Biden proposes US-Russia summit talks Concerns over Russia's military buildup
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Regarding Ukraine's accession to NATO, Russia has taken a cautious stance, saying that if Ukraine, which was a member of the former Soviet Union, joins, Russia will oppose it.
[Washington / Moscow XNUMXth Reuters] – US President Joe Biden and Russian President Vladimir Putin on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading
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- Soviet Socialist Republic
- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
↓ 1922-1991 ↓ (National flag） (National emblem）
- Country slogan: Proletarians of all countries, unite!
- National anthem: 《《International》 (International)
'USSR National Anthem》 (Soviet federal national anthem)
《Государственный гимн СССР》 (Soviet federal national anthem)
(Modified version)[Annotation 1]
Soviet Union territory after 1945 (including effective controlled areas)
Official terminology Russian(in fact) capital Moscow
- Supreme leader
1922 32,553,129km² 1933 21,352,572[Annotation 2]km² After World War II 22,402,200km²
1933 163,166,100[Annotation 3]People 1970 242,768,000 1991 293,047,571
October Revolution 1917May 11 Founding 1922May 12 Approval 1924May 2 One-party dictatorshipAbandonment 1990May 3 August coup 1991May 8 - 22 Day Recommendation for dissolution of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1991May 8 Dismantling 1991May 12 currency Soviet Union Louvre Time zone UTC +2- +13 (STD: None) ccTLD .su
Soviet Socialist Republic(Soviet Shakai Shugi Kyowa Kokurenpo,Russian: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,Acronym: СССР[Annotation 4],Latin transcription : Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik,English: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, English abbreviation:Soviet Union, English acronym: USSR)1922May 12から1991May 12Existed betweenMarx-LeninismWas raisedSoviet Communist PartybyOne-party system OfSocialist Federal RepublicAndEurasiaInRepublic(For the nameLatter sectionSee).pluralRepublics of the Soviet UnionByFederal RepublicWas formed.capital TheMoscow.. The vast land of 2240 million 2200 square kilometersSouth AmericaとSoutheast AsiaIt is equivalent to the total area of all the countries in Japan.Second World WarAfter the endCold WarUntil the endThe United States of AmericaWithSuperpowerMet.
Founded from the Russian Revolution
Russian Social Democratic Labor PartyIs the majority ofBolshevikIt is,February RevolutionEstablished byProvisional governmentOverturn,Russian Soviet Union(1936,Russia-Soviet Union Socialist RepublicRenamed to) was established.thisOctober RevolutionStarting withrevolutionFactionRed ArmyとCounterrevolutionFactionWhite armyBetweenRussian Civil WarHas begun.Red ArmyInvaded several former Russian Empire territories,Workeras well as the Peasant OfSovietLocal through (Council)CommunistAssisted in seizing power.
after that,1920In the middle of the teensJoseph StalinGot in power.StalinCreated by himselfMarx-LeninismThe nationideologyage,Planned economyを推し進めた。結果として、同国は急速なIndustrializationandCollective farmingPlayed.
Second World War
Second World WarBefore the outbreak,National Socialist German Labor Party OfAdolf HitlerLeadNazi GermanyAgainstThe United KingdomとFranceRejects the alliance with the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union with GermanyGerman-Soviet non-aggression treatySigned.The treaty is fleeting between the two countriesHoneymoonAnd surprised many people,1941ToGerman army Operation Barbarossaを発動してGerman-Soviet battleHas begun.Battle of Leningrad,Battle of Stalingradなどの防衛戦では莫大な犠牲を払い、は同大戦において最大の割合を占めた。最終的にSoviet Union Army TheEastern Europe OfWehrmachtBeatベルリンに突入did.
Soviet UnionGerman army Central EuropeandEastern Europeで得た領土を占領し、同領土は後にソ連のSatellite countrybecomeEuropeToIron curtainBuilt.Also19458ToJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyIs unilaterally discardedJapanLaunch an attack onJapanese armyWas suppressed byNortheastern ChinaとInner Mongolia,Northern Territories,Korean PeninsulaOccupy the north,AsiaToBamboo curtainIt was built.Second World WarThen we fought together,The United States of America,The United KingdomSuch asWestern countriesWithideologyおよび戦後処理をめぐる政治的意見の相違により、それぞれが自らを中心とする経済・軍事同盟（ソ連を中心とするComeconandWarsaw Pactと、アメリカを中心とする欧州復興計画andNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization）を構築するに至り、ついにはNuclear warNext toCold WarHas evolved into.
Khrushchev Brezhnev era
Nikita KhrushchevThe Soviet Union under the administration20st centuryContinue to make important technical feats,The first artificial satellite in historyLaunch and史上初の有人宇宙飛行AndSpace development competitionBrought in.1962 OfCuban crisisは米ソ両超大国間の緊張が極度に高まった期間であり、核戦争寸前だと考えられた。1970代はDetantの時代となったが、1979Soviet UnionアフガニスタンWas born新たな社会主義政権At the request ofMilitary aidを始めたことで再び緊張が生じた。アフガニスタン紛争はArms raceとともに経済資源を消耗させ、有意義な政治的成果も成し遂げられないまま長引いた.
Gorbachev era, collapse of the Soviet Union
1980In the second half, the last leader of the Soviet UnionMikhail GorbachevIs federalreformand OfSocial democracySeeking to go in the direction of,The end of the governmentDemocratizationWith the goalGlasnostandPerestroikaIntroduced the policy of.At that timeノルウェー(Beihai Oilfield)WhenスウェーデンEconomy is foreignInstitutional investorによって大きく変革されつつあった。これに追随しようとするソ連では、外資に強固な姿勢をとるnationalismOn the other hand, the western part, which is susceptible to foreign investment, has begun to separate from the Soviet Union.
1988Initially the Soviet Union was worth $ 7,800 millionSwiss francAs collateralEuro bondEnter the market,5ToアフガニスタンWithdrew from.198911ToReligious business associationHaveVatican CityReconciled with, the next monthMalta talksIs doneCold WarWas declared to end.
1991年に入ると、ゴルバチョフは連邦構成共和国の不満を和らげるためロシア・ソビエト連邦社会主義共和国のBoris Yeltsinおよびカザフ・ソビエト社会主義共和国のNursultan Nazarbayevと会談してUnion of Soviet Stakesの調印を約するなど大きく改革に舵を切ったが、これに反発する保守派が同年8月にCoup d'etatを起こした。このクーデターは失敗に終わったが、首謀者にゴルバチョフの側近も含まれていたことから、ゴルバチョフ自身のみならずソ連共産党、さらには連邦政府の威信と信頼を大いに損なう結果となった。
これを受けて連邦構成共和国は8月20日にエストニア, October 8ラトビアなど、相次いで独立回復を宣言した。国際社会がリトアニア・エストニア・ラトビアの独立を直ちに承認する動きを見せたことからゴルバチョフは8月24日にこれを追認、連邦の瓦解はもはや不可避となった。12月8日にはロシア・ウクライナ・ベラルーシが互いの独立を承認し、Independent state community（CIS）を創設するBelovezha Accordに調印、12月21日にはジ ョ ー ジ ジを除く残りの11共和国がAlma Ata Declarationに署名してCISに加盟したため、これをもって連邦制は実質的に崩壊した。ゴルバチョフはMay 12にソ連大統領を辞任し、ソビエト連邦の消滅を公式に宣言した。
The official name in Russian is "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics'[Annotation 5].
The popular name is Сове ́тский Сою ́з[Annotation 6]It is also used in the lyrics of the national anthem.Abbreviation isthe USSR, Or Latin letters for SSSR, because the official name is transliterated to "Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik".
JapaneseIn notationSoviet Socialist RepublicIs used.Known asSoviet Union("Soviet" means "Soviet, "Soviet" "Soviet" "Soviet" "Soviet" "Soviet" closer to the original language, also called "Saviet").Abbreviation isUSSR,USSR, Or simplySoviet,SovietAlso.漢字Then.Su Lianguo,Soviet UnionEtc.,SuIs abbreviated.
Second World Warbefore,Russian EmpireOf the eraHoly AllianceThe "Soviet Union (Su Alliance)" translated as "Alliance" was also used, but the Soviet Union itself said "union And Федерация(Federal) ", because the Soviet embassy in Japan used the translation of" federal "consistently before the war.[Annotation 8], "Federation" is predominant.
In addition, of the constituent republicsRussia-Soviet Union Socialist RepublicとZachavkaz Socialist Soviet UnionThe country name also contains the letters "Federation", but this is union not Федерация It is a translation of.Aiming to integrate the former Soviet UnionEurasian Union,Eurasian Economic Union Of union Is translated as "coalition".In Japanese reading union TheSoyuzKnown for.It also made up the Soviet UnionRussia-Soviet Union Socialist RepublicAnd the successor nationRussian FederationIs "Федерация(Federal) ".
Soviet Union is the name of the countryProper noun(Place name) Is a rare example in the world that does not include, but in each republic that constitutes the federationCountryIncludes place names such as "Russian Soviet Union".
In some Western countries, the entire Soviet Union was often referred to as "Russia".in JapanLabor and agriculture Russia,赤露Although it was also called, "Soviet Union," "Soviet Union," and "Soviet Union" became common.
Petrograd OfdemoOriginated in1917May 3(Julian calendarFebruary)February RevolutionLater, a caretaker government was established aiming for gradual reform,World War IAtGerman armyFront did not already also the prospect of settling is about to collapse to have domestic political confusion with.
In September of the same yearLavr KornilovAfter the failure of the general rebellionBolshevikSupport for has increased.There, the Bolsheviks decided on an armed uprising policy and seized power on November 11, the same year (October 7, Julian calendar) (October Revolution).This November 10th is the anniversary of the Russian Revolution.The first Soviet convention was held on the same day, and the establishment of the Soviet system and the governmentPeople's CommitteeWas established.prime ministerTo the chairmanVladimir Lenin, To the Foreign People's CommissarLev Trotsky,People's Commissariat for Ethnic AffairsToJoseph StalinHas been inaugurated..Soviet regimeMoscowSuppress the suburbs, on November 11thLeftSocial Revolutionary PartyWas incorporated into the administration. From January 1918, 1, the 10rd National Soviet Conference was held, and RussiaWorker-Soldier-農民Declared to be a Soviet republic, and adopted a declaration to adopt a federal system (Russian Soviet Union）.
The Bolsheviks were renamed the "Communist Party" in 1919.German EmpireAndBrest-Litovsk TreatyAlthough peaced byAlliesbySiberian troopsInterference War and with the White ArmyRussian Civil WarIt was decided to deal with.On the other handUkrainian People's Republic,アゼルバイジャン OfBaku CommuneSoviet governments such as were established one after another in various places..Each of these administrations was an independent country, but sometimes defined itself as part of the Russian Soviet government..
In economic policy, during the civil warWar communismWas introduced, but this led to the collapse of agriculture and industry, resulting in millions of starvation deaths... Since 1921NepWith the introduction of (new economic policy), the economy has finally picked up.
Establishment of the Soviet Union
As the Russian Civil War came to an end, there was a growing movement among Soviet governments to integrate...The Russian Communist Party promoted integration with various revolutionary governments, and in 1920 it became the Russian Federation.Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet RepublicA close military and political alliance treaty was signed between the twoウクライナ,White russian,グ ル ジ ア,アルメニアA similar treaty was signed with..Although these countries were constitutional sovereign states, the supreme bodies were the All-Russian Congress and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, and the initiative of the Russian Federation was clear..
In May 1922, Lenin collapsed due to a cerebral hemorrhage, and although he survived, his influence rapidly diminished... In April Stalin became General Secretary of the Communist Party of Russia and began to take control of the party organization.. In August, a committee was set up for the integration of the Soviet regime, with Stalin as one of the leaders.Stalin will be announced by each administration in SeptemberAutonomous RepublicAnnounced an integrated form of joining the Russian Soviet Union of Socialist Republics..Although this opinion was adopted with the approval of the Soviet republics other than Georgia, it remains unsatisfactory for each republic, and under Lenin's guidance, the republics became federal as equal republics at the central committee in October. The format of joining was decided..However, the amendment stipulates that the three republics of Zakafkas will join once they become federals, leading to a fierce backlash in Georgia (Georgian affair）..Opponents are gradually cornered, which causesZachavkaz Socialist Soviet UnionIs established.
In 12 monthWas held, and on December 12th, the four countries of the Russian Soviet Union, the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, the White Russian Socialist Soviet Republic, and the Zakafkas Socialist Federal Soviet Republic will join on an equal footing.Soviet Socialist RepublicDeclare the establishment ofWas signed.It is stipulated that each country can join or leave the federation at will, and it has been decided to establish a new supreme institution. First on January 1924, 1Soviet Union ConstitutionIs established.
Lenin died in 1924, but with Stalin in his lifetimeTrotskyWas worried about the conflict and began to be wary of Stalin..Stalin first isolated Trotsky and then Lenin's aideGrigory ZinovievAnd Lev Kamenev,Karl RadeckAttacked them. Trotsky in 1927,Zinoviev,KamenevWas removed from the party, securing its position as a clear superior..
On the diplomatic side, although the Allied direct interference itself has disappeared, relations have not improved as the Soviet administration refused to pay the debt of the former Russian Empire...On the other hand, it was internationally isolatedWeimar RepublicGermany below approaches the Soviet Union and stipulates mutual abandonment of compensationTreaty of RapalloWas concluded..The German army secretly carried out military development within the Soviet territory, and the Soviet Union also established a relationship to obtain information...After this, Middle Eastern countries andRepublic of ChinaAlthough diplomatic relations were established with, in 1925Locarno TreatiesIt was perceived that Germany became the Western European side by the establishment of.The Soviet Union tried to counter this by concluding non-aggression pacts with Eastern European countries and France.On the other handCominternSupports communist movements in each countryWorld revolutionI was aiming forNational socialismWith Stalin's victory in chanting, the movement became to protect the Soviet Union..
Five-year plan and agricultural collective
Agricultural production expanded with Nep, but the focus was on high-value production, and grain supply stagnated...Stalin ended Nep and sought to industrialize the Soviet Union by converting to a planned economy. From 1928First five-year planHas begun, and increased steel production, agricultural grouping, and industrialization with an emphasis on electrification and mechanization have been achieved. Comparing 1928 and 1937, coal produced more than three times and crude steel produced more than four times., It is said that the industry as a whole has doubled in the primary and 2 times in the primary...Western countries at the same timeWorld DepressionThe Soviet Union's economic growth rate was the highest in the world, compared to the fact that it caused a large number of unemployed people and reduced the economy.However, on the other hand, the forcible agricultural grouping represented by the Kolkhoz faced strong resistance from the farmers, and eventually the Soviet farmers were mostly industrial workers or organized on collective farms. The crackdown and hunger caused many casualties.In Kazakhstan, 30% of farmers fled to China.In particular, the effects of the Great Tenmei famine from 1932 to 1933 were disastrous, with 400 to 800 million people in Ukraine (XNUMX-XNUMX million ().Horod Mall), It is said that the Soviet Union as a whole has caused starvation deaths, which is said to be 600 to 700 million...In addition, industrial wages have not risen, and workers' real wages have fallen by nearly 12%...Soviet government to this富農We faced with a coercive policy such as hunting.Also,White Sea / Baltic Sea CanalThe construction of large-scale infrastructure, such as plans, mobilized so-called prison workers, including farmers who resisted grouping and oppressed Communist Party members.Called "the darling of the party" by Lenin, he advocated a moderate plan.Nikolai BukharinIs ousted at this time.
On the diplomatic side, Comintern was initiallySocial FascismAnd increased criticism of social democratic forces,fascism,NazismWas rather tolerated. But,Hitler CabinetAfter its establishment, diplomatic relations with the United States were established in November 1933. In September 11League of NationsJoin thePermanent memberIt became.The Nazi Party government was established in Germany (Nazi Germany), In 1935Declaration of re-armingdid.To counter this, the Soviet Union sought to counter it with an Eastern Locarno policy that tied up with France, which was signed in 1935...Also at the 7th World Congress of CominternAnti-fascist united frontPolicy is confirmed,People's FrontTactics have come to be taken..The Red Army expanded from 1934 to 60 in 94, 1935 million in 130, and in 1937.Soviet NavyContinued to expand rapidly, such as the installation of.
However, some capitalist camps such as Britain, the United States, and France were still more concerned about communism than fascism, and rather tried to use fascism as a breakwater against communism.In particular, the Soviet Union's view of hostility was clearly manifested.1936 OfSecond Ethiopian WarThe Soviet Union blamed Italy for Fascism's invasion of Ethiopia, but Britain and France did not impose any sanctions for fear of a war with Italy.Stalin, disappointed with the attitude of Britain and France, furtherMunich talksDeepening suspicion that the concessions of both countries to the Nazis in Japan may have tolerated the invasion of the Soviet Union.[Source required]
For radical grouping and industrialization, within the partySergey Kirov,Grigory OrdzhoniquisePowers such as these have come to seek moderateness.After the 1934 Kirov assassination that occurred during that time, Stalin intensified the purge within the party, Bukharin,Georgy PyatakovWas the successor chairman of the People's Assembly of LeninAlexei Rykov, Zinoviev, Kamenev and other influential party members,Mikhail TukhachevskyMilitary personnel such as these were executed one after another.Many other party members, military personnel, and the general publicDeath penaltyOrExileBy etc.purgeWas done.This purge is targeted even by the performers of the purge under Stalin.Genrikh Yagoda,Nikolai EzhovAre also victims of that.
Large-scale destination for exileConcentration camp(Siberia OfKolyma MineEtc.) have been maintained.There are various theories about the number of victims of the Great Purge, but according to a formal report made at that time, "Counter-revolutionary crimeIt is said that about 72 people have been sentenced to death.This purge strengthened Stalin's regime... Since 1938, until Stalin's death in 1953, there was only one party convention, only a few central committee meetings, and all important decisions were made by Stalin..
Second World War
1938 yearsAnschlussLater, the Soviet Union told Britain and France, "It may be too late tomorrow."fascistCalled for a concrete collective action response to the forces.. HoweverMunich talksThe appeasement policy towards Germany intensified the Soviet suspicion that Britain and France were trying to point Germany at the Soviet Union..
The Soviet Union hastened military expansion and was the first in the worldArmorHowever, the speed was clearly slowed down due to the loss of the Red Army executives in the Great Purge...For this reason, Soviet leaders at that time believed that the Soviet Union was in the period of economic construction during this period and could not withstand a serious war, and the basic policy was to postpone the great war... In 1939, the Foreign MinisterVyacheslav MolotovWas replaced by.Amid the imminent crisis in Poland, we negotiated a partnership with Germany at the same time as Britain and France, and signed the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty on August 8...The treaty included a division between Poland and the Baltic States in the attached secret protocol..
9German army OfPolish invasionIn case ofSoviet-Polish Non-Aggression TreatyWas unilaterally destroyed and invaded, occupying the eastern half of Poland..Soviet sideCurzon LineIt claims to be a region where many Ukrainians and Belarusians live..
Baltic statesTo demand the passage of the Red Army and the establishment of a pro-Soviet government, and to the three countries without waiting for the answerInvasion, annexation of puppet government..At the same time the Soviet UnionルーマニアToBessarabiaPressured to ceded, Soviet troops in June 1940 with Bessarabia and the NorthBukowinaI was stationed at and ceded.Furthermore, in the neighboring countryフィンランドTheWinter warInvaded byKareliaAnnexed regions..However, Finland's resistance caused unexpected damage and was banished from the League of Nations..
Relations with Germany had a certain degree of cooperation, but there were creaks in the details.The Soviet side responded not to stimulate the German side, and information warning of the German invasion was released.. In June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, and the German-Soviet war broke out.Stalin, who never expected this, was extremely upset...Shortly after the start of the war, the onslaught of the German army forced the capital Moscow to tens of kilometers.Battle of Leningrad,Battle of KurskIn total, millions of casualties were caused by the military and civilians.
Stalin called the war "Great Patriotic WarAnd appealed to the patriotism of the people, centered on the people in the occupied territories of Germany.PartizanOrganized and disturbed the enemy's supply line.Also, when an ally withdrawsScorched earth operationAfter forcibly evacuating the inhabitants called, they carried out an operation to destroy and incinerate houses, fields, etc., so that nothing would fall into the hands of the German army.AlliesHuge military aid from the United States and Britain to fight the German army on the side and the Western Front (Lend-Lease method), And because there was no Japanese participation in the Far East, the Soviet army, which was able to concentrate on the war against Germany, pushed back the German army suffering from climate and supply difficulties. After winning the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942, the Soviet Union gradually gained an advantage in the battlefield. In 1943CominternDisbanded.
Eventually, with the retreat of German troops, Soviet troops liberated Eastern European countries.The people of Eastern Europe supported the Communists who were at the forefront of resistance to the German occupation.The Communist Party of Eastern European countries established socialist governments modeled on Soviet socialism in various places against the backdrop of the pressure of the Red Army and the support of the people. In May 1945, Soviet troops were the capital of GermanyBerlinAnd forced the German army into surrender.
On August 1945, 8, the Soviet Union unilaterally abolished the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Treaty.Declaration of war against Japandid.This is by Allied leadersYalta ConferenceSecret agreement (Yalta Agreement), But it was a complete betrayal and a surprise.Soviet troops are JapaneseKuril Islands,Nanabatta, The northern part of the Korean Peninsula, and Japan's alliesManchuriaInvaded against.The actions of the Soviet army at this time were the abolition of the Neutrality Treaty, the violence against Japanese civilians, and the postwar prisoners of war.Siberian detentionIt caused a big lump in the postwar Japan-Soviet relations.
More than 2,700 million Soviet people died during World War II and suffered great casualties..On the other hand, by making a great contribution to the victory, he increased the prestige of the nation and established the position of a superpower in the world.During the war, he was deeply involved in meetings to build postwar order, such as the Yalta Conference.United NationsGreatly involved in the foundingSecurity Council OfPermanent memberIt has become.Furthermore, it strengthened its influence on the occupied Eastern European countries and became a satellite state.On the other hand, it acquired territories from Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia, and expanded its territory to the west.Also annexed before the start of the warエストニア,ラトビア,リトアニアDomination of the Baltic States, Bessarabia acquired from Romania (nowEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Approve the territory, expel many inhabitants from these new territories or force them to relocate to Siberia, etc., insteadRussianWas relocated.
Far EastThen, it occupied the territory of Japan, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, and declared its territory.Furthermore, on August 1945, 8, with the Republic of China, which is one of the Allies.Sino-Soviet Friendship Alliance TreatyConcluded, Japan is oldManchuriaOf the various interests that I had inKanto OfJourney order-DalianOf both portsConcessionAnd oldTosei Railway(South Manchuria RailwayAllowed the Republic of China to inherit the management rights of (part of)People's Republic of ChinaReturned after the founding of the country).
The beginning of the Cold War and the Khrushchev era
After the war, the Soviet Union purged the opposition of Eastern European countries, which became the Soviet territory from German rule.StalinismTypicalSocialismIntroduced a government and made them satellite states of the Soviet Union.With the United States as the leader of the eastern countries in the Warsaw Pact, etc.資本主義(Western countries) Opposed to the camp.Under Stalin's administrationBerlin blockadeActions such asKorean WarIn various parts of the world such asProxy warIn this form, a confrontational relationship called the Cold War was formed.
1953 years,Stalin diesHowever, a joint leadership system by Georgy Malenkov and Nikita Khrushchev has begun.Became the leader of the reign of terror under the Stalin regimeLavrentiy BeriaWas executed and the Stalin line's excessive dictatorship was significantly relaxed... Malenkov was deposed in 1955, and Khrushchev's leadership system was established. In 1956Stalin criticismAnd the accusation to the Great Purge and the farewell from the Stalin regime were announced.This also had a strong impact on Eastern European countries, and in each country there were political reform movements and anti-establishment movements (Poznan riotEtc.) occurred, butHungarian uprisingIntervened by force to suppress it.He also killed, executed, and imprisoned opposition groups, putting pressure on governments to rectify them.On the other hand, the criticism of Stalin led to a backlash from the People's Republic of China, leading to a Sino-Soviet conflict.In addition, the Democratic People s Republic of Korea aims for a Soviet-style socialist system.Soviet Union Kim Il SungAn elimination coup was planned, but failed and the forces were wiped out.
Arms race was being promoted even during the Khrushchev era,nuclear weaponsAnd the deployment of missile weapons was in progress. The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 made the world aware of the crisis of nuclear war, and since then relations with the United States have improved ().HoweverVietnam WarConflicts called proxy wars continued in Africa and South America.
Khrushchev focused on food production and achieved great success temporarily, but the rapid expansion of agricultural production led to the denutrition of agricultural land.DesertificationAs a result, the Soviet Union was forced to import food from abroad.
Age of stagnation
In 1964, Khrushchev was ousted because of the failure of agricultural policy and his tolerant policy towards Western nations.Leonid Brezhnev took over as the leader.However, due to the intensifying Sino-Soviet conflict with the People's Republic of China, the relationship between the two countries was almost cut off, and in the 1970s, the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and China allowed the People's Republic of China to approach the west. It was.In 1968, the Soviet Union continued to keep Eastern European countries under the sphere of influence.Limited sovereignty(So-called Brezhnev Doctrine) "Czechoslovak Socialist RepublicDemocratic Reform (Spring in prague), The Soviet Union has come to receive strong criticism from the international community.In this situation, the Soviet Union began to cooperate with Western countries (Detant),Strategic weapons restriction negotiationAnd so on.
The fact that Prague Spring was suppressed by force also caused turmoil within the same communist camp.The People's Republic of China called the Soviet Union "Social imperialismCriticizedRomanian Socialist Republic OfNikolae Ceausescu,People's Socialist Republic of Albania OfEnvel HoggiaAlso criticized the Soviet Union.Also in the Communist Party of Western countriesItalian Communist Party,Spanish Communist PartyBreaks away from Soviet socialismEuro communismThe international communist movement has fallen into a state of division.
February 1963, French-Soviet trade treaty. 2, France-Soviet Nuclear Peaceful Use Agreement.AndVietnam WarAtHo Chi MinhLeadNorth VietnamAssisted (old)French Indochina).1969With the People's Republic of China, which had been in conflict for some timeChinba Island/Damansky IslandAroundSino-Soviet border disputeFought. In January 1970イタリアAnd in FebruaryWest GermanyAnd trade agreement. March 1971, FranceuraniumAgreement. October, France-Soviet Joint Declaration and France-Soviet New Economic Cooperation Agreement. In 10, the Soviet Union was badly harvestedGrain majorRelied on. May 1974, UK-Soviet Economic Cooperation Agreement. In December, a five-year economic cooperation agreement was reached at the French-Soviet summit meeting. In January 5, notified the cancellation of the US-Soviet trade agreement. October, US-Soviet grain agreement. In March 12, the three countries of Japan, the United States and the Soviet UnionYakutNatural gas exploration agreement. November, US-Soviet fishery agreement. March 11,Exclusive economic zoneImplement.
In December 1979, the Soviet Unionアフガニスタン OfCommunist regimeInvaded Afghanistan, seeing that he was trying to form a relationship with the United States.this isPakistan,Saudi Arabia,(I.e.Some such asIslamic countriesIt was held the following year following a fierce opposition from Western countries and the People's Republic of China.Moscow OlympicsMassboycottThe flow of detents has ended.The fighting in Afghanistan became bogged down and continued until 1989, not only causing isolation from the international community, but also causing great loss of life and war costs.In addition, the Soviet UnionEvil empireCriticize by nameRonald ReaganThe arms race with the United States under the presidential administration has intensified. In September 1983Korean aircraft shooting down caseThe outbreak further increased tensions with Western nations.
The Brezhnev administration was a long-term administration for 18 years.It was stagnant but stable, and for the first time in Soviet history, hunger, turmoil, and purges disappeared.Instead, no reforms have taken placeBureaucracyPrivileged class of party bureaucrats byNo Men Kratura), Of the Brezhnev clanNepotismThe corruption of the system has progressed.On the economic front, the growth rate, which boasted 1960% until the 10s, gradually slowed down.The luck goes to people's lives, food, fuel, and daily necessities.distributionAnd sales have become stagnant.Reform and opening upWith the exception of the People's Republic of China, which started, the economies of all eastern countries have been stagnant since the latter half of the 1970s. When information on the rich lives of Western countries became available in the Soviet Union in the 1980s, the people became more dissatisfied with the system and longed for the free West.Agriculture, which had the highest production of wheat in the world, also suffered from chronic stagnation, and it became constant to import wheat from the United States.However, after the end of the detent, grain imports became tight, causing further economic deterioration.Even in the technological competition, it came to lag behind the United States and Japan, and just before the collapse of the Soviet UnionGNPIs also overtaken by Japan to take 3rd place.
Yuri Andropov, the successor to Brezhnev, who died in 1982, Konstantin Chernenko, the successor to Andropov's death, and old leaders came to power one after another.However, shortly after taking office, they both entered a fighting illness and died of illness as they were, so they could hardly implement concrete policies not only for domestic affairs centered on economic issues but also for diplomacy and Afghanistan issues since the Brezhnev regime.Elder ruleWas to impress both inside and outside.
After that, in order to overcome the increasingly serious economic crisis in these two eras, the Mikhail Gorbachev administration, which was born in March 1985, promoted perestroika (reform) with the aim of reforming and renewing the socialist system. ..
This caused corruption under a long-standing one-party dictatorship.Political systemReform was promoted. Soviet Union until then in 1988Supreme meetingInstead ofPeople's Deputy CongressThe establishment was decided, and on March 3, the following year, the first Democratic Election of the Soviet Union, the 26st People's Deputies Congress, was held.Gorbachev was a hindrance to reform by having the people's deputies elected directly by the people.Conservative bureaucracyI tried to wipe out (Appalachiki).Also in April 1986Chernobyl nuclear power plant accidentWhen the Soviet Union's serious bureaucratic constitution was revealed by Gorbachev, Gorbachev began full-scale Glasnost and promoted relaxation of information control.In response to this, the Soviet people began to review history and engage in lively political debates.
With the progress of Glasnost, the demand for democratization has expanded among the people, and in response to itLeading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionArticle 6 of the Soviet Constitution, which stipulates, was deleted, and in 1990Soviet Communist PartybyOne-party dictatorshipAbandonment, andMulti-party systemとPresidential systemWas decided to be introduced.March 3, the same year, by the People's DeputyIndirect electionBy GorbachevFirst Soviet PresidentWas elected to.Also at the same timecensorshipAbolishedNewspaper lawWas enacted.
However, while these series of political and economic reforms have achieved some success, they have intensified internal conflicts within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union over the scope and speed of the reforms.Conservatives, in particular, strongly opposed the loss of their vested interests as reforms progressed.The Communist Party then split into groups of radical reformers such as Yeltsin, moderate reformers such as Gorbachev, and conservatives.Due to the division within the party, domestic economic reforms were delayed, further exacerbating the economic crisis.Under these circumstancesYeltsinGave up on the Communist Party, which is dominated by conservatives, and left the party at the 1990th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in July 7.Popov,Sobchak,Afanasyev,SakharovAlong with them, it is a non-Communist political organization.Interregional deputy groupFormed against the Communist Party.On the other hand, Gorbachev, a moderate reformer, was caught between conservatives and radical reformers, and could not promote drastic reforms.
In addition, it was attempted to abolish the conventional centralized command economy and introduce a market mechanism, but economic reforms were delayed due to the resistance of conservatives and other factors, and domestically.InflationAnd the shortage became serious.There was growing criticism among the citizens of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, including Gorbachev, who could not overcome the situation.It was Yeltsin and other radical reformers who absorbed such public dissatisfaction. On June 1991, 6Russian Republic presidential electionWas carried out by YeltsinThe chair was elected and took office on July 7.Also on the same day as the Russian presidential election, the Moscow mayoral election,LeningradMayoral elections were held, with Popov elected Mayor of Moscow and Sobchak elected Mayor Leningrad.These radical reformers' breakthroughs irritated the conservatives and laterAugust coupIt became one of the factors driving the situation.
Rekindling of ethnic problems and upset federal system
Perestroika has made great strides in easing tensions in the east and west, democratizing Eastern Europe, and political reforms within the Soviet Union, but as reforms progressed, it led to weakening of Communist Party power and reduced control of the federal government over each republic. There was.Under these circumstances, the sharpening of ethnic problems that had been sealed in Japan and the republicssovereigntyThere was a move to demand expansion.
December 1986 was the first ethnic riot since the start of perestroika.Almaty case Republic of KazakhstanOccurred in. Since 1988Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous RegionOver the attribution ofArmeniaLarge-scale conflict between Azerbaijan and Georgia, GeorgiaRepublic of MoldovaBut there was a clash between ethnic groups.
Also, on March 1990, 3, it was seen as a pioneer of the anti-Soviet Union.Baltic States OfLithuaniaDeclared independence from the Commonwealth, and the Gorbachev administration imposed economic sanctions and withdrew the declaration, but on March 3, the same year.EstoniaBut on May 5thLatviaDeclared independence. On May 1990, 5, Yeltsin, a radical reformer, was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet Union of the Russian Federation, on June 29, 6, by the Russian Federation, and on July 12, 7.Republic of UkraineHas declared national sovereignty that the sovereignty of the republics prevails over the sovereignty of the federal government, followed by each republic.While it can be said that the movements of the republics for the uplifting of the national movement and the independence from the federation were caused by the perestroika and Glasnost promoted by Gorbachev himself, the radical reformers who lost the conflict with the conservatives at the federal Supreme Council There was also the aspect of moving to the Supreme Soviet Union of the Republic, where he was in charge of those movements.In particular, the appointment of the radical reformist Yeltsin as the head of state of the Russian Republic, which has 76% of the total area of the Soviet Union, 51% of the total population, and overwhelming economic power compared to other republics, is significant. It was.
In the turmoil of the traditional centralized federal system, Gorbachev significantly transferred the authority of the federal government to each republic.Sovereign stateRevealed a new initiative to reorganize the Federation as a coalition of.After that, we first proceeded with coordination with each republic to conclude a new federal treaty as a framework. On March 1991, 3, the pros and cons of maintaining the federal system were questioned as a stepping stone to the conclusion of the new federal treaty.ReferendumWas held in each republic, and 76.4% of voters voted in favor of maintaining the federal system.[Annotation 9]..Following the result of this referendum, on April 4, the heads of state of the Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev and the nine republics who participated in the referendum gathered, and after that, they signed a new federal treaty with each republic and each republic that constitutes the federation. Agreed to carry out a major delegation of authority to and a federal reorganization.At that time, it was also decided to abolish the character of socialism from the former "Soviet Union of Socialist Republics" and change it to "Soviet Union of Sovereign Republics".
End of the Cold War
With the United States in December 1987Mid-range nuclear force abolition treatyWas signed, and from May 1988 the following daySoviet armyHas begun to withdraw from Afghanistan.At the same time, some Soviet troops stationed in Eastern European countries also withdrew to their home countries.
Gorbachev in March 1988New Beograd DeclarationamongBrezhnev DoctrineDenial,Eastern EuropeSoviet to countriesDomestic affairsHe had stated that he would not interfere, but in response to this, from 1989 to 1990German Democratic Republic(East Germany)Hungarian People's Republic,Polish People's RepublicAnd satellite states such as Czechoslovakia have achieved democratization one after another.Most of them were virtually bloodless revolutions, but in Romania there was a temporary battle between regimes and reformers, forcing a dictatorship for many years.Nikolae CeausescuThe president was sentenced to death in an instant trial by reformers, resulting in democratization.Unlike the former Hungarian Revolution and the spring of Prague, the Soviet Union expressed no intervention in reforms in these satellite states and clearly disliked the use of force against the people by these governments. It was.
In such a trend, the Cold War structure in the east and west was virtually collapsed due to the successive democratization of the eastern countries including the Soviet Union, and in response to these movements, from December 1989 to December 12, 2.地中海 OfマルタWith GorbachevPresident of the United States OfGeorge HW BushTalked and officially declared the end of the Cold War (Malta talks).
In Japan, preparations were underway for the conclusion of the Union of Soviet Streak on August 1991, 8.However, he feared that the conclusion of the Union of Soviet Sector would lead to the independence of each republic and the loss of its own power base.Gennady YanayevVice President,Vladimir KryuchikovKGB Chair,Dmitry Yazov8 defense ministersCentral Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionA coup d'etat occurred on August 8 when members were about to conclude a treaty, and although Gorbachev was under house arrest and tried to prevent the treaty from being concluded, reformists such as Boris Yeltsin resisted it, and many of the military and the people In addition, major countries such as the United States, France, Japan and the United Kingdom did not support the coup d'etat, so it was completely unsuccessful.
The failure of the coup frustrated the signing of the Union of Soviet Sector, and the members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who caused the coup were arrested.The members who caused the coup were all key executives of the Communist Party and reported to Gorbachev, and the authority of the Communist Party and Gorbachev was lost. On August 8, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the Communist Party, and at the same time recommended the dissolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Was forced into a de facto dismantling.
With the dismantling of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which has played a central role in the federal government and united the federal government, there is no government organization that can control each republic, and the heads of state of each republic have their own power. I came to have it.And after that, the real power consists of the heads of state of each republic.National CouncilWill move to.
On September 9, the State Council establishes the independence of the Baltic StatesApprovaldid.Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, who failed to conclude the Union of Soviet Sector, struggled to maintain the federal system during this period, and on November 11, the Russian Republic, the Republic of Belarus, andCentral AsiaAgreed to create a sovereign state federation with the heads of state of the five republics, and continued to persuade the remaining republics that refused to join the federation.However, on December 5st, a referendum was held in the Republic of Ukraine asking whether or not to become independent, with 12% of the voters supporting independence, and the President of the Russian Federation, Elitzin, who initially agreed to maintain the federal system, also 1. The collapse of the Soviet Union was approved on December 90.3rd, saying that it would not be beneficial for the Russian Republic to join the sovereign federation, which has a population of 5,000 and is not a member of Ukraine, the second largest industrialized country in the Soviet Union. Decided.
October 12 of the same yearBelovezha AccordIn Russia,ウクライナ, White Russia (ベ ラ ル ー シ) Withdraws from the federation and is newlyIndependent state community(CIS) was created, and the remaining countries joined the CIS accordingly. On December 12, President Gorbachev declared that the federal government would cease operations during 17. On December 1991, 12 heads of the Soviet Union, excluding the Baltic states, which were already independent of Georgia, resolved to launch the CIS and dismantle the Soviet Union.Alma Ata DeclarationIn response to this, Gorbachev resigned as President of the Soviet Union on December 12, and the next day the Supreme Council also declared the dismantling of the federation, and the Soviet Union collapsed.
The Soviet Union of Socialist Republics was the largest country in the world at that time.Because of that, the neighboring countriesEastern Europe,Northern Europe,Central Asia,East Asia,AmericaWide range.
The land-based neighboring countries are in the westノルウェー,フィンランド,ポーランド,Czechoslovakia,ハンガリー,ルーマニア, Southトルコ,(I.e.,アフガニスタン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Republic of China(Since 1949People's Republic of China),north korea(Since 1948), south across the seaJapan(Before 1945KarafutoAnd was Japanese territory at that timeKorean PeninsulaBordered at), the eastThe United States of AmericaIs.In the whole areaCold waveThe influence of is so strong that in winterArctic OceanIt is extremely cold, especially in the areas facing the sea and inland areas.Therefore, development has not progressed easily.PrisonerOverusedForced laborMany lives were lost in.
The motorwayDevelopment was delayed but strong against snowTrainIs well developed,Siberian RailwayIs an ultra-long-haul route, but "CommunismIs Soviet power + national electrification. "LeninAccording to the policy sinceElectrificationIs progressing, and it has been very useful for military transportation and freight transportation.
long国境Some ofterritorial disputeIn the 1960s, a military conflict (with the People's Republic of China)Damansky Island IncidentEtc.) in some cases.Japan, one of the neighboring countries across the sea, has been with Japan since World War II.Northern Territories issueHave this problemRussian FederationIt has not been resolved even now.Also in FinlandKareliaLocal issues remain.
サ ッ カ ーでEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs considered to be Europe because it participates in the European Federation,トルコ,Cyprus,イ ス ラ エ ルWestern Asian countries such as are also members, and this is not a rationale at all.
So-called in the Soviet eraOfficial terminologyDid not exist.That is, Russian was not the official language of the Soviet Union.LeninKautskyUnder the influence of1914"Do you need a compulsory national language?" (Russian: Нужен ли обя зательный государственный язык?) ”, Criticizing the establishment of the national languageStalinHas adopted an ethnic language incentive policy as an expert on ethnic issues.
The constituent republics have the authority to freely withdraw from the Soviet UnionConstitutionWas recognized in.However, it actually established a procedure for withdrawing from the federation.lawNot at the end of the Soviet UnionGorbachevWas a very high hurdle.For this reasonBaltic statesIgnores federal withdrawal law1990Will be independent.
- Quibi chef(CurrentSamara）
- Leningrad(CurrentSt. Petersburg）
- Gorky(CurrentNizhny Novgorod）
Although the Soviet Union was a superpower, industries other than military and nuclear weapons were lagging behind, and energy efficiency and environmental measures were also lagging behind.Therefore, there are many contaminated areas,Dzerzhinsk,Norilsk,Sumqayit(Currentlyアゼルバイジャン),Chernobyl(sameウクライナ) Was extremely polluted.
In particularChernobyl nuclear accidentThen.Hiroshima type atomic bombAbout 500 shotsFalloutIt was scattered and many victims came out.Nuclear testThere was a placeSemipalatinsk(CurrentlyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Semey), 120 million people are so-calledFalloutAs a result, 30 people have been seriously affected by the aftereffects.
Rejecting the indirect representation system, the worker's organization "Soviet(Council, council) from the lowest unit to the highest voting unit in each workplace (Best Soviet) Was organized to form a nation.
However, there is almost no period during which such a Soviet system worked effectively, and in reality it is a private organization (non-state organization) that has permeated everything from the smallest unit to the highest unit of the Soviet Union.Soviet Communist PartyDominates all Soviet Union, virtuallyOne-party dictatorshipWas a nation of (however,Russian RevolutionImmediately after the early Lenin era and the Gorbachev era, there was a multi-party system).The grasp of each unit of the state by such a party and its dual power system are often called "party-state system".
ThisCell (party)Stretch arounddemocratic centralismとPlanned economySo-called based onSoviet socialismThe system called is a repressive system by appalachiki (meaning "organ"), and there was virtually no freedom of expression such as speech, assembly, and association.For election of leadersNo Men KraturaThe system became a hotbed of nepotism and created a new class.For ordinary workers and farmers, the rulerRomanov morning OfemperorからCommunist partyIt was not politically liberated, but rather a repressive and undemocratic one-party dictatorship from the Romanov era.Therefore, it is practically the supreme leader.Soviet Communist Party Secretary GeneralIs the "Red Emperor" ("Red"Is also called the color that represents communism).
Gorbachev has been around since the Stalin eraPresidentNominal until the introduction of the systemHead of state TheSupreme Council Executive ChairmanBut the real power wasSoviet Communist Party Secretary GeneralWas holding it.
BrezhnevSince then, the Secretary-General of the Communist Party has also served as the Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council, but the authority of the Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council is ceremonial and honorable, and the source of their power is the Communist Party, which is the ruling party. He was the general secretary.
The founder Leninsecret police OfChekaEstablished and immediately suspectedArrest,Imprisonment,ExecutionGiven the authority to do things likepurgeTriggered.Although the cheka was supposed to belong to the party before its construction, it is no exaggeration to say that it actually belonged to Lenin's individual.Cheka's indiscriminate executions routinely executed dissidents and even unrelated persons, sometimes even making up charges.Lenin saidNikolaiHistorian because he had a sloppy attitude toward the law, such as executing with the emperor's family because his hands are covered in blood and no trial is necessary. "Dmitri VolkogonovCriticized that it was an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to stop even pretending to obey the law.
In the Stalin eraSneak noticeIs encouraged, etc.Police state-TotalitarianismThe color as a nation has become stronger.Moscow TrialsMany people are convicted and executed by formal trials such asConcentration campWill be sent to.StalinTrotsky,KirovRenamed Cheka to kill political opponents and opposition within the partyBut by the full GPU acceleration tech(Gepau) was used.
After Stalin's criticism, such a repressive system was somewhat relaxed, but the secret police GPU was reorganized.KGBThe system that survived as a company and strongly monitored the lives of the people remained.
Supreme leader of all time
- Vladimir LeninÖ 1917 - 1924 Õ
- Joseph StalinÖ 1924 - 1953 Õ
- Georgy Marenkov(1953)
- Nikita KhrushchevÖ 1953 - 1964 Õ
- Leonid BrezhnevÖ 1964 - 1982 Õ
- Yuri AndropovÖ 1982 - 1984 Õ
- Konstantin CernenkoÖ 1984 - 1985 Õ
- Mikhail GorbachevÖ 1985 - 1991 Õ
At the beginning of establishmentFrance,The United Kingdom, Was isolated without the approval of major powers such as the United States, but later formed diplomatic relations with each country, and from the late 1930s to the 1940s.Japan,GermanyConclude an agreement with.
German-Soviet battleAfter World War II, which repelled and defeated Germany, which had invaded Germany, East Germany and Czechoslovakia,ブルガリアSuch asEastern EuropeCountriesSatellite countryI made it.furtherユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アLed byNon-alliancePeople's Republic of China called countriesIndia-キ ュ ー バ-エチオピア-Egypt-(I.e.-(I.e.So calledThird worldConcludes a friendship and cooperation treaty with and has a relationship.
Comecon(Comedon)メキシコ,Mozambique, Finland and other non-socialist cooperating countries.East Asia(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Laos, North Korea, etc.),Latin America(チリ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSuch),Africa(アンゴラ,(I.e.,CongoEtc.) but also "ethnic liberation" "antiImperialismA communist government advocating "colonial independence" (DespotismCooperated with the establishment of the United States andWest Germany, Confronted Western European countries such as Britain and France, and capitalist countries such as Japan.
Anti-social camp (eastern side)
People's Republic of China
With the military support of the Soviet UnionChiang Kai-shekLeadChinese National Party(National government) WithNational warWonMao ZedongLeadChinese Communist PartyBy1949Was founded inPeople's Republic of ChinaIs initiallySino-Soviet Friendship Alliance Mutual Aid TreatyHowever, in the latter half of the 1960s, a military clash due to territorial disputes (Damansky Island IncidentSuch asSino-Soviet border dispute) And the problem of ideological differences in the leadershipSino-Soviet conflictSurfaced.Such a conflict between the two countries was subsequently a civil war in the People's Republic of China.Cultural RevolutionWill continue until the late 1970s, when it ends.
After seeing such a conflict, the United States rapidly approached the People's Republic of China in the 1970s with the intention of restraining the Soviet Union, and in 1979.Diplomatic relationsEstablished (on the other handRepublic of ChinaWill lead to diplomatic relations).On the other hand, the People's Republic of China also responded to the approach of the United States.East sideDespite the camp, at that timeMoscow Olympics OfboycottとLos Angeles OlympicsParticipationWestI took action to keep pace.Also,Cambodia Civil War,Angola Civil War,Ogaden WarBecome a three-way US-China-Soviet UnionProxy warAlso occurred.
After that, he established a dictatorship and was in conflict with the Soviet Union.Mao ZedongDue to factors such as the death of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cultural Revolution, and Gorbachev's visit to China, relations between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China have also improved again.
キ ュ ー バ
In June 1959,Cuban revolutionOf a dictator who was supported by the United States inFulhencio BatistaWas dragged out of powerFidel CastroWas initially in a relatively neutral position with the United States and the Soviet Union, but in the United StatesDwight D. EisenhowerThe administration isCuban revolutionCastro, who later promoted the nationalization of the industry, was wary of being "socialist" and kept a distance.At the same time, the Soviet Union offered assistance to Cuba's supreme leader, Castro, in the "America's Backyard," and the two countries quickly approached each other, becoming the only Soviet friendship in the Americas.
after that,John F. KennedyUnder the administration, the United States plans to invade Cuba,1961"The Pigs Bay IncidentCastro began demanding the Soviet Union to provide weapons in preparation for the US invasion of Cuba.However, the Soviet Union believed that the provision of open weapons would stimulate the United States too much, so instead of providing weapons to the Cuban army, a military advisory group was set up, and the Soviet UnionNuclear missilePassed "Operation Anadyr" to deploy in Cuba1962Soviet nuclear missiles were deployed in Cuba.However, the United States, which sensed this,NavyFor Soviet vessels approaching Cuba by blocking the waters of Cuba with shipsVisitCaused military tensions with the United States set in Cuba (so-called)Cuban crisis).
After that, the Soviet Union actively provided not only military support to Cuba but also economic support until its collapse, and it is the main industry of Cuba.sugar caneIn return, Cuba relies entirely on imports for its supply.oilContinued to provide various support such as giving.
Anti-capitalism camp (West)
Imperial RussiaWent to the timesSouthward policyClashed with Japan and Britain, and with BritainJapan-UK AllianceWith JapanRusso-Japanese WarWoke up and was defeated.World War ITime,BolshevikAfter the establishment of the administration, other allies (Mikuni Kyosho) Was ignored and a peace treaty was held against Germany, so it was thought that the passage of German soldiers would be permitted in Japan andRepublic of China(Beijing government) Be wary of (Japan-China Joint Defense Military Agreement).In addition, the United Kingdom and France warned that they might provide resources to Germany, and both countries warned.Siberian troopsWas consulted, and it was decided that he would collide directly with Japan and the United States, which actually dispatched troops.Then defend the AlliesProvisional All-Russian GovernmentHowever, anti-Soviet propaganda was spread by white Russians who went into exile in Japan at that time (Anti-communism #History).
JapanImperial AssemblyIn response to the political change in 1922, enacted the "Russia and Siberian Repatriation Law for Relief of Ritalized Persons, etc."Government bondAnd took measures to provide cash..In addition, rescue means to give relief by giving money and the like.
After the formation of the Soviet Union, by the Chinese Communist Party of the Communist branchHankou IncidentWoke up, but after thatAnti-JapanIt was moving in the direction of stopping the exercise.But,Sino-Soviet ConflictAfter the victory, the Chinese Communist Party made the Communist Party of Korea attack the Japanese consulate in Manchuria (Majima Communist Party Rebellion) In addition, the Chinese Communist Party was planning to make Manchuria soviet,KantoThe plan is revealed by the Japanese police..Then by JapanManchurian IncidentWoke upManchuriaWas founded and often caused military clashes with Japan at the border with Manchuria (Japan-Soviet border dispute).In addition, the Chinese Communist Party attacked Pochon in the Korean region (Battle of Pochonbo), And continued red terrorist activities against Japan.
In April 1941 during World War IIJapan-Soviet Neutrality TreatyIs concluded,Axis powersとAlliesAlthough he continued to maintain diplomatic relations while belonging to the conflicting camp,Yalta ConferenceBased on the secret agreement signed between the Allies in Japan, in August 1945, it was unilaterally abandoned and declared war on Japan (Soviet war declaration against Japan), Japan continues to invade despite surrendering to the AlliesKuril Islands-Northern regionAnd so on.Besides, many JapaneseCaptiveWas detained in Siberia for a long time after the war and forced to work, and more than XNUMX% of all inmates died from illness or accidents (Siberian detention).
In addition to Japan's anti-Soviet sentiment due to such circumstances, after World War IIYoshida ShigeruThe Prime Minister has an alliance with the United States (Japan-US Alliance) Has been adopted as the main axis, so Japan-Soviet relations have not progressed for a while.After that, seek unique diplomacy with an emphasis on countries other than Western countries.Ichiro HatoyamaThe change of government created a momentum for normalizing diplomatic relations between Japan and the Soviet Union in 1956.Japan-Soviet Joint DeclarationJapan restored diplomatic relations and did not realize it because the Soviet Union continued to oppose it.United NationsMembership has been realized.
However, the Soviet Union continued toNorthern TerritoriesContinued to illegally occupyJapanese Socialist PartyTo provide financial support to left-wing political parties and rebel organizations such asInternal affairsIn addition, Japan was an ally of the United States, and the U.S. military continued to be stationed even after the occupation by the Allied Forces ended.US Army in Japan), The improvement of relations remained unchanged.On the other hand, the ruling partyLDPSome members of the Diet voluntarily had a pipe with the Soviet Union, and Japan-Soviet relations were not completely cut off.North Sea FisheriesThe economic relationship between the two countries, such as the import of North Sea materials and the export of machinery and steel productsSoviet collapseIt continued until.
East Three Provinces / Manchuria
Exiled White Russians in ManchuriaHarbinLived mainly in.CollapsedProvisional All-Russian Government(Omsk government)White armyBy those who are involved withZarya,GunbaoThe Soviet Union was struggling with the White Russians living in Manchuria, as white émigré newspapers critical of the Soviet Union were written, and the White Russians were planning an anti-revolution with China and Japan (for example). , In the Sino-Soviet conflictKhabarovsk ProtocolIncludes provisions for White Russians).
The Soviet Union invaded Manchuria in 1945 at the end of World War II (Soviet war against Japan), Manchuria was destroyed, Manchuria was communized, and White Russians were expelled from the front stage of Manchuria.
The United Kingdom
1924 yearsZinoviev LetterDue to the incident, he is warned by the United Kingdom.Further 1927Arcos caseLeaks secret documents to England.On the other hand, in July 1941, following the German-Soviet war, a military alliance treaty was signed.However, in 7, the United Kingdom was sent to the United States for decryption.VenonaI have participated in the plan.
The United States of America
In World War II, it had a cooperative relationship with the United States as an ally in the Allied Forces, and had a close relationship with them, such as receiving weapons.
But after World War IIEast sideAgainst the lord of the communist campWestThe United States, which was the de facto ally of the capitalist nation of Japan, and the so-called "Cold WarIt was decided to confront in the form of.
In response to these changes in relationships, in the 1950sKorean WarAnd in the 1960sVietnam WarEtc., so-calledProxy warThere was an indirect form of military confrontation, but the whole thingNuclear warThere was no direct and total military confrontation, partly because the fear of was a deterrent to both sides.HoweverBerlin blockade,Cuban crisisIn addition to going one step before a full-scale military confrontation,U-2 shooting down incidentInAirspace invasionIt is also true that there were limited military conflicts, such as the shooting down of an American military aircraft.
Despite this conflict, formal diplomatic relations were not interrupted even during the Cold War, and civilian aircraft were being used in both capitals.
Foreign travel restrictions
Foreign countries, especiallyWestTraveling to countries for personal reasonsexileAnd with itState secretOutflowForeign currencyIn principle, it is prohibited mainly for the purpose of preventing outflow, and it was impossible to travel without the permission of the authorities regardless of whether or not there was diplomatic relations with the destination country.Even with permission, there were various restrictions, and at least individual free travel was not possible.This is Soviet society, andEast sideAs a symbol of the closedness of the socialist system ofWestWas criticized by the capitalist camp.
In addition, travelers returning from abroad are almost always cross-examined by the intelligence department, so even if they do not have the intention, they have to talk about what they have seen in foreign countries, and as a result.spyIn many cases, I would do it.Other,AeroflotIn some cases, commercial airlines and passengers, such as, actually double as spies.[Annotation 10]. However,Comecon(Comecon) It was easy for member countries to travel abroad, and there were human exchanges for various purposes such as tourism, employment, and study abroad.
Dating with WesternersmarriageHas many disabilities, and the marriage of "persons directly related to national interests" and "persons involved in state secrets", which are particularly widely designated, was prohibited.Even so, the marriage itself was possible (Hiroki IshiiMrs. NatashaKaori Kawamura(Like her mother Elena), at that point the path to success in Soviet society was cut off, and this time to leave her spouse's home country.passportIt took a long time to issue.This is not limited to Western capitalist countriesSatellite countryEven the marriage to a person is said to have been disturbed by the authorities.
Traveling on a ship operating on a foreign route or in a foreign countryOrchestraNot only to prevent the asylum of crew and orchestras, even to naval vessels, and to monitor speech abroad.Soviet Communist Party OfPolitical commissarWas accompanied.Even so, asylum at sports competitions and concerts continued, regardless of individual or group.However, even if they were lucky enough to move, they were often suspected of being "Soviet spies" by the nations and societies they moved to, so it was never a safe haven.
As an exception, until the 1950sJew Ofイ ス ラ エ ルThere is departure.Soviet governmentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn support of the founding of Israel in 1948, he actively promoted this migration policy to peacefully reduce Jews from his country in the process of recovery from the war.But soon Israel countered with strong American support.Arab countriesAs he deepened his ties with the Soviet Union, this Jewish migration gradually declined. 1967Third Middle East WarThe diplomatic relations between the two countries were cut off, and after that, group departures were rarely carried out until the end of the Cold War.
Another exception was the deportation of humans who did not agree with the Soviet government.If it is a hindrance to the stability of the nation or the development of the socialist system, and if it is difficult to purge or detain the subject due to its high name abroad, it will deprive the subject of citizenship and passport and be forcibly expelled to Western countries. did.This willLev Trotsky,Alexandre SolgenitsynAlthough he left the Soviet Union, the policy was based on the same idea as the ban on foreign travel in that it did not allow exiles to return home.But even if you ’re not in line with the government, you ’re a physicist.Andrei SakharovPersons who lead to the outflow of military secrets and technology, such as, were not deported, but were put under house arrest or exiled.
Powerful military power
United States of America at the topWestSupersonic speed that can carry nuclear weapons and nuclear weapons to counter countriesBomber, ICBM (Intercontinental ballistic missile) And intercontinental ballistic missiles can be installedNuclear submarine, SupersonicFighter,tankEtc. were deployed and held strong military power.
In the 1960s, the Soviet Union became extremely large amid intensifying nuclear development competition between East and West.Hydrogen bomb, Manufacture AN602.Known as "Tsar BombaThis calledHydrogen bomb TheHiroshima type atomic bombIt is said to be about 3,300 times more powerful than the total amount of explosives used worldwide during World War II, and it has the greatest power in human history as a single weapon. It was.The automatic retaliation system that the Soviet Union started operating at this time is a global scale even with a single minor misjudgment.Nuclear warBecause it can cause "destruction device (Doomsday device) ”.As an example of the dangerIn 1983, a computer in a surveillance system misreported a nuclear missile launchThere is.
However, maintaining such a strong military force will increase military spending and put pressure on the national budget, and by that amount, it will be for civilian use.InfrastructureAnd the development of the distribution system was delayed, and as a result, the national economy was exhausted. Lasted 1979 years from 10Invasion of AfghanistanWas swamped and failed with no success.Not only did they spend a great deal of money and lost the lives of many soldiers, but they also reduced the prestige of the Soviet Union, resulting in a loss of prestige.Collapse of the Soviet UnionIs said to have accelerated.
East sideCamp'sWarsaw PactBecame a central country in Eastern EuropebasePutHungarian uprising,Spring in pragueBy forcefully suppressing reform movements in satellite countries, not only the member countries of the Warsaw Pact, but also the People's Republic of China, North Korea, Cuba andNorth VietnamExported various weapons from rifles to bombers to anti-American socialist and communist countries around the world.Even nowThird worldThere are a large number of weapons made by the former Soviet Union in circulation.
Not only that, but besides exporting their military technology to these countries,OfficerDispatched such as to conduct military training and contributed to the improvement of military technology in these countries, among which MoscowPatrice Rumumba Name Ethnic Friendship UniversityAnd spies in various military facilitiesterroristIt also includes training, funding, and the provision of weapons.During proxy wars such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he actively supported friendly countries.
Throughout the Cold War, Western countries such as the United States and European countries,South America,Middle East,AsiaIncludes socialist parties and rebels, illegal groups and terrorist organizations in non-socialist regimes in African countriesantisocial forces, Anti-war movement groups (many of which are de factoAnti-AmericanIt provided support for the movement), which included training and financing of spies and terrorists at various military facilities, and the provision of weapons, as described above.
Science and technology
Aerospace technologyThen, in order to compete with the United States, development was carried out with the prestige of the country (Space Race).Mankind's firstArtificial satelliteSuccessful launch of "Sputnik 1",Yuri GagarinBy humanity's firstManned space flightSuccess ofSpace station"mealIn addition to space development such as successful long-term operation, the world's firstNuclear power plantObninskSoviet Union, such as buildingGiant scienceHas left a great footprint in.The foundation of modern rocket engineering and space exploration is the Soviet UnionKonstantin TsiolkovskyWas built by.
aircraftBut Mikoyan Grevic Design Bureau (MiG),IlyushinDesign Bureau,TupolevOriginal mechanisms were developed by the Design Bureau and others, but they remained indifferent to improving economic efficiency and quality, and were rarely adopted outside Japan and satellite countries.These space research and nuclear research are open to anyone other than those involved.MapNot listed inClosed cityIt was sometimes done in.
On the other hand, delays were noticeable in non-industrial research.Especially in the Stalin era, ideology is often prioritized over scientific perspectives, especiallyLysenkoAdvocated byLysenko theoryAs a result, Soviet agriculture was devastated and fell into an importing country.The construction and development of factories by the planned economy sometimes ignored the actual situation, and often failed in terms of profits and the environment.As a result, serious environmental destruction occurred in soil and rivers in some areas, resulting in health hazards for many people.furtherChernobyl nuclear accidentThe bureaucratic concealment constitution represented by the above covered up these damages on the surface and expanded the damages.in particularAral SeaDevelopment plan caused what was called the greatest environmental destruction of the 20th century.Also, sometimes for civil engineering work, etc.Nuclear explosion for the national economyWas even used.
crudeFrom a resource-dependent structureProfoundDue to the emphasis on industry, it is not possible to respond to "light, thin, short and small industries"semiconductor,Integrated circuit,liquid crystalEven in technology, it was far behind, and it was not possible to realize the rapid progress of computers and the full-scale spread to general life as in the West, and it was decisively behind in the high-tech field.For military useToshiba,Hitachi, Ltd.In some cases, products and technologies were introduced from Japanese private manufacturers such as (Toshiba Machine Cocom violation case).
On the economic side, a planned economic system was established and farmers were grouped (Collective farm).It was also known that medical expenses were free and there were no taxes. In the 1930s, when capitalist countries suffered a general recession due to the Great Depression, the Soviet Union achieved extremely high economic growth without being affected by it, which had a great impact on countries around the world.But its economic growthPolitical prisoner,ThoughtcrimeIt was later revealed that the wealth was concentrated and distributed to the upper ranks of the Communist Party, supported by forced labor centered on.John Kenneth Galbraith"When capitalist countries were suffering from the Great Depression and depression in the 1930s, the Soviet socialist economy continued to make great strides, becoming the second most industrialized country in the world after the United States.Full employmentと社会 保障However, he summed up that it began to collapse in the 1970s (however, behind the rapid progress of the Soviet economy in the 1930s, there were millions of forced laborers. It should be noted that Galbraith overlooks or deliberately ignores the contributions of the people's almost unpaid work).In fact, after the 1960s, the collapse of the planned economy became decisive, and people's lives were deprived due to the shortage of consumer goods.
Due to the delay in distribution, even if the agricultural products were produced sufficiently, they could be spoiled by the time they were delivered to consumers.For that like a black marketShadow economyAnd corruption are widespread, and in such a situationCommunist aristocratThe result was that it was infested.
SovietAgriculture:Due to the harsh climatic conditions, the areas suitable for agriculture are relatively limited, and in each republic.MonocultureAs a result of allocating production, it is major in Ukraine, Belarus, Russia's black land zone, Caucasus zone, etc.作物 ThewheatEtc.Cereals,feedproduce(beatSuch),potato,ヒ マ ワ リ,Fruit tree,Vegetables, Cereals are the mainstream in Siberia, Far Eastsoy, Central AsiaCotton[Annotation 11]Met.Agricultural workersCollective farmとState farmHe was only engaged in work that met the quota with the wages set under the planned economy.The prices of crops were decided by the state and subsidies were provided to adjust the prices.These have reduced labor motivation and drastically reduced agricultural productivity since the 1970s.meatAgriculture has become the Achilles heel of the Soviet Union, becoming a constant importer of species and grains.
During the Russian Revolution, rural areas were devastated by "war communism," including the outbreaks that accounted for 80% of the population, and caused millions of starvation deaths, especially in Ukraine.As a result, the new economic policy "Nep", which abolished the compulsory collection of grain in 1921, restored agriculture to prewar levels, but it became difficult to procure grain.So in 1928, Stalin was reorganized into a collective farm and a state-owned farm that carried out agricultural grouping and was abused at low wages.ClerkNine million hard-working peasants were banished, half were executed and the rest were sent to internment camps.Grain sourcing increased but production declined, starving 900 million people between 1931 and 1933.The peasants who resisted eventually became industrial workers and were organized into collective farms.
When the German-Soviet war began in 1941, rural areas were devastated, and after the war, more than one million people starved to death from 1946 to 1947 as they embarked on postwar reconstruction while maintaining the same economic system as before the war. , Many left the farm. In 100, after Stalin's death, Khrushchev proposed a project to reclaim uncultivated and abandoned cultivated land such as Kazakhstan and Western Siberia, and attempted to harvest grain from the virgin land. From 1953 to several years, the harvest of the virgin land temporarily eliminated the grain shortage, but ...Farmland OfDesertificationWhen the virgin land fell into poor harvest, the grain was again scarce and imported from abroad.Even after Khrushchev's demise, the productivity of collective farms did not increase, and although collective contracting was introduced in the 1980s, a large amount of food was imported from the United States that could not be supported by the small settlements in the Kolkhoz.
Distribution of consumer goods
In the world structure of East-West confrontationMunitions industryBy investing a huge amount of money and high technologyMilitary-civil conversionIs late,Refrigerator ,Washing machine,Dry cell,microwaveElectrical appliances necessary for people's lives such as石 鹸,detergent,shampoo,Toilet Paper,pencil,Ballpoint penGeneral consumer goods, such asた ば こ,Soft drinkThe development, production, and distribution of luxury goods such as these are neglected, and even low-level electrical appliances, which are incomparable in terms of technology and quality compared to Western countries, have to wait for several years to obtain them. It is in a slack state, and this isRichard NixonWithKitchen controversyBut it was made into a spear ball from the United States.
And most appliances andAutomobileIt is said that the technology of the Western countries was several decades behind the technology of Western countries, and many of themFiat(TolyattiSee) andPackardIn partnership with Western companies such as, those who received technology licenses for old products, or unauthorized copies of Western products, and requisitioned and plundered from Germany during World War IIOpelIt was a diversion of technology from the production factory facility of.
In addition, electrical appliances, consumer goods, luxury goods and automobiles are rarely developed, put on the market, improved or price revised, which were frequently done in Western countries in order to survive the competition in the market. The same product has been manufactured for over 30 years without improvement.
Private ownership of automobiles was limited to people of a limited class, such as Communist Party executives, and people of other classes had to wait for several years in order to obtain them.The working classJill,VolgaSuch asluxury carAnd used by Leonid Brezhnev and othersCitroenIt was virtually impossible to own a car imported from Western countries such as.
As described above,Electrical appliancesBecause the technology and quality of consumer goods, machine tools, automobiles, etc. were decisively inferior to those of Western countries, exports to Western countries wereAgricultural products,seafoodSuch asPrimary productAndcrude,Natural gasSuch asEnergy resourcesWas the main.Also,currency OfRubleDue to its low currency value abroad, the trade balance with Western countries was generally in the red or very low, except for countries with trade in energy resources.
Trade with satellite and socialist nations, on the other hand, was due to the lack of foreign currency in many of those nations.CocomTrade restrictions from Western countries restricted items traded from Western countries, so not only primary products and energy resources, but also electrical appliances, consumer goods, machine tools, automobiles, aircraft, and other military products that were not dealt with in Western countries. Even the supplies were exported. The Soviet Union ranks third in the world in terms of machine tool production by country in 1975.Most of them were supplied in the form of virtually no aid, such as barter trade with the primary products of the partner country. From 3 to the implementation of perestroika, commercial bills were abolished, so there was no distribution or discount, and transactions were centrally settled at (state-owned banks)..
Imported consumer goods
Western appliances andCosmeticsAlthough the import and distribution of consumer goods such as clothing was prohibited in principle, it was established only in large cities such as Moscow.GumLuxury for foreign currency onlyDepartment storeIt was possible to obtain it at.However, only foreigners or senior Communist Party officials and their families could actually buy them.so that,Marlborough Ofた ば こ,Levis OfjeansMany western products such as were distributed by the dark route.
Accounting was also based on socialism, and accountants were to work for the Supreme National Economic Council, which promotes the planned economy.The accountant of the state-owned enterprise was responsible for preparing the balance sheet and accounting report and organizing the accounting.From the 1930s, when centralization and collective farming progressed,StalinistCriticized that accounting was aimed only at individual companies, deprived accountants critical of Stalinism, and the Soviet Treasury and the Statistics Netherlands began to supervise and supervise accounting..
The accountants were divided into bookkeepers who practiced based on the plans of central government ministries and accountants who were responsible for senior institutions.Accounting has become rigid as there is no room for management improvement or professional initiative... From the 1960s, decentralization by economic reform began, and profits, costs, prices, interests, etc. were evaluated in planned economy and corporate management, and accountants belonged to the Science and Technology Association (HTO) and acted as experts. did. The HTO also considered incorporating accounting in capitalist countries[Annotation 12].
Late 1980'sPerestroikaPrivatization and market economy began in Japan, and market economy accounting was partially introduced in joint ventures with Western countries, and trade secrets of the company were recognized... After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the market economy became more advanced, and in Russia, an auditor, a certified accountant, was nationally qualified..
Comparison with the United States
|Comparison of US and Soviet Union as of 1989|
1990 yearsThe World Fact BookData based on.
|Soviet Union||The United States of America|
|GDP(PPP, 1989 – million $)||$2 billion||$5 billion|
|Population (April 1990)||About 2 million||About 2 million|
|GDP per capita (PPP, $)||9,211 dollar||21,082 dollar|
|Labor force (1989)||About 1 million||About 1 million|
The Soviet Union did not have the same level of GDP as the United States,1989Until then, it was the second largest economy in the world, and had a position as a superpower with a larger area and resources than the United States.It was not possible to intervene in its own military operations in a direct confrontation, as it was believed to possess nuclear weapons on an equal footing with the United States.Gross domestic product and per capita GDP were about one-half to one-third that of the United States.
At the expense of people's living standards, they focused their resources on heavy industry investment and military spending.1950 eraThe Soviet investment rate, which was about 15%,1980 eraIt reached 30%, and the military spending rate was estimated to have reached 1980% in the mid-16s.1970 eraSince then, as the importance of high-tech sectors such as computers and semiconductors has increased, it has become difficult for the Soviet Union, which prioritizes heavy industry, to introduce the technology, and the technological progress rate has stagnated. The rate has fallen into the negative.
The Soviet economy was catching up with America's national power at a remarkable pace from the 1950s to the early 1960s, and Khrushchev's bullish statement that he would "overtake the United States within 20 years" was believed, but in the 1960s Although the pace has stopped,1975The relative national power of the Soviet Union reached a peak of 45% of that of the United States.However, after that, it entered a phase of decline, and on the contrary, the difference in national power relative to the United States widened.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's military and economic power declined sharply, making a big difference in GDP per capita and military spending from the United States.Furthermore, due to the effects of the economic turmoil, the people suffered from poverty without guaranteeing a minimum living, so Gorbachev, who was pro-American and perestroika, was criticized as "a traitor who sold his soul to the United States" Many voices.
Demand for domestic and international transportation is very high, not only because the people are actually limited to long-distance travel outside the area where they live, but also because there are significant restrictions on the movement of foreign travelers within the Soviet Union. Was limited to.The railway network was relatively well-developed because it was easy to use for military purposes, regardless of whether it was long-distance or short-distance.highway,gas station,Car rentalAutomotive infrastructure such as remained poor.
Traveling to Western countries for personal reasons is, in principle, prohibited mainly for the purpose of preventing asylum and foreign currency outflows, and without the permission of the authorities, whether or not they have diplomatic relations. It was impossible to travel as long as possible.Even with permission, there were various restrictions, and free travel on an individual basis was not possible.However, regular flights by air and ship to foreign countries were relatively well-developed for the purpose of showing off national power and friendly relations.
The vast land was mainly connected by aircraft.The domestic air route network is the only and largestAirlinesso,National flag carrierIsNational OfAeroflot Soviet AirlinesOperated by, remote areas and paved areas that are only accessible by long-haul international flights, domestic trunk lines, and aircraftRunwayRegions that are not maintained空港So that it can be operated toSupersonic airlinerLarge includingJetからTurbo propMachine, small sizeBiplaneIt operated a variety of equipment, including large freighters.
Most of the equipment usedIlyushin,Tupolev,JacobreffAlthough it was domestic equipment such as, some equipment from eastern friendly countries such as Czechoslovakia and Poland was also introduced.Some aircraft were operated with the mounts left so that they could be used for military purposes in an emergency.
Similarly, international flights were operated only by Aeroflot, but there were significant restrictions on the Soviet people's overseas travel and the movement of foreign travelers within the Soviet Union.On the other hand, for the purpose of showing off national power and friendly relations, major western countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States, satellite countries in Eastern Europe such as East Germany, Poland and Bulgaria, Cuba andアンゴラ, North Korea and other friendly countries and other countries around the world.
However, for that purpose, it was operated completely out of profitability, and although it was offered at a low air rate, its airport and in-flight services were far from those of Western countries, so Western countries' Many were known only for their cheap rates and poor service.
From overseas, airlines of many friendly countries have been operating mainly in large cities such as Moscow and Khabarovsk, as well as from Western countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and West Germany.Pan American Airlines,British Overseas Airlines,Japan Airlines,Lufthansa German AirlinesAnd other airlines were on board.
It has been reported that when entering Western countries, they often flew off the route and near military bases and port facilities.Japan Air Self-Defense ForceIt is annexed to the base ofChitose AirportI was denied access to.In addition, some aircraft such as the Ilyushin IL-76 were operated with the gun mount left at the tail (the gun was removed).
Japan Airlines and Aeroflot between JapanTokyo(Haneda airport,Narita Airport),Niigata(Niigata Airport) And Moscow, Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, and on some routes with Japan Airlines.Code shareIt was also in service.
Each city was connected by a railway network represented by the Trans-Siberian Railway, and international trains were also operated to neighboring countries centered on satellite countries.It also served as an air raid shelter in some large cities such as Moscow and Leningrad (now St. Petersburg).subwaySome stations built during the Stalin era have a well-developed network to show off the success of socialist construction.PalaceIt was decorated like this.
In addition to individual car ownership, long-distance travel to areas other than where you live was actually limited, so the free movement of the people by highway as was done in Western countries is not possible. It wasn't common.In addition, in the urban area of a big citytrolley busincludingbusThe route network was stretched.
Speech / Press
As mentioned above, interception of foreign broadcasts was prohibited, andtv set,radio,News (Chinese)Such asMediaThe news was placed under the control of the Communist Party, and the news that was negative for the state and the party did not flow until the beginning of Glasnost in the 1980s.
Such regulations are not only for foreign cases and internationally-affected cases such as the Chernobyl accident and the shooting down of Korean aircraft, but also for domestic political and economic cases, such as the pursuit of party leaders and the subway Until incidents such as accidents and coal mine accidents, those that were judged to have a negative impact on the nation or party were rarely reported, or even if they were reported, they were reported to the nation or party. It was distorted so that it would be advantageous.Therefore, when there was an Olympic Games in a western country, there were many cases where Soviet players and officials who knew the truth for the first time wanted to go into exile.
Of the pre-Russian Revolution rulerNikolai IIAnd their familiesShot dead without trialIn 1979, a geological survey team excavated the remains of the emperor's family in an attempt to reveal the truth, but there was a case in which they were arrested by the KGB.However, this fact, which was hidden in Russia for more than 70 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, became clear, and a funeral was held in 80, 1998 years after the Russian Revolution.
Correspondents of the Western media are basically prohibited from freely interviewing and reporting on the country, and although applications were required in advance, many were rejected, and even if allowed, the interviewees All the selections and dates had to be in line with what was set up.International such as the Moscow OlympicsEventsAnd for the press who visited the Soviet Union during the official visits of Western leaders, such a set-up schedule was always provided.
Soviet employees working in Western media are also not allowed to choose voluntarily, only accepting those assigned by the authorities, many of whom act as Western media and their correspondents. He was obliged to report to the authorities.
When party dignitaries such as the Communist Party general secretary died as part of domestic blackout, television and radio suddenly stopped regular programs prior to the official announcement by the party.Classical musicOr switch to historical footage such as World War II history,KremlinThe national flags displayed at key points such asHalf flagIt was customary to become.For this reason, many people (and western media outlets) have changed their television and radio programs, and every time the national flag displayed at a key point becomes half-mast, government buildings, hospitals, and the military in Moscow. It is said that after visiting facilities and trying to collect information, they were guessing which level of important people died by looking at these responses.
In addition, party dignitariesDefeatThe fact is rarely officially announced immediately by the government when it is (or purged), so intelligence officers and news correspondents in Western countries are encouraged to do so.may DayKremlin's during the anniversary paradeRed SquareBy observing changes in the standing position of VIPs lined up on the table, the number of times they are handled in newspapers, television, and radio news, and the order in which they are handled, and estimating changes in the rank of VIPs in the center of the party due to defeat, etc.KremlinologyI was calling.
Soviet UnionpropagandaIs a pioneer of modern methods, and the Soviet Union is called the world's first promotional nation (en: Peter KenezThe Birth of the Propaganda State; Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization 1985).In the film, Lenin's idea that "the most important of all art is the film" created the world's first national film school.Eisenstein montageBy devising, it became extremely novel at that time, and its sophistication became famous filmmakers in each country and later.Nazi partyBecame the Minister of Public Engagement in Germany under the administrationJoseph GobbelsWas praised.Trains, ships, and aircraft equipped with movie theaters were manufactured and utilized as movable projection equipment so that promotional films could be screened locally (eg).Maxim Gorky).On signs and postersRussian avant-gardePowerful composition developed from, strong impactPhoto montageWas born, and it was used steadily all over the world.
In particularTower of BabelAiming to be the world's largest and tallest megastructureSoviet PalaceIs not only a posterity architect, but also morphologicallyイタリアIt had a great influence on architecture in Germany and Japan.Seeing the Soviet Palace plan in JapanKenzo TangeCame to become an architect.It was the tallest building in the world at that timeOstankino TowerWas also completed.Stalin in Moscowニ ュ ー ヨ ー クlikeSkyscraperToStalinist styleMany buildings were built.Soviet propagandaIvan Pavlov,Lev VygotskySuch aspsychologySome say it was pioneering in that it was based on one's theory.BesidesBoris Rosing CRTResearch on television was also active, such as inventing the world's first television using TV.
By the Russian RevolutionSecularism,atheism,MaterialismWhen the Soviet Union was established, the Russian Empirestate religionMetOrthodox(As an organizationRussian Orthodox ChurchIn addition,Ukrainian Orthodox Church,Georgian Orthodox Church(Including) are numerous cathedrals andConventWas closed and property was confiscated.Laterworld HeritageBecomeSolovetsky IslandsThe monasteries were converted into internment camps.
Clergy and followers arrested on suspicion of foreign spies and many are executedfataldid.Have served as the first bishop of KyotoAndronik Nikoliskiy ArchbishopIs known for its peculiar fatality of being shot dead after being buried alive.Initially, it showed a strong opposition to the Bolsheviks, who advocated atheism.Patriarch of MoscowTea phoneHowever, he changed his stance toward a more realistic crackdown on the church than he had imagined, recognized the Soviet government as a legitimate government of Russia, and provided some cooperation. Activity was still significantly suppressed.
From 1921 to 1923 alone, 28 bishops, 2,691 widowed priests, 1,962 monks, 3,447 nuns, and many others were executed... From 1918 to 1930, about 4 clerics were killed, and in the 2,000s there were 1930 to 3.PriestWas shot dead or imprisoned.. 1937 people in 1938 and 52Bishop40 of them were shot dead.
Many asylum seekers were also afraid of government persecution.From among the asylum seekersSergei Bulgakov,Vladimir Lossky,Pavel Evdokimov,Elie Melia(MeliaGeorgians) And other world-famousTheologianWas produced, and the Orthodox tradition, which was not well known until the beginning of the 20th century, became known overseas.
In 1931 by Stalin's ordersCathedral of Christ the SaviorWas bombed.
In the 1940s, Stalin, driven by the need to inspire the morale of the German invasion of the German-Soviet war, turned around the persecution of the Orthodox Church, which had been accompanied by physical destruction. Recognizing a certain recovery of activities, in 1925PatriarchHe approved the election of the Patriarch of Moscow, who had been vacant since Tikhon died (1943).At that time, the previously banned church-related publications were recognized, albeit very limited, and the Moscow Theological Academy, which had been closed since 1918, was allowed to reopen.
However, in the mid-1940sSo-Fu WarAfter that,Valam MonasteryValaam monastery monks went into exile in Finland as a result of the Soviet territory.Finnish Orthodox ChurchでNew Valamo MonasteryThe crackdown on Orthodox Christianity in the Soviet Union has not been eased to the point where there are no asylum seekers.
StalinAfter his death, Khrushchev once again strengthened control over the Orthodox Church.The Russian Orthodox Church, which had been on a gradual and gradual recovery trend, was hit again, and the number of churches decreased to less than half.Since then, the Russian Orthodox Church has not recovered until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
In the vast land, in Central AsiaIslamHad a great power, but with the establishment of the Soviet Union, it was suppressed along with other religions such as Orthodox Church.Muslim Spiritual Affairs BureauWas nationally controlled by.However, the religious beliefs in people's hearts could not be suppressed, and like other religions, the religion recovered after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Despite the bias in the areas of worship, the population of Islam in the entire Soviet Union eventually reached around 7,000 million, with one in four people in the total population being Muslim (or Islamic culture). It was occupied by people who have a background.This figure is comparable to the total population of Iran, Turkey, Egypt, etc., and the Soviet Union was one of the largest non-Muslim nations in terms of total population and proportion of the population. ..
Even in states such as the Russian Federation, which are not areas where Islam is the majority, ethnic groups with an Islamic background, especiallyTatars,AzerbaijaniInhabited all over the country, and there was a certain number of Islamic societies in every part of the Soviet Union.This point was common to India and China, which are the same non-Islamic countries but have Islamic societies throughout the country.
However, Islam in the Soviet Union, unlike China and India, is a group that shares culture, language, pedigree, traits, etc. with the majority ethnic groups, specifically,SlavicIt did not spread much among groups that shared culture and language with Russians and others.Islam in the Soviet Union is justTurkic,Iranian,CaucasianIt was mainly worshiped among different ethnic groups (as seen by the Russians, who are the majority).Among the Islamic peoples who were widely dispersed throughout the country, among the TatarsSunniAmong the Azerbaijani peopleShiiteIt is also unique that both factions were scattered all over the country in a close ratio because there are many.This point has been inherited in the Russian Federation even after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Repression of other religions
Exchange with Soka Gakkai
JapaneseSoka Gakkai(NichirenBuddhismRegarding (system), although the missionary activity itself in the Soviet Union was not recognized.[Annotation 13], Maintained friendly relations from a diplomatic and economic standpoint.Above allDaisaku IkedaChairman (laterHonorary chairman) Repeated visits to the Soviet Union after 1974, and it was customary for government and party dignitaries to attend visits. During his visit to the Soviet Union in 1974 and 1975Cousigin, In 1981 visit to the Soviet UnionTikhonov, In 1987 visit to the Soviet UnionRyshkov, I met Gorbachev during my visit to the Soviet Union in 1990.By the way, the meeting between Honorary Chairman Ikeda and the Supreme Leader was held in 1990 during the Gorbachev administration.
Some literary figures were forced into exile because they lacked freedom of speech and expression.Nobel Prize for LiteratureAwardBoris PasternakThose who are forced to decline the award like, also won the Nobel Prize in LiteratureSolzhenitsynThere were a series of sufferings for cultural figures, such as those being deported.
Revolutionary in the Soviet Union immediately after the revolutionAvant-garde artBecame popular,Abstract art,ConstructivismWas born, and the Russian avant-garde promoted revolutionary thought as a so-called official art of the Communist Party.propagandaWidely used in posters.The Soviet Union at that time was the first in the worldElectronic musicmachineThereminHas become a mecca for avant-garde art, such as the creation of montage theory and the birth of montage theory, and many avant-garde artists who were unlucky from abroad participated in the construction of the Soviet Union.For example, in the Soviet Palace plan mentioned aboveLe Corbusier,Walter Gropius,Erich Mendelssohn,Auguste Pele,Hans PoelzigUp-and-comingModernism architectureThe houses were involved.Lenin himselfDadaistThere is also a theory that it was (Fumi Tsukahara "Avant-garde of words").Vsevolod MeyerholdEstablished horse mackerel professional theater method, production based on a novel interpretation of classics, Commedia dell'arte,サ ー カ スA physical training method that combines movements such as and mechanical imagesBiomechanics”, Etc., and the Soviet Union in the 1920sRussian operaOf course, it had a great influence on international theater in the first half of the 20th century (during the Stalin administration).Stanislavski systemwas there).
At the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union held in 1932 under Stalin's administration, "Socialist realismSince the advocacy of the policy, it has been officially adopted by writers in all art fields such as literature, sculpture, and painting in the early 1930s. I was forced to.
On the other handballetRussian traditional art, such as, has been maintained at a high level due to the generous budget of the government, and even classical music is restricted by the authorities.ShostakovichLeaving the work,MravinskyLeadLeningrad Philharmonic OrchestraEtc. are leaving the performance.Ballet companies and orchestras performed overseas to spread the ideal of communism, but in reality it is said that the main purpose was to earn foreign currency.After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it became difficult to survive, and the orchestra was renamed and the members became independent.Ghost OrchestraWas born in large numbers.AlsoAnatoly VedernikovPerformers who do not agree with the authorities, such as, were restricted from performing abroad.
Works depicting the Soviet Union
- Battleship Potemkin(1925, Soviet Union)
- My village was a battlefield(1962, Soviet Union)
- Moscow does not believe in tears(1979, Soviet Union)
- Firefox(1982, USA)
- Gorky Park(1983, USA)
- Rocky 4 / Flame Friendship(1985, USA)
- Red bull(1988, USA)
- Red scorpion(1989, USA)
- Follow the Red October!(1990, USA)
- Stalingrad(2001, USA)
- Kukushka Lapland Fairy(2002, Russia)
- K-19(2002, USA)
- Metal Gear Solid 3(Japan)
- Call of Duty World at War
- Command & Conquer
- Soviet Republic
- Call of Duty Black Ops Cold War
- Axis powers Hetalia(Since the times are different in the work, it is treated as "Russia", and the Soviet Union is "a house where everyone lived")
Works depicting the socialist system
- 007 series,Golgo 13The Soviet Union is frequently depicted in fiction works against the backdrop of world affairs from the 40s to the 90s.Especially intelligence agenciesKGBThe subject is often the murder of the government and the asylum of high-ranking government officials and scientists.Officials of the Soviet Union are often portrayed as villains because the country created is a Western country and because the inside of the Soviet Union was unknown.
- Vokka time(Masayuki Katayama）
Was popular in western countriesRock 'n' roll,Heavy metal,jazzMusic such asHollywood moviesPopular culture, such as, is regulated as "commercial, decadent childish" and slightlyNorthern EuropeHighly popular music from countries and West Germany, and artistic elements from satellite countries, Japan, Italy, etc.moviesOnly were allowed to be shown.It was also prohibited to intercept foreign radio broadcasts.
In the athletic competition, strengthening measures were taken with the prestige of the country, and the athletes trained by the athlete training programOlympicHe had won many medals at.in particularIce hockey,volleyball,basketball,hockeyKnown as a powerful country such as the Olympic GamesMedalMost of the acquisitions were at the top (after the first participation in the Olympics)Melbourne olympicFrom).However, many of those players are illegal after the collapsedopingIt became clear from the confession of the parties that they were in a drugged state due to such reasons.Those records still exist without being stripped.
1980 Moscow Olympics
1980, the only Summer Olympic Games in the history of the Soviet UnionMoscow OlympicsWas done.Due to the Cold War, the country tried to make the Olympics a success, but it was held the previous year.Invasion of AfghanistanIn the name of protest against JapanPeople's Republic of China,West Germany, The United States and others boycotted and virtually failed.
However, from then on until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Olympic Games were not held again in both summer and winter (in 2014 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, RussiaSochiでWinter OlympicsWas held).
And the next time it was held in 1984Los Angeles OlympicsThen, by the U.S. military in 1983Grenada invasionWith the Soviet Union in the name of protest againstEast GermanyMany of the eastern countries, which are satellite states of the Soviet Union, boycotted, including the medal kingdom of the Soviet Union.
Literacy rateThe basic education was substantial, such as improving from 30% to 87% in decades immediately after the revolution and achieving almost 100% after the war.Furthermore, as a result of public subsidies for specialized training to raise national prestige,Mathematical olympicIt has become a powerful country in brain sports such as.But the firstInternational Math OlympicsHas taken "2th place, the second from the bottom" and has been reprimanded by the leadership, and since 6, three years later, he has been proud of his high results.
In particularチ ェ スWas one of the few pastimes that was traditionally thriving and officially recognized by the public, but during the Soviet era, state-controlled chess schools were built in various parts of the world and remained at the highest level in the world until the system collapsed. It was.In addition, the holding of national championships and the publication of books were also popular.By the wayComputer chessResearch is also active, the firstWorld Computer Chess ChampionshipBut the Soviet program won,Artificial intelligenceAuthority ofJohn McCarthyとAlan KotokHe also won the world's first computer-to-computer chess match between MIT and the Soviet Union's Moscow Institute of Theoretical Experimental Physics.
Because there is no distinction between professionals and amateurs in the chess worldMikhail Tal,Mikhail Botvinik,Garri KasparovA player from the Soviet Union won the world championship for a long time[Annotation 14]It was a monopoly.I couldn't participate in the international competition for a whileGrand MasterThe Soviet Union's chess association once created its own title, "Soviet Grandmaster," for domestic players of the class, but gradually top players are allowed to travel to the match.However, influential players sometimes used this to go into exile.in particularViktor KorchnoiAs a "Western player" after asylumAnatoly KarpovHe had played against the Soviet Union national team at an international tournament and was criticized by the Soviet side.
Soviet national teams and western players sometimes played in teams, but especiallyBoris spasskyAnd AmericanBobby FischerThe 1972 World Champion deciding match, which was played by the Kremlin, sometimes led to political problems such as the intervention of the Kremlin and the White House over the progress of the match.In addition, the defeated Spassky went into exile in France in 1975 due to the subsequent deterioration of treatment.
Some players moved to the west after the collapse of the system,Vladimir KramnikMany players who have been educated at chess schools during the Soviet era are active.The situation was similar to that of the Soviet Union in the former East Germany and neighboring Eastern European countries.
- ^ Chairman of the People's Committee
- ^ General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the People's Committee → Chairman of the Council of Ministers
- ^ Ministerial Council Chair
- ^ First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the Council of Ministers
- ^ First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union → General Secretary, Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council
- ^ General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council
- ^ General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council
- ^ General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Executive Chairman of the Supreme Council → Chairman of the Supreme Council → President of the Soviet Union
- ^ The lyrics are different from the "National Anthem of the Soviet Socialist Republic" that was sung from 1944 to 1955.
- ^ Europe is 4,236,843km2, Asia 17,115,729km2.
- ^ Europe has 109,254,300 and Asia has 37,759,300.
- ^ Romanization of RussianWill be "SSSR"
- ^ Latin scriptExample:Sojúz Sovétskikh Sotsyalistícheskikh Respúblik,[sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲetskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪˈstʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪsˈpublʲɪk], pronunciation
- ^ Sovétski j Sojúz Savietsky Sayous
- ^ Apart from thatcouncil"Advice" (British: advice) Also means.
- ^ "June XNUMX, XNUMX Nagato invitation thank-you note' Asian Historical Materials Center Ref.C11080444900, "XNUMX.Su federal embassy tariff exemption' Asian Historical Materials Center Ref.B04120003800 etc.
- ^ By republic, 71% in the Russian Federation, 70% in the Ukrainian Republic, 83% in the White Russian Republic, 94% in the Kazakh Republic,Republic of Uzbek90%,Kyrgyz Republic95%,Republic of Tajik96%,Turkmen Republic98% of the respondents and 93% of the Republic of Azerbaijan voted in favor of maintaining the federal system.However, votes were boycotted in the six Baltic states, Georgia, Armenia, and Moldova, which had become more independent.
- ^ As an airline that was given a similar role in the westRepublic of China OfCivil Air Transport CompanyThere is.
- ^ Ironically, due to its cultivation plan, the Soviet UnionFederal collapseResulted in accelerating
- ^ Items to be considered include standard costing, direct costing, the relationship between operating rate and cost, classification of fixed and variable costs, break-even point, cost setting corresponding to liability system, cost center, and allowable limit of cost difference. There were use of difference analysis, manufacturing cost setting and standard adjustment, capital investment information obtained from various accounts, self-made / outsourced selection, etc..
- ^ Missionary activity was recognized after the collapse of the Soviet Union1994
- ^ 1927 to 1935, 1948 to 1972, 1975 to 1999, 2000 to 2007
- ^ "Notes by Professor Yagi / 17 Kyoto Gakuren Incident / Kyoto". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2017, 4) 2020/11/30Browse.
- ^ Bridget O'Laughlin (1975) Marxist Approaches in Anthropology Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 4: pp. 341–70 (October 1975) two:10.1146 / annurev.an.04.100175.002013.
William Roseberry (1997) Marx and Anthropology Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 26: pp. 25–46 (October 1997) two:10.1146 / annulev.anthro.26.1.25
- ^ Robert Service (9 September 2005). Stalin: a biography. Picador. ISBN 978-0-330-41913-0
- ^ David Holloway (27 March 1996). Stalin and the Bomb. Yale University Press. P. 18. ISBN 978-0-300-06664-7
- ^ Turner 1987, p. 23
- ^ Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy). Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model."
- ^ (2008). . . ISBN 0312427999 p. 276
- ^ "League of Nations Yearbook 1929 4 Edition"(National Diet Library Digital Collection), Asahi Shimbun, page 25
- ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun Co., Ltd. "Yomiuri Shimbun 1976.11 Years History. Materials / Chronology" (November XNUMX)". Shibuzawa Eiichi Memorial Foundation. 2020/7/27Browse.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 48-51.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 52.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 60-65.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 75.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 67.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 70.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 74.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 74-75.
- ^ a b c Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 77.
- ^ a b c Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 78.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 76.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 76-77.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 88.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 89.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 91.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 92.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 107.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 108.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 104.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 94.
- ^ "Franco-Soviet Mutual Aid Treaty" Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 114.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 115.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 118.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 159.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 122.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 124.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 125.
- ^ a b c Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 128.
- ^ German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty (Britanica International Encyclopedia)
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 129.
- ^ a b Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 129-130.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 133.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 131.
- ^ Hideaki Kimura 1996, pp. 141.
- ^ "Standard World History Chronology" Yoshikawa Kobunkan
- ^ "Relief of the Japanese People Retreating from Siberia in 1923",2008.Yamaguchi Prefectural University Library.It is said that the "rescue" does not recognize the liability of the Japanese government that caused the Russo-Japanese War.
- ^ Twenty-four Chinese Communist Party arrests centered on Fushun, a major conspiracy to riot major cities in Manchuria Keijo Nippou March 1931, 3
- ^ "JACAR (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records) Ref.B04013014300, Communist Party-related miscellaneous matters / China Department / Attachments Volume 4 (I-5-2-011-XNUMX) (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Diplomatic Archives)" XNUMX.Fushun Ni-Kel Chinese Communist Campaigner Arrested Niseki Suru Case Division XNUMX
- ^ Cotton that contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union August 2017, 8 Beyond Russia
- ^ "Financial Perestroika in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe" Toyo Keizai Inc. 1990 p.42.
- ^ Forest 1983, pp. 176-186.
- ^ Saito 2013, p. 1.
- ^ Forest 1991, p. 256.
- ^ Forest 1983, p. 194.
- ^ Forest 1983, pp. 189-194.
- ^ Forest 2004, pp. 104-105.
- ^ Saito 2003, pp. 1-2.
- ^ "THE WORLD FACTBOOK 1990 ELECTRONIC VERSION" (English). US Central Intelligence Agency (1990). 2010/9/5Browse.
- ^ "The rise and fall of the US and the Soviet Union 1947-1991”(Japanese). 2010/9/5Browse.
- ^ Yasuyuki Takahashi"Russian Orthodox Church under Persecution 70 Years of Orthodox Church in an Atheistic State", p. 83, Kyobunkwan, 1996 ISBN 4764263254
- ^ Ibid., "Russian Orthodox Church under Persecution 70 Years of Orthodox Church in an Atheistic State," p. 125
- ^ Ibid., "Russian Orthodox Church under Persecution 70 Years of Orthodox Church in an Atheistic State," p. 126
- "History of the Soviet Union" Yamakawa Shuppansha, 1996.ISBN 463464200X.
- "(PDF) , Working paper series 13, 2013,2020/7/4Browse.
- Kumiko Saito "(PDF) "The 24th Northeast Asian Society National Convention Proceedings", Ritsumeikan University, September 2018, pp. 9-1,2020/7/4Browse.
- "(PDF) Bulletin of Institute of Social Sciences, Meiji University, Vol. 29, No. 2, Meiji University, 1991, pp. 25-267,2020/8/8Browse.
- Akira Mori "(PDF) Bulletin of Institute of Social Sciences, Meiji University, Vol. 2, No. 60, Meiji University, 2004, pp. 103-116,2020/8/8Browse.
- List of articles related to the Soviet Union
- Collective Security Treaty
- Eurasian Economic Union
- Soviet empire