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🌏 | Increased seats in the House of Representatives in Texas and Florida, US census in favor of Republicans


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More seats in the House of Representatives in Texas and Florida, US census in favor of Republicans

 
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Meanwhile, the states of New York, California, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia will each lose one seat.
 

[Reuters] – Texas, Florida, North Carolina, based on new census population data ... → Continue reading

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West Virginia

West Virginia
State of West Virginia
West Virginia FlagWest Virginia Mark
()(State emblem)
State nickname: Mountain state
Mountain State
West Virginia Location
State capitalCharleston
Largest cityCharleston
Governor
Official terminologyEnglish
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
41th in the US
62,755 km²
62,361 km²
394 km² (0.6%)
population(2010)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
38th in the US
1,852,994People
29.8 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

35th
1863May 6
Time zoneUTC -5
STD -4
latitudeNorth latitude 37°12'-40°39'
longitudeWest longitude 77°43'-82°39'
East-west width210 km
North-south length385 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

1,482 m
460 m
73 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-WV
WebsiteWest Virginia Government
SenatorJoe Manchin
シェリー・ムーア・キャピト

West Virginia(British: State of West Virginia [ˌwɛst vhusbandˈdʒɪnjə] ( Audio file),Abbreviation: WV[1][2], W. Va.[1][2]) IsThe United States of AmericaEasternStateIs[2][3].Appalachian MountainsLocated inside[4][5][6][7], Mountain state[8]Known by the nickname.Among the 50 states of the United States, it ranks 41st in land area and 38th in population.SoutheastVirginia, SouthwestKentucky, NorthwestOhio, NorthPennsylvania, NortheastMarylandIs in contact with.

OriginallyVirginiaWas part ofCivil WarVirginiaConfederacyWhen it belonged to, the Western opposition to slavery separated and became an independent state.It joined the United States as a state on June 1863, 6, and became an important border state during the war.

State capitalAnd maximumcity TheCharleston.Mason-Dickson lineBecause it is further southUnited States Census BureauIs West VirginiaSouthernIt is treated as one of the states belonging to.The northern pan handle is close to Pennsylvania and Ohio, within the stateWheeling city,Weirton City ThePittsburghIt is located across the metropolitan area and the state border.on the other handBluefield city TheNorth carolinaNot less than 70 miles (110 km) from.Southwestern United StatesHuntington CityClose to Ohio and Kentucky, in the eastern pan handleMartinsburg City,Harpers Ferry Town TheWashingtonIt is considered to be in a metropolitan area, with Maryland and Virginia in between.Due to its geographically distinctive location, the Mid-Atlantic,Upland South,SoutheastIt is often included in some areas.Normally"AppalachiaIs the only state whose entire region is included in the area under the jurisdiction of the Appalachia Regional Committee.[9].

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (West Virginia) 2010[10]
English
 â€‰
97.67%
Spanish
 â€‰
1.07%
Racial composition (West Virginia) 2010
White
 â€‰
93.2%
Black
 â€‰
3.4%
Hispanic
 â€‰
1.2%
Asian
 â€‰
0.7%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
 â€‰
0.2%
Mixed
 â€‰
1.5%

History

Artificial mounds built with prehistoric mound construction culture remain, especially in areas of the state where the towns of Moundsville, South Charleston, and Romney are located.The artifacts that emerged from it indicate that there was a village society.ColdThe copper was processed in the tribe and traded between the tribes.

Beaver WarsAfter,IroquoisIndians expelled other tribes and kept the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground.The tribes that occupied this area before the Iroquois include the Osage tribe.SiouxIndians and flow west to avoid warMississippi RiverBeyond.

The region, now West Virginia, has become a territorial battleground among European Americans.American Revolutionary WarPrior to, Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed sovereignty.Bandaria company[11]Later, some speculative land companies, such as Ohio and Indiana, tried to justify their rights to land in West Virginia and Kentucky, but failed.The settlement of the Pennsylvania-Virginia border dispute led to the creation of Kentucky, which is said to be "satisfied ... many West Virginias were grateful."[12].

West Virginia was originally a British territoryVirginia ColonyIt was part of (1607-1776) and was in the western part of Virginia (1776-1863).Local residents, who had long felt that there was a shortage of representatives in the Virginia General Assembly as a result of the disproportionate distribution of MPs, were largely divided when discussing their withdrawal from the United States. In 1861, the western and northern counties created another government under Francis Harrison Pierpont, calling it the "reconstructed" government.Many of the inhabitants agreed with the separation from Virginia, and the new state was admitted to the United States in 1863. In 1864, the Constitutional Council drafted a state constitution, ratified by Congress without a referendum.West VirginiaSlaveryWas abolished, and the right to vote was tentatively stripped from those who served as officials of the Confederate States of America or who fought for the country.

The history of West Virginia has been heavily influenced by its mountainous terrain, vast river valleys and abundant natural resources.All of these are factors that have promoted the economy and influenced the lifestyles of its inhabitants and are still ongoing.

Prehistoric

Locally produced in 2010stalagmiteAnalysis revealed that the Indians had already burned the forest to cut the land in 100 BC.The late Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing and began shifting cultivation.Other tribes have advanced to fields that produce time-consuming companion crops.What lasted from ancient times to modern times was to devote land and time to tobacco cultivation.

Initially, corn was not an important food.However, the Indian villages began to rely heavily on corn to grow their turkeys, and the Kanner Fort Ancients were poultry farming.Since the early days, he has been making corn bread and flat rye bread called "banic". Before the early 18th century, it was sometimes called "fireside hut culture".Potomac River,James riverThe trading hubs along the area were widespread.

Dr. Robert F. Maslowski said, "Adena IndianUsed pipes for ceremonies.It was cut out from a stone and was an exceptional piece of art.Eating pipes and tobacco became commonplace in late prehistoric times.Sometimes made of clay, it became flat. "In the Car ValleyPareo indianNothing is known about or ancient homes, but archaeologists have found evidence of Woodland and Fort Ancient homes. "Woodland IndiansWigwamLived in (tent hut) ... Woodland Indians raised sunflowers, melons, pumpkins, rum quarters, maygrass, sumpweeds,Smartweed, Collected small barley seeds. "Fort Ancient Indians lived in larger square or rectangular houses ...Fort ancient periodThe Indians are believed to have been true farmers.Large farmland was cultivated around the village.He did not grow so many species, but concentrated on growing corn, soybeans, sunflowers, melons and many other pumpkins.I raised a poultry turkey and kept a dog as a pet. " As of 2009, more than 12,500 archaeological sites have been recorded in the state.[13].

European exploration and settlement

In 1671, under the direction of Colony of Virginia Governor William Berkeley, General Abraham Wood sent a unit from Fort Henry under the command of Thomas Butts and Robert Falham to discover Kanner Falls. In 1716, Vice Governor Alexander Spotswood was present with about 30 cavalrymen.Pendleton CountyI went on an expedition to the area.Indian trader John Van Meeter entered the northern region in 1725.That same year, from PennsylvaniaGermanThe pioneers founded the current Shepherdstown, New Meklenberg, along the Potomac River, followed by others.

1661, King of EnglandCharles IHowever, the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, called the Northern Neck, was sold to a group of gentlemen.This land is the 6th generationLord Fairfax(English edition)In 1746, a stone monument was erected at the source of the northern tributary of the Potomac River to mark the western end of the land.A significant portion of this land, from 1748 to 1751George WashingtonSurveyed.According to the diary, there were already many illegal occupants along the southern tributary of the Potomac River, most of them immigrants from Germany.Surveyor Christopher Gist, hired by an Ohio company consisting primarily of Virginians, was from 1751 to 1752, north of the mouth of the Canner River.Ohio riverI explored along the road.The company was trying to build a 14th colony under the name "Bandaria". Many pioneers crossed the mountain after 1750, but faced Indian resistance.Few Indians lived in what is now West Virginia, but it was a shared hunting ground and many roads crossed.French indian warAt that time, most of the British settlements that had been spread out were destroyed.

1774, 4th Governor of VirginiaEarl of DunmoreJohn MurrayHowever, he led the army over the mountains, and the unit of Colonel Andrew Lewis at that time was of Hocolesqua (also known as Cornes Talk).ShawneeDealing with Indians, with the Kanner RiverOhio riverIt was a devastating blow in the Battle of Point Pleasant at the point where they met.Attacks from the Indians continued after the American Revolutionary War.The pioneers of western Virginia during the Revolutionary War were mostly active Whigs, many of whom were supporters of independence.Continental ArmyI served in the army.However, in the Claypool rebellion between 1780 and 1781, a group of people refused to pay taxes on the colony, indicating that the area had been exhausted by the war.

Virginia over Alleghany

The social situation in western Virginia was quite different from that in eastern.Residents are not homogeneous, and a significant portion of immigrants from Pennsylvania are German,ProtestantHe was a Scottish-Irish man and a pioneer who emigrated from the northern states.The eastern and southern parts of Virginia were mostly eastern Virginia.During the American Revolutionary War, the move to create a new state beyond the Alliganey Mountains revived, and a petition for the establishment of "West Sylvenia" was made.United States CongressWas submitted to.The rationale was that it was an obstacle for those in the east to pass through the mountains.In mountainous terrain, slaves were also unprofitable, and over time only social, political, economic and cultural differences grew.

In 1829, at a meeting gathered to formulate a new constitution in Virginia, there was opposition from counties across mountains, but demanded qualifications for voting rights, and slave-owning counties had a slave population of five. He was given the benefit of adding three-thirds to the population to determine the number of members of the United States House of Representatives.As a result, all but one county crossed the mountains voted to reject the constitution, but the new constitution was enacted with the support of the eastern counties.

The Virginia Constitutional Council, the so-called Reform Council, held between 1850 and 1851 raised many important issues for the western part of the state.Voting rights have been extended to all white men over the age of 21.County officials such as the governor, vice-governor, judge, and sheriff will be elected by referendum.The composition of the state legislature was also changed, with seats allocated to the white population based on the 1850 census, and the number of senators fixed at 20 in the west and 30 in the east.The state legislature also approved Western residents, as there was a provision in 1865 to reassign the number of deputies to the white population and otherwise be subject to a referendum.However, there was also an advantage for the eastern part that property taxes excluding slaves were taxed at cost. Slaves under the age of 12 were tax exempt, and those over the age of 12 were taxed at a flat rate of only US $ 300, a fraction of their value.However, small farmers were taxed on their assets, livestock and land by their asset value.In addition to this tax system, the new constitution was passed with 75,748 votes in favor and 11,063 votes against, although it had not been improved in the west.Most of the negative votes came from eastern counties who didn't like to compromise on the west.[14].

Many in the west recognized the difference from the east and long awaited another state.Especially a lawyer from FairmontFrancis H. PierpontPeople like the coastPiedmont PlateauI was frustrated by the situation where the slave owners ruled politics.In addition to the different ways of thinking about slavery, the Virginia government felt that it was ignoring and refusing to fund the western improvements, such as roads and railroads.[15].

Separation from Virginia

West Virginia,Civil WarinsideUnited States of AmericaBecame the only state separated from the state of Virginia (Virginia)[17].. July 1861, 4,RichmondAt a conference on Virginia's withdrawal from the United States, 49 of the 17 members from what would later become West Virginia were in favor of the withdrawal ordinance, and 30 were against it.[18], Two abstained[19]..Almost shortly after the Virginia General Assembly decided to move away from the United States, a mass rally in Clarksburg was scheduled for May 1861, 5.WheelingIt was recommended that each county in northwestern Virginia be represented at the conference in.When the first Wheeling Conference was held, 25 delegates from 425 counties attended.However, more than one-third of the members of the Diet are from the Northern Pan Handle Department.[20], There was a division in thinking.

Some deputies want to establish a new state immediately, while others argue that Virginia's withdrawal has not yet passed a referendum and that such action would be a rebellion against the United States. Was there[21]..If the withdrawal ordinance was adopted (there was little doubt that it would be adopted at this point), it was decided to hold a new meeting in Wheeling in June, including elected members. Withdrawals were ratified by the overwhelming majority in a referendum on May 6, 1861, with 5 votes against and 23 votes in favor of the western counties.[22].

The second Wheeling meeting was held on the promised June 6th, and the withdrawal meeting was convened without the consent of the residents, so all actions were invalid and those who adhered to it left their positions. Declared that it must be done.The Wheeling Council and the deputies themselves were not elected by referendum to act for western Virginia.[23].. A plan to reorganize the government was passed on June 6.The next day, Francis H. Pierpont was elected Governor of Virginia by mutual election of deputies, and the meeting was closed with the election of other officials.Parliament has 19 deputies, 103 of whom were elected to the Virginia General Assembly on May 33.[24].

Some of the deputies have been members of the State Senate since 1859.I had resigned from that position to attend Wheeling.Other deputies were elected in various ways.Some were elected by the mass rally, some by the County Commission, and some by self-recommendation.[25]..This ragged parliament was held on June 6, electing federal maintenanceists to the remaining state positions, organizing opposing state governments, and electing two United States Senators to swiftly.Washington DCRecognized by the federal government.At this point Virginia had two state governments, one was a new government loyal to the United States and one was.United States of AmericaWas the state government.

The Wheeling Conference, which was adjourned until August 8, was reconvened on August 6, and decided to submit a referendum to establish a new state and to convene a constitutional conference if the result was in favor. It was. A referendum was held on October 8, 20, with 1861 votes in favor and only 10 votes against.The credibility of this vote has been questioned.Already at that timeUnion ArmyWas occupying the area, and the Union Army was waiting at the polling place to prevent Confederate sympathizers from voting.[26]..Most of the votes were voted in 16 counties around the northern Panhandle section.[27].. More than 5 votes were cast when asking the withdrawal ordinance, with only more than 19,000 votes for the establishment of the state.

Where Wheeling is locatedOhio countySo only about a quarter of the voters voted[28].. At the Constitutional Convention held in November 1861, Ram and Carskadon of Ohio CountyHampshire CountyHe said that only 195 of the 30 votes cast were illegally cast by the state people and the rest by North Army soldiers.[29]..In most of what was supposed to be West Virginia, there were no votes, two-thirds of the territory was in favor of withdrawal, and county officials remained loyal to the Confederate States of America.[30]..The votes of the counties in favor of withdrawal were cast elsewhere by federal supporters fleeing these counties.[31]。憲法制定会議は11月26日に始まり、1862年2月18日に作業を終え、1862年4月11日の住民投票で、賛成18,162票、反対514票で批准された。

On May 1862, 5, the reorganized parliament approved the formation of a new state.An application to join the United States was submitted to Parliament, and on December 13, the same year, a constitutional law to join West Virginia was enacted.Abraham LincolnApproved by the president.However, it was stipulated that the Constitution should include a clause to phase out slavery.Many thought it was illegal and unconstitutional for West Virginia to join as a state, but Lincoln issued a "Statement of Opinion on West Virginia Membership" and "a regime that agrees to join West Virginia. Is a Virginia parliament, "and therefore its accession was constitutional and appropriate.[32].

The meeting was reconvened on February 1863, 2, and the request from the United States Government was agreed.The revised constitution was adopted on March 12, and on April 3, President Lincoln issued a declaration granting state accession 26 days later (June 4, 20).Meanwhile, a new state official was elected, and Governor Pierpont moved the state capital to Alexandria, which is occupied by the Union Army, ensuring that the jurisdiction of all Union counties was inside the Union front.

Constitutionality issues regarding the establishment of a new stateUnited States Supreme CourtWas disputed in.Berkeley CountyとJefferson CountyIs located along the Potomac River, east of the mountains, and in 1863, with the consent of the reorganized Virginia government, annexation to West Virginia was decided.Many voters in the county with strong withdrawalsConfederateHe was absent when he was in and voted, and did not try to approve the transition when he returned.The Virginia General Assembly abolished the withdrawal resolution, and in 1866 declared to West Virginia that the counties that declared West Virginia's state membership unconstitutional were part of Virginia. Filed a lawsuit seeking.Meanwhile, on March 1866, 3, Congress passed a joint resolution recognizing the transition.The Supreme Court ruled in West Virginia's favor in 10[33].

Civil WarDuring that time, West Virginia was not significantly affected.Union armyGeorge McClellanThe general's army dominated most of the territory in the summer of 1861, when the Battle of Rich Mountain peaked, and that same year the ConfederatesRobert E. LeeAttempted to invade, but Union rule was not significantly shaken. In 1863, 5,000 units of Confederate General John D. Imboden invaded a significant area of ​​the state.In one district, guerrilla forces burned and plundered houses.They were not completely subdued until the end of the war.The eastern pan handle section was affected by the war.Control of the area has changed many times.

From the region that became West Virginia, it actually contributed about the same number of soldiers from 22,000 to 25,000 to both the North and South forces.[34]..The Wheeling government realized that in 1865 it was necessary to deprive those returning from the South of their right to vote in order to protect their control.James Ferguson, who proposed the law, said he would lose by 500 votes if it weren't legislated.[35]..The assets of Confederate supporters were also seized, and in 1866 a constitutional amendment was adopted to deprive all those who provided support and convenience to the Confederates.United States ConstitutionToAmended Article 14とArticle 15Was added and needed to be fixed. In 1870Democratic PartyRegained control, and in 1871 the 1866 constitutional amendment was invalidated.The first step to this change isRepublican PartyWent in 1870. In 1872, a whole new constitution was adopted.

ReconstructionIn the era and in the decades that followed, Virginia and West Virginia argued over how to split the debt owed by the Virginia government before the Civil War.Most of the debt was related to the improvement of public infrastructure such as canals, roads and railroads under the Virginia Public Works Department.Formerly a Confederate generalWilliam mahoneFormed a political alliance called the Reorganization Party.West Virginia's first constitution decided to take over part of Virginia's debt, but negotiations began with Virginia in 1870, and in 1871 Virginia took over two-thirds of the debt and the rest. It has been uniformly assigned to West Virginia.The issue was finally settled in 3, and the United States Supreme Court ordered West Virginia to pay US $ 2.It was in 1915 that the debt was paid off.

Development of natural resources

West Virginia, which became the 35th state after the Reconstruction era, benefited more from the development of its mineral resources than any other economic activity.

Appalachian MountainsIn the whole area ofPotassium nitrateThere is a cave where you can get rid of it, and it was developed for ammunition.There is a "nitre trail" on the border with Virginia,Calcium nitrateThe limestone caves are lined with abundant reserves, and the products were purchased by the government.This trail isPendleton CountyFrom westMonroe CountyIt extended to the town of Union.Nearly half of these caves, including Organ Cave and Haynes Cave, were on the West Virginia side. In the late 18th century, saltpeter miners in the Haynes Cave found bones of large animals in their deposits.These are by local historians and frontier soldiers John StewartThomas JeffersonWas sent to.This bone was named "Megalonix Jeffersony" or "Big Claw" and became known as Jefferson's three-finger sloth. In 3, it was designated as an official fossil of West Virginia.State official stoneBituminous coalIs[36]The official gemstone is the Silica Mississippian fossil Lithostrotionella coral[37].

LimestoneHas also created a profitable quarrying industry.Industrially used by burning veins that are usually small and soft and high in calciumlimeProduced.This lime has been used for agriculture and construction for many yearsChesapeake and Ohio RailroadCertain parts of the limestone were transported to Clifton Forge, Virginia as an industrial flux.

rock saltHas been mined since the 18th century, but by the time of the Civil War, it received a lot of attention.Kanawha CountyRed salt became a valuable resource for the Confederates at first and later for the Union Army.Later, more advanced mining methods were introduced, making West Virginia a major source of salt.

But in the late 19th century, it was not yet developedBituminous coalA valuable resource was found.This is domesticIndustrial revolutionAccelerate and navy around the worldSteam shipWas used for.

Residents (both Indians and early European pioneers) are undergroundcoalI knew that there was, and I knew that it could be used for heating and fuel.But for a long time, only very small "personal" mines were dug.After the Civil War, new railroads became a practical means of transporting large amounts of coal, used in the expanding United States, and even exported.New JerseyIn the northwest and pennsylvaniaAnthraciteAround this time, it began to run out, so investors and business owners turned their attention to West Virginia.Geologists such as Dr. David T. Unstead explored the potential of coalfields and invested in land and initial mining projects.

In 1872, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad opened through the state to the new city of Huntington along the Ohio River.New riverIt is now possible to ship from coal fields.Soon the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway willHampton RoseLarge harborNewport NewsHugeCoal pierWas built. 1881, Southern VirginiaNorfolkThe new owner of the former Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad, which stretches toPhiladelphiaHas a large land in West Virginia and has a clear focus on that state.This railroadNorfolk and Western RailwayRenamed to accommodate planned expansionsRoanokeA new railway town called was developed.The new president, Frederick J. Kimball, and a small group traveled on horseback, first seeing the rich bituminous coal vein, and then Kimball's wife named it "Pocahontas."The Norfolk and Western Railway has changed to a westward plan to reach it.Soon Norfolk and Western Railways began shipping from the new coal pier at Hampton Roads.

In 1889, along the Norfolk and Western Railway in the southern part of the state, Bluefield, an important coal center, was established.The town was the capital of the Pocahontas coalfield and the largest city in the southern part of the state for decades.It is a sister city of Bluefield of the same name in Virginia.

Old in the northern part of the state and elsewhereBaltimore and Ohio RailroadEtc. have expanded the railroad to take advantage of coal opportunities.Baltimore and Ohio RailroadBaltimoreBuild a coal pier in the cityGreat LakesI also built several places.As another company that carried coal,Western Maryland Railway,Southern Railway, There was the Louisville and Nashville Railroad.

Of particular note was the late arrivalVirginian Railwaywas. By 1900, only the mountainous and vast areas of the southern part of the state were far from existing railroads and mining.In this areaRaleigh CountyとWyoming CountyTo the west of the New River coalfield in, there is the Winding Gulf coalfield, which later developed as the "Billion Dollar Coalfield".

To Dr. Unstead's discipleFayette CountyThere was a civil engineer and mine director William Nelson Page (1854-1932).Former West Virginia Governor William McCorkle described Page as a man who knew the land "as a farmer knew the fields."Since 1898, Page has teamed up with investors based in the north and Europe to take advantage of undeveloped areas.Acquired vast land in the area and began planning a short-line Deep Water Railroad.It was about 80 miles (130 km) between the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway along the Kanner River and the Norfolk and Western Railway Mataka.

The Deepwater Railroad plan could provide a competitive transportation market through the two major railroad companies, but the owners of the two companies did not welcome the plan.Not only did the two companies work secretly to refuse to negotiate attractive usage fees with Page, but they also had many other short lines, so there was no offer to buy from Page.But if the presidents of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad and Norfolk and Western Railroad thought it could destroy Page's plans, that was a mistake.One of Page's silent business owners is a millionaire industrial ownerHenry Huttleston RogersAndJohn D. Rockefeller OfStandard oil・ He was a major figure in the trust and a strong man in the development of natural resources and transportation means.As an expert in the rivalry of "war," Rogers didn't want to lose in the act, and even had a backlash.

Instead of giving up, Page and Rogers used Rogers' personal assets to cover US $ 4,000 million and secretly planned and built a railroad track to eastern Virginia.The line, dubbed the Virginian Railway, was completed in 1909, when less than three railroads were used to export the ever-increasing amount of coal from Hampton Roads.West Virginia coal was in great demand from the ports of the Great Lakes.Virginian Railway and Norfolk and Western Railway are finally presentNorfolk southern railwayThe well-designed line of Virginian Railways continues to have a positive effect on Hampton Roads.

Coal mining and related industries were the major employers in the state, so there was considerable labor dispute over working conditions, safety issues, economic speculation and more. Even in the 21st century, safety issues and environmental issues have become of great concern.Still, West Virginia coal is used to generate electricity in many other states.

Coal is not the only mineral resource in the state, and in 1928 a 34.48 carat (6,896 g) diamond called Jones Diamond was discovered.

Geography

West Virginia, located in the Appalachian Mountains, has a total area of ​​24,229.76 square miles (62,754.8 km).2), Of which land is 24,077.73 square miles (62,361.0 km)2), Water area is 152.03 square miles (393.8 km)2), And is the 50st place among the 41 states in terms of area.[38]..West Virginia is in the northPennsylvaniaIn the north and westOhio, In the westKentuckyIn the north and eastMaryland, In the east and southVirginiaIs adjacent to.Ohio riveras well as the Potomac RiverHowever, it forms part of the state border.The longest border with Virginia is 381 miles (610 km), Ohio is 243 miles (389 km), Maryland is 174 miles (278 km), Pennsylvania is 118 miles (189 km), and Kentucky. Is 79 miles (126 km)[39].

Geology and topography

West Virginia is the only state in the United States located within the Appalachian Mountains, and all regionsMountainBecause it is insideThe Mountain StateとNicknameIs attached.AlsomottoIs Latin for "Montani Semper Liberi" (mountain people are always free).About 75% of the state territoryCumberland Plateauand Allegheny Plateau It is in.The plateau area is not high in altitude, but most of it is a rugged area.The average altitude is about 1,500 feet (460 m)Mississippi RiverHighest in the east.Ohio RiverShenandoah RiverThe altitude is low near the area, and the undulations are also small.

Monongahera National Forest Park on the eastern border with Virginia (Monongahela National Forest) The mountains in the areaNew EnglandNorthern andカナダCold similar to the eastern partclimateAndEcosystemIt is an isolated area with.The highest point in West Virginia is Spruce Knob (Spruce Knob) At the summit of 1,482 m (4,863 ft)[40]Over 4,000 feet (1,200 m) above sea level, densely populatedSpruce(Spruce)Coniferous forestIt is covered with.Spruce Nobu is located in the Monongahera National Forest Park and is part of the Spruce Nobu Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area.[41]..In addition, there are a total of 6 in this forest area.Wilderness areaThere is.The New River Gorge, outside the southern forest,New riverIt is a deep canyon of 304 m (1,000 ft) eroded by.The New River Gorge and part of the New River are part of the New River Gorge National River Park (New River Gorge National River) Is specified.New River Canyon National River ParkNational Park ServiceIt is one of only 15 national river parks managed by.

Other areas under protection and control, such as the National Park Service, include:

Most of West Virginia is in the Appalachian mixed vegetation ecosystem, but the areas along the eastern border and the high elevations of the Panhandle are in the Appalachian Blue Ridge Forest.The native vegetation of most of the state is originally a mixed hardwood forest of oak, chestnut, maple, beech and lacebark, with eels and plane trees growing along the waterways.It is preferred by locals because of its ecological diversity and scenic beauty, and is called "Almost Heaven".This word isJohn denverHit song "I want to go back to my hometown("Take Me Home, Country Roads").Before this song came out, it was called "Cog State" (an acronym for COG, coal, oil, gas) or "Mountain State".

The stratum is composed of sandstone, shale, bituminous coal deposits, and limestone, and the sediments flowing from the mountains in the east and the shallow inland sea in the west create an environment close to the coast.Some of the formations are like coastal wetland environments, river deltas, and shallow waters.During the Mississippi and Pennsylvania periods, sea level repeatedly rose and fell, resulting in a changing stratum.The Appalachian Mountains were formed over 3 million years ago and are considered to be the oldest on earth.[42].

climate

The climate of West Virginia is low in the southwest (Huntington and Charleston) and in the eastern Panhandle on the eastern Appalachian Mountains.Warm and humid climate(Köppen climate classificationcFA), There are hot and humid summers and warm winters.Other parts of the stateWet continental climate(Köppen climate classificationDfa, High altitude areasdfb), There are warm to hot and humid summers and cool to cold winters.As the altitude rises, the climate becomes harsh.The southern plateau region also has a mild mountainous climate (Köppen climate classification)Cfb), The winter temperature is warm and the summer temperature is somewhat cool.But the weather is volatile throughout the state.The cold hardiness category ranges from 5b in the Central Appalachian Mountains to 7a in the warm lowlands.[43]..In the eastern pan handle and the Ohio River valley, it is warm enough to see subtropical plants such as magnolias, crape myrtle, albizia julibricin, and sweet gum, and sometimes palms and tarpons.These plants do not grow anywhere else in the state.Prickly pear is found in many parts of the state.

Average January temperature is 1 near the Cheat River° F (-4 ° C), 41 along the border with Kentucky° F There is a range of (5 ℃). Average temperature in July is 7 along the northern tributary of the Potomac River° F From (19 ° C) to 76 in western states° F It is (24 ° C).It gets even cooler in the mountains[44]..Record highs recorded in Martysburg on July 1936, 7 10° F (44 ° C), record low temperature recorded in Lewisberg on December 1917, 12-30° F It is (-38 ° C).

Annual precipitation varies from 32 inches (810 mm) in the eastern low altitudes to 56 inches (1,400 mm) in the highlands of the Alligatory Front.Slightly more than half of the rainfall falls from April to September.Kanawha CountyMany valleys, especially the Tiger Valley, often have deep fog.It is also a cloudy state in the country, and the cities of Elkins and Beckley are ranked 210th and 9th in the country in terms of the number of cloudy days (10 days or more) per year, respectively.In addition to the continued cloudy days caused by the humidity dammed up in the Alligainy Mountains, the town of Snowshoe has nearly 200 rainy and snowy days a year, making it the most rainy area.Snowfall in the lowlands lasts for days at most, but in the mountains it can last for weeks.Charleston's annual snowfall is 34 inches (86 cm), but in the winter of 1995-1996, some cities set new records, more than three times the annual snowfall.The average snowfall on the Allegheny Plateau is up to 3 inches (180 cm) per year.Bad weather occurs somewhat less frequently than in eastern states.Rocky mountainsTo the east of Japan, it is the state with the lowest number of tornadoes.

Demographic

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
179055,873
—
180078,59240.7%
1810105,46934.2%
1820136,80829.7%
1830176,92429.3%
1840224,53726.9%
1850302,31334.6%
1860376,68824.6%
1870442,01417.3%
1880618,45739.9%
1890762,79423.3%
1900958,80025.7%
19101,221,11927.4%
19201,463,70119.9%
19301,729,20518.1%
19401,901,97410.0%
19502,005,5525.4%
19601,860,421−7.2%
19701,744,237−6.2%
19801,949,64411.8%
19901,793,477−8.0%
20001,808,3440.8%
20101,852,9942.5%
2012 (estimate)1,855,4130.1%
Source: 1910–2010[45]

West Virginia's population as of July 2012, 7 is estimated to be 1, an increase of 1,855,413% or 2010 from the 0.13 census.[46]..West VirginiaCenter of gravityIt is,Braxton County(Gassaway)It is in[47].. The 2012 Gallup Hathaway Happiness Index ranked West Virginia as the most miserable of the 50 states, ranking 50th in the country.[48].

According to the 2010 Census, the racial population composition of West Virginia is as follows:

Only 1.1% of West Virginia's inhabitants are foreign-born, the lowest of the 50 state statistics.The percentage of residents who speak languages ​​other than English at home is also the lowest at 2.7%.

The composition ratio by ancestors declared in West Virginia isBritish (35.2%),German descent (17.2%),Irish descent (8%), Scottish-Irish (5%),Italian descent It was (4.8%). In the 2000 census, 18.8% simply declared themselves "American."Many of these people are of Scottish-Irish or British descent[49]..Many who declare Irish descent are Scottish-Irish Protestants.Many of the German ancestors live in counties in the northeastern part of the state.British offspring are distributed throughout the state.

Of the West Virginia population, 5% are under 5.6 years old, 18% are under 22.3 years old, and 65% are over 15.3 years old.Women make up about 51.4% of the population.

In 2006, 20,928 people were born in the state.Of these, 19,157 (94.40% of births) were non-Hispanic white children.[50].

The Northern Panhandle and North Central regions have a sense of unity with the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.In the eastern Panhandle section, Washington DC, Maryland, and the suburbs of Virginia have strong ties, and the southern state considers itself a Southerner.Towns and farms in the midwestern Ohio basin on the western border have a look and culture similar to the Midwestern United States.[51].

West Virginia in particularobesityThe percentage of people is high,2016The US Health Trust and Private Foundation survey found that obesity to the population exceeded 37%, making it one of the top states in the United States.[52].

Religious

Religious composition ratio (ARIS 2008)
キ リ ス ト 教77%
Baptist27%
Catholic church 7%
Methodist13%
1%
Other Christianity29%
No answer5%
No religion15%
Other religions3%
Religious composition ratio (Pew Forum 2010)
36%
Catholic church 7%
Mainline Protestant32%
Judaism1%
Hinduism1%
No answer1%
No religion19%
Other religions3%

With the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS)[53]2010 Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life[54]The results of are shown in the table on the right.

Indian tribe

In this area, "Moneton", "Cherokee", "", "Delaware","Shawnee"," ","Mohawk, "", "", "", "", Etc.イ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribes were indigenous and lived in farming.The latter 6 are "Iroquois FederationWas formed, but "Lord Dunmore's War"After theGreat LakesHe moved to the east and triggered a battle with the Indian tribes in the northeast.

The treaty-based borders between the state's settlement government and Indian tribes expanded westward each year. The settlement territory, which was only a section of the coast under the 1646 Treaty, covered about half of the state under the 1684 Treaty of Albany after the Treaty of Albany in 1722.

The Iroquois Federation was the largest Indian force in the state, located on the south side of the Ohio River.The British-French dispute over the right to settle is the "Seven year warWhen France ceded territorial rights under the Paris Agreement in 1763, the King of EnglandGeorge VDeclared the land, including the entire eastern part, as "the territory of the British Empire" by the "Royal Declaration" and named the province "Vandalia Settlement".

The British settlement government defeated the Iroquois Federation in the Lord Dunmore's War (1773-1774) and made its territory east of the Ohio River, almost the entire state, in the 1774 Treaty of Fort Charlotte.The west side of the Ohio River was also robbed of the Cherokee in 1775.

1830 years,Andrew JacksonPresidentialEthnic cleansingThe policy "Indian immigration lawAll Indian tribes in the state were displaced to other states, and all Indians who refused to move and remained in the state were designated as "extinct tribes."The remaining Cherokees hated white settlers and fled to the mountains, forced to live in pits and were called "people of the caves" in the state.

Currently, there are no official US federal-approved Indian tribes in the state, and they are not supposed to exist on a tribal basis. In May 2001, they formed a non-profit organization, the Native American Indian Union, in Huntington.The group runs tribal and folk art classes and calls for the federal government to build a food distribution warehouse, a library, and a museum of Indian culture.

In West Virginia, huge prehistoric earthworks ruins built by "" and "" remain in various places.The "Creek Tomb" that remains in Moundsville is the largest earthwork site in the United States and was built around 250 BC.

≪Tribes / organizations requesting official certification from the US federal government≫

≪A group officially recognized by the West Virginia Government≫

  • "Indigenous American Indian Union (NAIF)"

Indian Casino

There are no Indian tribes in the state, and there are no "Indian Casinos" run by Indian tribes.Meanwhile, casinos have been legalized in Greenbrier County in 2008, and white-owned casinos are scheduled to open one after another.

Major cities and towns

State capital

The original state capitalWheelingIt was (1863-1870).Then near the center of the stateCharlestonWas moved to (1870-1875) and returned to Wheeling, but in 1885 the State Capitol was burned.He was returned to Charleston that year, and since then Charleston has been the state capital.

The number after the city name is the population of the 2010 census.

Large city (population 10,000 or more)

Towns and small cities

Metropolitan statistical area

MoreUnited States Metropolitan Statistical Area,List of West Virginia Metropolitan AreasSee

  • Charleston metropolitan area
  • Cumberland metropolitan area
  • Hagerstown Martysburg Metropolitan Area
  • Huntington-Ashland WV-KY-OH MSA
  • Morgantown metropolitan area
  • Parkersburg Marietta Vienna Metropolitan Area
  • Washington-Arlington-Alexandria Metropolitan Area
  • Weirton Stowe Benville Metropolitan Area
  • Wheeling metropolitan area
  • Winchester metropolitan area

Micropolitan Statistical Area

MoreUnited States Micropolitan Statistical Area,List of West Virginia Metropolitan AreasSee

  • Beckley metropolitan area
  • Bluefield metropolitan area
  • Clarksburg metropolitan area
  • Fairmont metropolitan area
  • Oak Hill metropolitan area
  • Point Pleasant metropolitan area

Politics and law

West Virginia's capital and seat of government is in the southwestern part of the stateCharleston.

Legislative office

West Virginia LegislatureBicameral systemIs.It consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate.Members of the Diet are part-time rather than full-time, so they are citizens' councils.As a result, lawmakers often have a main business in the town in which they live.

The normal session is 1 days from January to early April.At the end of the regular session, there will be a confusing passion for the last few minutes to meet the constitutional deadline of midnight.In other months, a special session is held every month to prepare for the regular session.When the governor convenes, he also meets regularly for a special session.

The title of Vice-Governor is given to the Senate Chair by state law.

Executive branch

GovernorIs elected every four years on the same day as the United States presidential election, and will take office in January of the following year.

The governor can serve for two consecutive terms, but must resign for the third term.

Judiciary

West Virginia is one of the 13 states without the death penalty and the only state in the southeast.

For general jurisdiction trials, the state is divided into 31 circuit courts.Each circuit court consists of one or more counties.The circuit court judge is elected in a partisan election and has a term of eight years.

The highest court is the Supreme Court of Appeals.It is the busiest court of appeal in the country.Having only one appeal court is one of the 1 states in the country.The state constitution allows the creation of an interim court of appeal, but Congress has never created one.The Supreme Court of Appeals has five judges, elected in partisan elections, and has a term of 11 years.

West VirginiaAlcoholic beverageIt is a controlled state.But unlike those other states, it withdrew from alcohol retailing in 1990.Distilled liquorOnly wholesale monopolizes.

election

In state-level politics,Democratic PartyIs predominant.This is a remnant of being a member of the Union Army during the Civil War.But since 2000Republican PartyIs gaining momentum in national elections.All three members of the United States House of Representatives from West Virginia are Republicans.

Since the 2000 United States presidential election, he has supported Republican candidates in each presidential election. Republican candidate in 2012 electionMitt RomneyWon 62%, Democratic candidateBarack ObamaDefeated (35%). Before 2000, it was a solid foundation for the Democratic Party. Between 1932 and 1996, the Republican candidates were all supported only three times in 1956, 1972, and 1984, when they all won big wins.

As of 2008EvangelicalismChristians make up 52% ​​of voters[55].. In a 2005 poll, 53% of votersOpposition to abortionThis was the 7th highest in the country[56].. As of 2006, only 16% agreed with same-sex marriage[57].. 2008,(I.e.58% agreed with the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Japan, and 32% wanted to remain.[58]..Also in 2008, 52% agreed and 45% disagreed with the theory that tax increases on the wealthy would moisten the economy.[59].

Economy

West Virginia,United States statesIt is one of the most economically vulnerable states.United States Census BureauAccording to data from West VirginiaArkansasas well as the MississippiNext to the state with the third lowest per capita income[60]..Also, the average household income is at the lowest level[61].

2009 yearsWorld BankEstimates show that West Virginia's economy is compared to countries around the world(I.e.とクロアチアIs located in 62nd place during[62].. In 2009International Monetary FundEstimates are Iraq(I.e.Was 64th among[63].. Reported in November 2010United States Department of Commerce Department of Economic AnalysisIn 2009, GDP was US $ 633 billion and real gross domestic product was US $ 4,000 billion. The real growth rate in 550 was 4,000%, ranking 2009th in Japan.[64].. Economic growth in 2009 made it one of 10 states[65].. Per capita income fell 2009% nationwide in 2.6, while West Virginia rose 1.8%.[66].. In the first half of 2010, West Virginia exports amounted to US $ 3 million, up 39.5% year-on-year, above the national average of 15.7%.[66].. 2010, magazineForbesNamed Morgantown as one of the 10 Best Small Cities to Do Business[67]..In MorgantownUS News & World ReportRanked 95th in public universitiesWest Virginia UniversityThere is[68]..West Virginia's four-year college graduate and above population ratio is 4%, the lowest in the United States[69]..The corporate tax rate is 8.5%, but it is planned to be reduced to 2014% by 6.5.The cost of the project is 13% less than the national average[70][71].

In 2008, West Virginia became the only state in the United States with a surplus budget.

West Virginia's unemployment rate was 2011% as of October 10[72].

tourism

West Virginia has an environment that reflects its mild terrain.Tourist destinations include the New River Gorge Bridge[73], Harpers Ferry National Historical Park and many other state parks. Built in 1778, the Greenbrier Hotel and Resort has long been regarded as a prestigious hotel visited by world leaders and the President of the United States.National Radio ObservatoryToGreen Bank TelescopeThere is.The largest hand-cut sandstone building in North America, even in the worldMoscow OfKremlin PalaceThe second largest building is in the state.Trans Alliganey Mental HospitalUnited States National Historic LandmarkAnd it's one of the National Civil War roads, and the tour is available for reservation throughout the year.

resource

One of the major resources of West Virginia's economycoalIs.West Virginia is in coal production, according to the Department of Energy Information ManagementWyomingIt is the second largest in Japan after.massiveNatural gasTo produceoilDrilling is also being attempted.It is the center of the Marcellus Sher natural gas deposit, which extends from Tennessee to New York in the center of the Appalachian Mountains.

Almost all of the electricity generated in the state comes from coal-fired power plants.Electricity is surplus and is interchangeable with other states[74]..Agriculture is also practiced, but the amount is limited due to the mountainous terrain of many states.

The deciduous broad-leaved forest grows throughout the state, so forestry is also thriving.Oak, cherry, poplar, maple, pine, etc. are used.

Wind-power generation

West VirginiaWind-power generationIs thriving.A generator with a height of 80 meters can generate a rated capacity of 1,883 MW and 4,953 MW per year, and a generator with a height of 100 meters can generate a rated capacity of 2,772 MW and 8,627 MW per year.Includes a rooftop solar panel capacity of 3,810 MW, solar power can generate a rated capacity of 40,000 MW and 6 MW[75].

Wind power generation (at GW)
Years能力
(MW)
Total123456789101112
2009330742868669713149493246716886
201043193992798586666949336611489112
20115641,0991021131121144962456560122124132
201220114713613059

Source:[76][77][78]

Tax

West Virginia's personal income tax is based on federal adjusted total income (not taxable income) modified by state law.The tax rate is in 3 levels from 6.5% to 5%.West Virginiaconsumption taxThe rate is 6%. From January 2004, 1, the calculated value is collected instead of the progressive taxation method.Most products are 1%, but food is 6%[79]..The calculation is performed by rounding off the third decimal place.This system exempts items under 3 cents from taxation.

West Virginia continues to manage and collect property taxes.However, property tax rates reflect those of state, county, school boards and municipalities.The county also imposes occupancy taxes on accommodations outside the municipality.Municipalities impose licenses and total sales tax on companies in the city area and occupancy tax on accommodations.The state's Department of Tax and Revenue plays a major role in managing this tax, but the state government's property tax is less than 0.5%.

The county board of education is the most common use of property tax.Property taxes are paid to sheriffs in 55 counties in the state.Each county and municipality can set its own property tax rate within the limits of the State Constitution.The state legislature sets the county board of education tax rate.This tax rate is used by all county boards of education in the state.However, the tax rate of the county board of education varies from county to county because there is an additional amount for each county.The State Department of Tax and Revenue oversees and assists counties and municipalities in assessing and determining tax rates.The total tax rate is the total tax rate imposed by the state, county, school board, and municipality.There are four categories of taxable objects, such as movables, real estate, and intangible assets, each with a different tax rate.Evaluated by its use, location, and value as of 4 July.All assets are reviewed every three years.If the asset value changes, it will be adjusted annually.West Virginiainheritance taxIs not imposed.The federal estate tax has also been gradually reduced, and the estate of those who died after January 2005, 1 is no longer taxed.

Large private employer

As of March 2011, the state's largest private employers are:[80]

RankingCompanyRankingCompany
1Walmart26Alliant Techsystems
2West Virginia United Health System27MTR Gaming Group
3Charleston Community Medical Center28K-mart
4Kroger29Teletech
5Console energy30Dollar General
6Mylan Pharmaceuticals31Thomas Health System
7Loews32BB&T
8St Mary's Medical Center33Little general
9American power34TRG Customer Solutions
10Mentor network35Go Mart
11Less care36Raleigh General Hospital
12Cabell Huntington Hospital37Elklan Coal Company
13Wheeling Hospital38GMRI, Inc.
14Pilgrims Pride39Spartan Mining Company
15Hollywood Casino at Charlestown Raices40Hobet mining
16DuPont41Employ Resource Group
17Monpower42Dominion transmission
18Rite Aid43Cracker Barrel Old Country Store
19West Virginia's Choice44JC Penny
20University Health Association45Heartland Employment Services
21Frontier West Virginia46United parcel service
22Bob Evans Farms47Toyota Motor Manufacturing West Virginia
23Camden Clark Memorial Hospital48Gino's /Tudor's Biscuit World
24The Greenbrier49Weirton Medical Center
25Monongaria General Hospital50Rio Tinto Alcan

Transportation

West Virginia's traffic is based on highways, with a total length of more than 37,300 miles (60,000 km) on public roads.[81]..Airports, railroads and rivers complement the state's transportation system.Commercial airports are located in Charleston, Huntington, Morgantown, Beckley, Lewisberg, Clarksburg and Parkersburg, but only Charleston and Huntington airports are not subsidized by the basic air transport program.Charleston, Huntington, Beckley, Wheeling, Morgantown, Clarksburg and Fairmont have bus-based systems as a means of public transportation, and Huntington and Charleston operate interconnect flights twice a day on weekdays. There is.

Located in MorgantownWest Virginia UniversityOperates a high-speed transportation system and is the only public rail transportation system in the state.This systemBoeing, West Virginia University Faculty of Engineering,United States Department of TransportationWas jointly developed by the company and became a model for small-volume transportation for small cities.Hiking trail[82], Rail trail[83], All terrain vehicle[84], River for rapids[85], Tourist railway 2 lines[86](Kas Landscape Railway and Potomac Eagle Landscape Railway[87]), There are plenty of recreational transportation routes.

6 in the stateInterstate highwayIs crossing.Interstate 64Enters the state near White Sulfur Springs in the eastern mountains and exits west to Kentucky near Huntington.Interstate 77 enters from Virginia, south, near Bluefield.Then head north past Parkersburg and into Ohio.Interstate 64 and 77 between Charleston and Beckley merge to form a toll road called the West Virginia Turnpike.There is only Route 77 from Beckley to Princeton. It was built as a two-lane road from 1952, but was rebuilt in 2 to meet interstate highway standards.Currently, there are no remaining parts that were originally constructed.The west end of Interstate 1974 is in Morgantown.From there, enter Maryland in the east.It intersects Interstate 68 at the western end of Morgantown. Route 79 enters from Pennsylvania, runs southwest and ends at Charleston.Interstate 79 enters the state only for a short section of the northern pan handle and exits wheeling.Interstate 70 is a wheeling bypass.Wheeling is the smallest city with an interstate highway bypass.Interstate 470 is also a short section of the eastern pan handle only, passing through Martinsburg.

Roads constructed with the Appalachian Corridor system complement the interstate highway system. Four corridors have been completed. Corridor D enters the state from the Ohio River as National Highway 4, connecting Interstate 50 at Parkersburg and Interstate 77 at Clarksburg. Corridor G is Route 79 from Charleston to Williamson's Kentucky border. The L Corridor connects Beckley's West Virginia Turnpike on Route 119 to Interstate 19 near Sutton.It's a shortened route of about 79 miles (40 km) and a detour to Charleston City when heading towards Florida. Q Corridor is Route 64, VirginiaGiles CountyEntering the state fromMercer CountyPassing through, again in VirginiaTazewell CountyGo out to.

Construction of the delayed H Corridor continues.This corridor is Route 48, from Weston to the Virginia border near Wardensville. As of 2013, it was completed between Weston and Elkins, and between Wardensville and near Shah.Other developments include the expansion of four lanes from Scott Depot on US Highways 35 to Point Pleasant on the Ohio River, nearly two-thirds complete.One-third of the four-lane expansion from Logan to Mann on West Virginia State Route 4 and from Mann to Gilbert on Route 3 has been completed.The four-lane expansion from Bluefield to Williamson on US Route 2 (called the King Coal Highway) and from Williamson to Huntington (called the Torsha Highway) has already been completed. A plan to call it the "Coalfield Expressway" is underway, taking US Route 10 west of Beckley through Raleigh, Wyoming, and McDowell counties into Virginia near Bishop.

Railroads were once widespread throughout the state, but many were discontinued due to increased car transport.Many roadbeds have been converted to rail trails for recreation.However, in coal-producing areas, railroads are used to their full capacity.AmtrakPassenger trainCardinalPasses through the state almost parallel to Interstate 64.Commuting marks are in operation at the eastern pan handle section. 2006,Norfolk southern railwayHas approved plans to improve tunnels, especially in the southern half of the state, with the Government of West Virginia and the United States.This allows cars to be stacked in two layers.This is expected to bring economic growth to the southern part of the state.South of Huntington, near Pritchard,Intermodal freightThe facility is under construction.

West Virginia is entirely mountainous, so some tunnels and bridges are prominent.The most famous is the New River Gorge Bridge, which was the longest steel single-span arch bridge in the world when it was completed with a span of 3,031 feet (924 m).The bridge is also used to design state quarter-dollar coins.When the Fort Steuben Bridge (Weirton Steubenville Bridge) was completed, it became one of the only three steel-lined girder truss bridges in the country.The Veterans Memorial Bridge over the Ohio River was built to ease the traffic load on the Fort Steuben Bridge.[88]..The Fort Steuben Bridge, 80 years after its construction, was closed on January 2009, 1. The Wheeling Suspension Bridge, built in 8, was the first bridge to cross the Ohio River and was the longest suspension bridge in the world for some time.It is still in use today and is the oldest suspension bridge in Japan for cars.

Education

Main article:en: Education in West Virginia

Colleges and universities

high school

Art and culture

Music

Appalachian music

West Virginia's folk heritage is part of traditional Appalachian folk music, with styles such as violin playing and ballad singing that follow the tradition of Scottish-Irish music.Fayette CountyCamp Washington, Carver, a mountain culture and arts center in Cliftop, hosts the Appalachian String Festival every year.[89]..Bandaria Gathering is held at the Capitol Complex in Charleston, where traditional Appalachian musicians compete in contests, perform with improvised jams, and perform weekend night concerts.[90].Randolph CountyThe Augusta Heritage Center, sponsored by Davis and Elkins College in Elkins, hosts the Augusta Heritage Festival each year and has a summer week of strengthening workshops to preserve Appalachia's heritage and traditions.[91].

Classical music

The Symphony Orchestra, founded as the "Charleston Symphony Orchestra" in 1939, became the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra after the "Charleston Symphony Orchestra" in 1943.The first conductor was William R. Wyant, followed by Antonio Modarelli.The 6 movements "River Saga", which is the composition of the song, is published in the magazine "River Saga".timeWas introduced in the November 1949, 11 issue of. According to the photo essay "Snapshots of the 7th Century" published in "Charleston Gazette" on November 1999, 11, the song was derived from the Kanner River.[92]..According to the orchestra's website, Modarelli was with the Wheeling Symphony before coming to Charleston.Philadelphia OrchestraWas in charge of[93].

Pulitzer PrizeAward-winning 20th century composerGeorge CrumWas born in Charleston, where he earned his degree before leaving the state. In the middle of the 20th century, there were a series of opera-style concerts in Wheeling.

Music innovation

West Virginia Cultural Center in Charleston[94], Headquartered in West Virginia's Department of Culture and History[95]..This organization supports and sponsors quite a few musical activities.The center also has a mountain stage. Established in 1983, it plays live music on the radio.National public radioIs carried out by many affiliated stations of[96]..The show has also been moved to other venues in the state, such as the West Virginia University Performing Arts Center in Morgantown.[97].

The center hosts concerts sponsored by Friends of Old Time Music and Dance, featuring a combination of acoustic music that has roots for the citizens of the state.[98]..It also hosts the West Virginia Dance Festival.It features classical and contemporary dance.[99].

Huntington's historic Keith Alby Theater was built by the brothers AB Heyman and SJ Heyman and was opened to the public on May 1928, 5, hosting a variety of performing arts and musical events.The theater was donated to Marshall University and is being renovated to regain its original glory.

Elkins holds the Augusta Heritage Festival every summer.This brings together folk musicians from all over the world[100]..The town of Glenville has traditionally held the West Virginia Folk Festival every year.[101].

A variety of musicals are performed at the Mountaineer Opera House in Milton.

John denversong of"I want to go back to my hometownTalks about his experience driving through West Virginia.

Symphony Sunday is an annual event organized by the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra in June.Music, meals and family entertainment from the town's groups will be presented, ending with a performance by the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra and a fireworks display. It started in 6 and is held on the lawn in front of Charleston University.

The Daily Mail Kanawha County Majorette and Band Festival is the state's longest-running music festival.Kanawha CountyIt is for eight public high schools in. Beginning in 8, it is being held at the College of Charleston Raidleyfield Stadium in downtown Charleston.

Professional sports team

OUR TEAMSportsleague
Bluefield Blue JaysbaseballAppalachian League
Princeton Devil RaysbaseballAppalachian League
West Virginia PowerbaseballSouth Atlantic League
Wheeling NailersIce hockeyECHL
West Virginia WildbasketballInternational Basketball League
West Virginia WildIndoor footballContinental Indoor Football League
Huntington HeroesIndoor footballAmerican Indoor Football League
Ohio Valley GrayhoundsIndoor footballUnited Indoor Football
Ceredo-Kenova CrashAmerican FootballUnited States Football Alliance
West Virginia Chaosサ ッ カ ーUSL Premier Development League

Other

Celebrities from the same state

State symbols, etc.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Progressive Japanese-English Chinese Dictionary (XNUMXrd Edition) Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  2. ^ a b c Encyclopedia mypedia Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  3. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  4. ^ Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers
  5. ^ Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Univ. Of North Carolina Press, 1990.
  6. ^ US census bureau
  7. ^ Thomas R. Ford and Rupert Bayless Vance, The Southern Appalachian Region, A Survey, Univ. Of Kentucky Press, 1962
  8. ^ British: The Mountain State
  9. ^ "Appalachian Region: Counties in Appalachia”. Appalachian Regional Commission. 2007th of February 11Browse.
  10. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association.
  11. ^ Charles H. Ambler, "A History of West Virginia" pg. 104
  12. ^ Charles H. Ambler. A History of West Virginia, pp. 132–138
  13. ^ The West Virginia Statewide, Historic Preservation Plan 2009-2014, West Virginia Division of Culture and History
  14. ^ Charles H. Amber, "A History of West Virginia", pgs. 276–79
  15. ^ Grady, John (July 2012, 7). “The Birth of a State”. New York Times. 2012th of February 7Browse.
  16. ^ "WVculture.org”. WVculture.org. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  17. ^ ""Chapter Twelve" Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation "”. Wvculture.org. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  18. ^ A detailed list of delegate names and votes are located in Virgil Lewis' How West Virginia Was Made, pg. 30, and also Charles Ambler's A History of West Virginia, 1933, pg. 309. Missing from both lists, however, are the delegates for McDowell County, William P. Cecil and Samuel L. Graham, who also represented Tazewell and Buchanan counties, which are still part of Virginia. Both Cecil and Graham voted in favor of the Ordinance. See Pendleton, William C. History of Tazewell County and Southwest Virginia, 1748–1920, Richmond, 1920, pgs. 600 and 603.
  19. ^ Those not voting were Thomas Maslin of Hardy County and Benjamin Wilson of Harrison County. Ambler, Charles H. A History of West Virginia, pg. 309, footnote 32.
  20. ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 193
  21. ^ The United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
  22. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 147
  23. ^ C. Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318
  24. ^ Virgil Lewis "How West Virginia Was Made" pgs. 79–80
  25. ^ Charles Ambler "The History of West Virginia", pg. 318
  26. ^ "West Virginia Statehood”. Wvculture.org. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  27. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pgs. 141–152
  28. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 149
  29. ^ J. McGregor "The Disruption of Virginia", pg. 270
  30. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided" map, pg. 49
  31. ^ Richard O. Curry "A House Divided", pg. 86
  32. ^ "Opinion of Abraham Lincoln on the Admission of West Virginia”. Wvculture.org. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  33. ^ , 78 US 39 (1870).
  34. ^ "Researching Your Civil War Ancestor”. Wvculture.org. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  35. ^ Charles Ambler "Disfranchisement in West Virginia", Yale Review, 1905, pg. 41
  36. ^ "West Virginia House Concurrent Resolution No. 37, signed into law June 2009”. State of West Virginia. 2010th of February 2Browse.
  37. ^ "State Facts”. State of West Virginia. 2009th of February 11Browse.
  38. ^ "Land and Water Area of ​​States, 2000”. Information Please (2000). 2010th of February 7Browse.
  39. ^ University of Minnesota State Border Data Set
  40. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States”. US Geological Survey (April 2005, 4). 2006th of February 11Browse.
  41. ^ "FS.fed.us”. FS.fed.us. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  42. ^ Peter J Coney (1970). "The Geotectonic Cycle and the New Global Tectonics". Geological Society of America Bulletin 81 (3): 739–748. Abstract: "Mountain complexes result from irregular successions of tectonic responses due to sea-floor spreading" , shifting lithosphere plates, transform faults, and colliding, coupled, and uncoupled continental margins. "
  43. ^ "West Virginia USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map”. Plantmaps.com. 2010th of February 11Browse.
  44. ^ "West Virginia University data”. West Virginia University Health Office. 2010th of February 7Browse.
  45. ^ Resident Population Data. “Resident Population Data - 2010 Census”. 2010.census.gov. 2012th of February 12Browse.
  46. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 (CSV) ”. 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (December 2012). 2012th of February 12Browse.
  47. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000”. United States Census Bureau. 2008th of February 12Browse.
  48. ^ "Wedst Virginia Well-Being”. Gallup-Hathaway. 2013th of February 6Browse.
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References

  •  In this articleThe United States of AmericaAt the innerCopyright disappearedIncluding the following encyclopedia text: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "West Virginia". Encyclopædia Britannica (English). 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. P. 560-564.
  • Charles H. Ambler, A History of Education in West Virginia From Early Colonial Times to 1949 (1951)
  • Charles H. Ambler and Festus P. Summers. West Virginia, the Mountain State (1958)
  • Jane S. Becker, Inventing Tradition: Appalachia and the Construction of an American Folk, 1930–1940 1998.
  • Richard A. Brisbin, et al. West Virginia Politics and Government (1996)
  • James Morton Callahan, History of West Virginia (1923) 3 vol
  • John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and His Homeland (1921) reissued 1969.
  • Richard Orr Curry, A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and Copperhead Movement in West Virginia (1964)
  • Donald Edward Davis. Where There Are Mountains: An Environmental History of the Southern Appalachians 2000.
  • Ronald D, Eller. Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880–1930 1982.
  • Carl E. Feather, Mountain People in a Flat Land: A Popular History of Appalachian Migration to Northeast Ohio, 1940–1965. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1998.
  • Thomas R. Ford ed. The Southern Appalachian Region: A Survey. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1967.
  • Horace Kephart, Our Southern Highlanders. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1922. Reprinted as Our Southern Highlanders: A Narrative of Adventure in the Southern Appalachians and a Study of Life among the Mountaineers. With an Introduction by George Ellison. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.
  • Gerald Milnes, Play of a Fiddle: Traditional Music, Dance, and Folklore in West Virginia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1999.
  • Otis K. Rice, The Allegheny Frontier: West Virginia Beginnings, 1730–1830 (1970)
  • Otis K. Rice and Stephen W. Brown, West Virginia: A History, 2d ed. (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1993), standard
  • Curtis Seltzer, Fire in the Hole: Miners and Managers in the American Coal Industry (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985), conflict in the coal industry to the 1980s.
  • Joe William Trotter Jr., Coal, Class, and Color: Blacks in Southern West Virginia, 1915–32 (1990)
  • John Alexander Williams, West Virginia: A History for Beginners. 2nd ed. Charleston, W.Va .: Appalachian Editions, 1997.
  • John Alexander Williams. West Virginia: A Bicentennial History (1976)
  • John Alexander Williams. West Virginia and the Captains of Industry 1976.
  • John Alexander Williams. Appalachia: A History (2002)

Primary sources

  • Elizabeth Cometti, and Festus P. Summers. The Thirty-fifth State: A Documentary History of West Virginia. Morgantown: West Virginia University Library, 1966.

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Coordinate: 39°00'N 80 degrees 30 minutes west longitude /39 N, 80.5 W / 39; -80.5


 

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