connection. In other words, it includes the point that human beings set their own connection by mental activity even if things happen to be together.
Causality regularity theory
Two adjacent and consecutive events are causally linked when incorporated into the statement of the Universal Statement that describes them. Except for the psychological element of fume statement A theory that focuses on the generation of descriptions. It is a theory that gives suggestions on how to create a description in the field of science and its problems.
Single name causal statement, causality
Human beings, or human brains, have a strong tendency to think that they are causally linked by just perceiving and recognizing several events, even if there is no description of regularity before. have.
For example, "The fact that this doctor was having a babyPuerperal feverHas caused a statement.” This statement can (and may) be true independently of it, even if the universal statement that "engagement in childbirth causes all puerperal fever" is a false statement. The individual events occur because of the order in which the statements are described.
The causal relationship is set between individual events because the human spirit presupposes the idea that "every event has a cause," the so-called "causal law." is there.
Human beings do not have any particular problems in their daily lives by thinking like this, that is, "every event has a cause." However, it is actually very difficult to properly explain or scientifically investigate whether it really is. That difficulty is historically reflected in Kant's attempt at argument.
It is natural that human beings presuppose the idea that "every event has a cause," the so-called "causality." Because, in reality, every phenomenon always has a causal relationship when it actually occurs, and it is impossible that "something happens" without the cause just before the result occurs. For example, when a ball rolls, there is no reason for "rolling" unless there is a cause just before, such as someone throwing it and being blown by the wind. With regard to human behavior, there is no motive (cause) and no action can actually occur. (Because anyone who disagrees with this conclusion would not oppose it without motives). Even in the above-mentioned cases of puerperal fever, even when the disease actually occurs, the results cannot occur without the immediate causes such as the patient's resistance, physical condition, and presence of virus. However, it is the same as, for example, the case where a plant only produces fruits (results) when conditions (causes) such as climate, soil, and sunlight are complete, and it is common that a plurality of causes are combined to produce one result. Therefore, the judgment that "this doctor's involvement in childbirth caused the puerperal fever of this pregnant woman" is a mistake in that it considers one cause more than it affects the result. Is. This is because human beings are the only creatures that can make abstract judgments, but abstract judgments have the property of extracting only one element individually and making thoughts. This is because when applied to a certain event, the judgment (that is, the process of applying abstract thinking to a phenomenon that actually occurs) may cause an error (that is, a wrong interpretation of a causal relationship). It is not the past and future events that are inferred by abstract thinking, but the phenomena that are actually occurring now that are necessarily associated with causal relationships. Therefore, Kant also proves that abstract reasoning such as the chain of cause and effect and the ultimate cause falls into error and contradiction.
Replacing the idea of causality with the counterfactual condition method
Adopting the idea that "everything has a cause" and "causality" makes a very strong metaphysical assertion about the nature of the entire universe without any verification... Including such a claim, after all, the proofDisproofBecause it is the same as making a statement that cannot be done,FalsificationThat means that this is no longer a scientific statement.
It is generally said that in the scientific world, if you make a ridiculously strong claim, you must provide very good evidence to support the ridiculous claim. Therefore, it is better if we do not need to include such claims (causal laws) (to keep scientific methods and construct scientific descriptions)..
The simple causal statement that "event x caused another event y" wasIn this situation, Event y would not have occurred without event x." Substituting the conditional law proposition, it does not include the tremendous premise of "causality."
An explicit description "in this situation" is needed. In fact, if you try to do this exactly, you will have great difficulty. That is because the situation is that, strictly speaking, the state of the whole universe must be described. Thus, after all, the concept of causality is essentially a metaphysical concept..
Causality in physics
Classical physicsThe causal law in argues that in the specified physical system, "if the current state is completely specified, all subsequent states are uniquely determined." I also know the condition.".
またTheory of relativityIn the frame of情报Does not propagate beyond the speed of light,speed of light× Information exchange does not occur in the above two times without the information flying back in time between two physical systems that are separated by a time or more. In the category of physics, this principle that "the propagation of information that exceeds the speed of light does not exist" is also called causality..
atom,分子For phenomena on a very small scaleQuantum mechanicsEffect is so large that it cannot be ignored, and causality in the classical sense does not hold completely.. Solving Schrodinger equation, a basic equation in quantum mechanicsState functionIs the state of the Schrodinger equationProbability amplitudeIt shows that even if the physical state at a certain point is determined, the subsequent state is not uniquely determined..
If we interpret the definition of causality from the classical definition as "if the state function is determined at a certain point on the time axis, the subsequent state function is naturally determined", then we can say that "causality is maintained even in the quantum theory domain"... It is also a thought experiment that seems to be breaking the causality.EPR correlationHowever, the actual speed of light exceedsState functionIt is the convergence speed of the wave packet of, the state function itself is not rewritten by the operator (that is, receives information), and it can be said that the causality is maintained..
Causality in medicine
It is important to identify the cause for treatment of illness, but care should be taken because the cause and the result may be confused or misunderstood, and even a university hospital may carry out unexpected medical treatment...The illusion of causality arises when people develop the belief that there is a causal relationship between two events that are not really related.Can have disastrous consequences related to important areas of life such as health, finances and well-being..In today's world, there is a growing tendency to trust personal beliefs, superstitions, and pseudosciences rather than scientific evidence..
CausalDefinition TheTimeIs also closely related to the definition of. Moreover, "time" and "causality" are also influenced by the subjectivity of the person who recognizes it. In any case, we define as something that has even a part of the property corresponding to "time" in our senses, and under this defined time, the concept of causality and causality is defined.
I raised a problem about the recognition of human cause and effectphilosopherToThe United Kingdom OfDavid HumeThere is. He usually observes that when one thinks of one thing as another, he thinks that what happened first causes what happens later.Rule of thumbI suspected that he was only being guided by. That isprobabilityIs not necessarilycertaintyDoes not mean that it happened consecutivelyaccidentalThe錯 覚It is possible that
In modern Europe, in Western EuropeGottfried LeibnizByMechanicsA strong view of the world and a simplified causality. And in the early 20th centuryAlbert EinsteinByTheory of relativityWas announced, but thereSpace-time continuumThe concept of "causality" is included and a new perspective is given.
19st centuryFrom the end20st centuryAt the beginningQuantum mechanicsIs formed,1926ToErwin SchrodingerBySchrodinger equationIt has been shown. Of the Schrodinger equationsolutionBecomeWave function Ψ The physical interpretation of was not clear,Max BornBy the wavefunctionAbsolute valueSquared |Ψ|2 Is the measured valueProbability distribution(Probability density function),Probability interpretation of wave functionIs given, the idea that all physical phenomena occur stochastically came to be shown.
This isPierre-Simon LaplaceIs ownProbability theoryShowed inLaplace DevilThe situation is a little different from the problem of. What is Laplace's devilsystemLaplace thought that a stochastic event was caused by a lack of information known to the observer. This idea isClassical mechanicsFor, but not for quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, the wavefunction of the system follows Schrodinger equation even if the observer has complete information.Time evolutionHowever, the wavefunction itself isDeterminismThe observed physical phenomenon behaves stochastically. Therefore, the causality in the quantum world is different from the traditionally considered causality in classical theory. Causality in quantum mechanics means that the wave function changes according to the Schrodinger equation, and the wave function is fixed at any time.
For stochastic phenomena in quantum mechanics,Classical theoryAs with the idea that it appears due to lack of information,Quantum theoryIt was suggested that physical phenomena can only be predicted stochastically at a theoretical scale. Einstein supported the former idea,1935With EinsteinBoris Podolski,Nathan Rosen TheRealismTypicalPhysical modelAnd the assumptions thatHidden variable theoryShowed the need for.. on the other hand,Niels Bohr (1885 — 1962) supported the latter idea.
Einstein, Podolski and Rosen's assumptions1967ToとSubmitted byDenied by.. Also experimentally,1982ToAlan AspeByIs reported to be broken,Local realityThe hidden theory of hidden variables was denied. What is the CHSH inequality?John Stewart BellWas derived as a condition that the local realistic measurement model should satisfyBell's inequalityIs a type ofJohn Clauser, Michael Horn (Michael Horne), Abner Simony (Abner Shimony), Richard Holt (Richard holt) Et al.InequalityThat is.
About Causality Bohr is only on a human scaleapproximateI thought that it was just a matter of reality, not on a microscopic scale... Bohr thought that quantum mechanics at the time wasatom,分子This is because we mainly deal with phenomena that occur on the scale of, and the quantum-theoretical phenomenon for huge systems as compared to atoms was not known.
Causality in science fiction
Causality isScience fictionThis is a subject often dealt with in the field of (SF). For exampleTime MachineAbout, the paradox (caused by its existence to break the causality)Time paradox) Is used as an essence, or "preventing occurrence" of such a paradox is used as the main theme of the story.
In addition,Time Machine"Causality" may be used as the basis for denying the possibility of.Time paradoxIs the basis for this. However, as the causality itself is not a fact that has been scientifically objectively proved,Time MachineIt is inappropriate to use it as a basis for denying the existence of. "However, if we consider causality,Time MachineIt is indispensable to try to assume the existence of.
- ^ Oxford Dictionaries
- ^ a b c d e Masanori Onuma (1978).
- ^ Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of Western Thoughts" (1990)[Causality]
- ^ a b c "Philosophy and Thought Encyclopedia"
- ^ a b Heibonsha "World Encyclopedia" vol.7 p.7 [Causality].
- ^ Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of Western Thoughts" (1990) [Causality] p.595.
- ^ Peskin, Schroeder (1995) Chapter 2 etc.
- ^ a b Ueda (2004).
- ^ "An example of a misunderstanding treatment". Mutsumi Natsui (September 2001, 12). 2017th of February 11Browse.
- ^ Matute, Helena; Blanco, Fernando; Yarritu, Ion; Díaz-Lago, Marcos; Vadillo, Miguel A .; Barberia, Itxaso (2015). “Illusions of causality: how they bias our everyday thinking and how they could be reduced” (English). Frontiers in Psychology 6. two:10.3389 / fpsyg.2015.00888. ISSN 1664-1078.
- ^ Schwarz, Norbert; Sanna, Lawrence J .; Skurnik, Ian; Yoon, Carolyn (2007). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 39. Elsevier. Pp. 127–161. two:10.1016 / s0065-2601 (06) 39003-x. ISBN 978-0-12-015239-1
- ^ Aeschleman, Stanley R; Rosen, Christopher C; Williams, Melissa R (2003-02). “The effect of non-contingent negative and positive reinforcement operations on the acquisition of superstitious behaviors” (English). Behavioral Processes 61 (1-2): 37–45. two:10.1016 / S0376-6357 (02) 00158-4.
- ^ "Too rich to get sick? Disneyland measles outbreak reflects anti-vaccination trend" (English). the Guardian (September 2015, 1). 2021th of February 2Browse.
- ^ Lilienfeld, Scott O .; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal (2012-02). “Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: Science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error” (English). Journal of School Psychology 50 (1): 7–36. two:10.1016 / j.jsp.2011.09.006.
- ^ Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (1935).
- ^ Kochen, and Specker (1967).
- ^ Bohr Papers (1).
- "Philosophy of Western Thought" Philip P. Wiener (ed.),平凡 社, February 1990.ISBN 9784582100105.
- "World Encyclopedia" Heibonsha.
- Masanori Onuma "History of Science" Aoki Shoten, 1978.
- "Modern quantum physics"Baifukan, February 2004.ISBN 978-4563022655.
- LD Landau, EM Lifshitz (1976-12-31). Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory. Course of theoretical physics 3 (3rd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0750635394
- Michael E. Peskin, Daniel V. Schroeder (1995-10-02). A Introduction to Quantum Field Theory... Westview Press. ISBN 978-0201503975
- Hiroshi Enatsu"Relativistic Hamilton Form and Microscopic Non-Causal Law in Quantum Field Theory," Bulletin of the Institute of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Vol. 11, 1964, pp. 65-66.
- "The possibility of breaking causality with high energy", "Study on Particle Physics", Vol. 36, No. 3, November 1967, pp. 11-231.
- Matsuo Sekine, "Breaking of Causality and High Energy π-N Total Cross Section," "Study on Particle Physics," Vol. 40, No. 5, January 1970, pp. 1-200.
- Hisakazu Inagaki"Microscopic Causality Breaking and Resonance Levels", Study of Particle Physics, Vol. 49, No. 1, March 1974, pp. 3-22.
- Fujisawa Norio"Aitia-Causa-Cause--What was" Causality "Basically?", Ideal, No. 634, April 1987, pp. 4-100.
- "Complex Systems and Many-to-Many Causality (Report of the Study Group" Complex Systems "Study Group)", "Study of Physical Properties," Vol. 59, No. 3, December 1992, pp. 12-343.
- Niels Bohr"Neils Bohr Papers <1> Causality and Complementarity" Iwanami Bunko.
- A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen (1935). “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?”. Physical Review 47: 777-780 .
- S. Kochen, and EP Specker (1967). “The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics”. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 17: 59–87.
- First cause,Immovable person
- Chain reaction
- Butterfly effect
- en: Quantum Zeno effect
- Sequential relationship and causal relationship
- Correlation and causality
- Considerable causality
- Reason for satisfaction
- Immediate causal error before and after
- Pygmalion effect
- Self-fulfilling prophecy
- Free act
- Side effects,Iatrogenic disease
- Determinism,Causal closure
- Probability theory,statistics,Quantum mechanics,Schrodinger's cat
- Spacetime philosophy
- metaphysics,Philosophy of science
- USIT - TRIZA systematic way of thinking about inventions, which is an evolutionary and simplified version of. It adopts a taxonomy of causes that is quite similar to the four-cause theory.
- Learning,Neuroscience,Neuron,Subjective probability
- en: Causal loop diagram