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🌏 | US CB Consumer Confidence, April High Level for the First Time in 4 Months Employment Increases Significantly


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U.S. CB consumer confidence rises sharply in April, high level for the first time in 4 months

 
If you write the contents roughly
The indicator is closely linked to the unemployment rate in US employment statistics, and the number of employees is expected to continue to increase significantly in April.
 

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] -April US consumers announced by the Conference Board (CB) on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

unemployment

unemployment(Shitsugyou,British: unemployment) IsOccupationLosing (work), andThe labor OfwillAlso能力It refers to a state in which you cannot get a job even though there are some. In particular, it refers to the state without workUnemployed(Mushouku) refers to the state of the person who is looking for a job for employment, and refers to the person in such a stateUnemployedSay (Shitsugyosha).JapanExcept for someNordic OfWelfare stateEvenYouth unemployment rateDoes not drop from 20%OECDHas become a big issue in member countries[2][3].

Overview

Unemployment is社会HaveLabor forceThere is also a problem from the perspective of making the best use of[4].

The explanations in this section are largely based on the Japanese definition (unemployment in the narrower sense of the world). The calculation method of unemployment rate is different in each country[5].. in JapanLabor force surveyby.

The ratio of the number of unemployed people to the labor force is called the unemployment rate. →#Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate is

  1. variousEconomic activity"Result" of
  2. Triggered by the unemployment rateBusiness cycle"Factors" that affect such things

There are two aspects. The unemployment rate also fluctuates depending on the economic structure. →#Relationship with economic conditions

Classification of unemployment

For unemploymentVoluntary unemployment,Frictional unemployment,Involuntary unemploymentThere are three modes[6].. This classification isJohn Maynard KeynesWas made by[7][8].

Voluntary unemployment
It exists regardless of whether the economy is good or bad (Natural unemployment rate[6].. Choosing unemployment on your own initiative, or unemploying on your own initiative in search of better working conditions.
Frictional unemployment
Exists regardless of whether the economy is good or bad (natural unemployment rate)[6].. See below.
Involuntary unemployment
Unemployment (Complete unemployment rate)[6].. currentwageYou want to get a job, but you are unemployed in a way you don't want.

Unemployed = Voluntary unemployed + frictional unemployed + involuntary unemployed[9]

A state in which all people seeking a job in society are in a jobFull employmentTo say[10]. "Full employment" does not mean "there is no unemployed person", but a state that includes the existence of certain frictional unemployment.[11].Potential growth rateBut,Actual economic growth rateIt is said that "involuntary unemployment" will disappear when it becomes equal to[12].

Classification of unemployment factors

By unemployment factor,Lack of demand unemployment,Frictional unemployment,Structural unemploymentCan be classified into three types[13][14].

Lack of demand unemployment
Labor due to economic fluctuations (circulation)need(employmentUnemployment caused by a decrease in the number of recipients), also called cyclical unemployment.Real business cycle theoryIs an example.
Frictional unemployment
Career changeOr newFinding employmentWhen you doCompanyIt takes time for both job seekers to find each other because the information of each other is incomplete.WorkerUnemployment caused by the fact that it takes time to move between regions.
Structural unemployment
Labor marketDespite the balance between supply and demand inHuman resourcesJob huntingUnemployment caused by a mismatch in the characteristics (vocational ability, age, etc.) of a person.

Involuntary unemployment

Neoclassical economics,MonetaristIn the view ofMarket economyFunctioning will match the supply and demand of workers, and all job seekers will be able to get jobs.[15]. However,Keynesian economicsPointed out that the market mechanism does not work well in the short term, and that involuntary unemployment will occur. Involuntary unemployment was discovered by Keynes, and there is disagreement between Keynes' economic position and Neoclassical position as to whether to recognize the existence of involuntary unemployment.

Labor marketThen,HouseholdSupply labor and companies demand labor[16]. Real employment and wages are determined when labor supply and demand match[16]. In the labor market, when wages are high, companies reduce employment and workers increase supply[17].Neoclassical economicsSupposes that there is no involuntary unemployment because wages are determined to match the supply and demand of labor.[17].. Decline in nominal wages occurs when the supply of labor exceeds demand[17].

this isNeoclassicalHowever, it is possible to eliminate all unsold items by freely expanding and contracting prices.Say's LawAssuming[18]The reason is that unemployed people can find jobs by offering lower wages than the currently employed workers. The only reason why unemployment is not resolved by the fall in wage prices is because of the workers' choice not to work below that wage.

In contrast, John Maynard KeynesMacroeconomicsIt is,Effective demandLack of money was considered the reason for unemployment[19].Keynesian economicsSays, "Since wages are rigid, supply and demand will not match."[20]. In Keynesian economics, in the labor marketDownward wage rigidityThere is unemployment[21]. Also, prices are rigid in the goods and services market, and prices are not adjusted instantly.[21]. Prices and wages are adjusted only slowly in the short term[21]. Keynesian economics wage/price rigidity is a short-term assumption, and wages/price will be adjusted over the years.[22]. However, in the downward rigidity of the interest rate, the Keynesian recession will continue for the medium term (about 10 years) instead of the short term.[22].

Keynes presents the principle of effective demand opposite to Say's law, saying that the demand for products of society as a whole determines the amount of employment.[23]Acknowledge the possibility of equilibrium with underemployment. He said that the involuntary unemployment caused by the lack of effective demand would have to be resolved by increasing total demand.

Various factors such as the relative wage hypothesis, the efficiency wage hypothesis, and the insider/outsider hypothesis are considered as factors that explain the downward rigidity of nominal wages (for details,Labor economicsSee).

In Japan, the number of involuntary unemployed has soared from 1990 in 33 to 2000 million in 102, with one in three unemployed being involuntary[24].

Natural unemployment rate and output gap

The ratio of the number of people who are unemployed due to structural or frictional reasons to the working populationNatural unemployment rate(Inflation Unaccelerated unemployment rate, NAIRU for short)[25].. Natural unemployment (one of its interpretations) is the unemployment rate when the economy is in equilibrium.

The government can adjust the unemployment rate through public policy, but if the unemployment rate is below the natural unemployment rate, inflation will occur. Therefore, the only unemployment that can be reduced by policy without causing inflation is the cyclical unemployment part.

In addition,George AkarovPoint out that the level of natural unemployment depends on inflation.[26][27][28].. According to these studies, the level of the natural unemployment rate rises as the inflation rate decreases from a certain threshold. Thus, in an economy with very low or deflationary inflation, if a policy is adopted to reduce the unemployment rate, the unemployment rate will temporarily fall below the natural unemployment rate, accelerating inflation. As the level rises, the level of the natural unemployment rate declines, so if the unemployment rate becomes higher than the natural unemployment rate, inflation will stop accelerating. This also shows the risk of estimating the scale of cyclical unemployment by just looking at the level of the unemployment rate and judging the size of the output gap, without taking into consideration the inflation rate and other factors.

The unemployment rate is the total output (realGDP) And the potential output as a percentage (Output gap,GDP gap) Is known to be involved.

  • Output gap = 100 × (total output-potential output)/potential output (%)

If the output gap is negative, the unemployment rate is higher than the natural unemployment rate because the resources are not fully utilized. On the contrary, if positive, the unemployment rate will be lower than the natural unemployment rate. In addition, if the output gap is positiveInflation gapAnd the negative caseRecession gapThat.

Employment contracts are the reason why the output gap does not reach zero in the short term. Even if the economy deteriorates, companies will not reduce employee salaries in the short term due to contracts. Therefore, the salary will be higher than the level at which full employment is achieved, and the number of unemployed will increase, resulting in an output gap.

From historical data, it is estimated that the output gap and the unemployment rate have the following relationship (Okun's Law):

  • Unemployment rate = Natural unemployment rate-0.5 Output gap (%)

Thus, the economy depends on real GDP, while the unemployment rate depends on the output gap. Therefore, even if the economy (real GDP) rises, if the rate of increase is slower than that of the potential output, "recovering an economy without employment" (Jobless recovery) Happens.

Finally, let's see what happens if we keep trying to keep the unemployment rate below the natural unemployment rate. Inflation of 2%, for example, lowers the unemployment rate below the natural unemployment rate. But after a while, the public will act with a 2% inflation rate in mind. Therefore, the unemployment rate rises again. To get the unemployment rate down again, we need to get higher inflation. However, this high inflation rate will also be factored into the forecast, and the unemployment rate will rise again. Thus, in order to keep the unemployment rate below the natural unemployment rate, inflation must continue to be accelerated.

If the nominal wage is downwardly rigid, it is necessary to increase prices to increase labor demand, but once full employment is achieved due to the increase in labor demand, prices will rise even if demand increases beyond that. Will just do[29].

Other types of unemployment

The following unemployment can be considered.

  • Seasonal unemployment-Unemployment caused by seasonal factors[30].
  • Potential Unemployment-Unemployed who stop looking for a job because they want to get a job but do not have a suitable job[31][32].
  • Temporary unemployment-Unemployed during the off-season of farmers.
  • Industrial Reserve-Needed as a wage restraint for capitalistsRelative overpopulation.
  • Technical unemployment-Unemployment caused by mechanization/automation that does not require special ability[33].


History of unemployment

中 世Christendom (=CatholicIn the world of), poverty is said to be "to meet the heart of God," and reaching out to such a person isGood deedMet.Reformation(=ProtestantismIs a completely different view, and "laziness and greed are unforgivable sins,"BeggingDismissed as "cause of laziness",The labor"Sacredobligation". The epidemic of protestantism has transformed the line of sight to the poor, spreading the view that it "represents being abandoned by God" and shutting out the city.Poor people Thewilderness,森林Do you live inVagrantBecomeRiotCame to wake up.

The United KingdomThen.1531According to the royal decree, poor people are classified into "people who cannot work due to illness" and "people who cannot work because of idleness".BeggingWith permission, the latterWhipping OfPunishmentWas decided to be added.1536Is codified inPoor lawWhile providing food and food to the incapacitated poor,Healthy personToForced laborWas imposed.Industrial revolutionAccelerates18st centuryUntil then, the "laziness" of a healthy person was treated as a sin in relation to God,PoorhouseThe reality of刑 務 所It was that.18st centurySince then, poverty-stricken activities that have departed from Christian values ​​have spread.Gilbert methodAnd the establishment ofSpeenhamland systemWas established in the United Kingdom, and the values ​​for poverty and unemployment have finally changed (Poor lawreference).

Industrial revolutionSince then, the proportion of wage laborers has increased, and unemployment is serious.社会 問題It was decided to be treated as.19st centuryIn England金融Capital investmentFrom the circulation of, almost every 10 yearspanicThere was a cycle in which the unemployment rate rose to nearly 10% each time.

20st centuryUpon entering, this circulation gradually collapses,1929Occurred inWorld DepressionSince then, unemployment has increased sharply in each country.The United States of AmericaIn (US), the temporary unemployment rate reached 25% and was openly shouted. In addition, unemployment at this timeNew Deal PolicyIt temporarily decreased due to, but increased again when the policy receded,Second World WarBy largeMunitionsIt was not resolved until it occurred.

After the warBretton Woods systemUnderWestern countriesAchieved miraculous high growth. By stateEconomic policyWith significant intervention inFull employmentWas almost achieved.1970 eraOnce you enter, the increase in nominal wageOil shockThe outbreak hurt supply structures and increased unemployment under inflation (Stagflation).

1980 eraWhen I enter, I try to escape from the recessionNeoliberalismEconomic policy (Reganomics,Thatcherism,Rogernomics, Etc. were introduced, and the economic growth rate increased in countries where the labor market was liquidized, but it was aimed at controlling the inflation rate at the same time.Financial PolicyWas adopted and the unemployment rate rose significantly.

1990 eraThe United States and the United Kingdom escaped from structural high unemployment,Continental EuropeCountries have settled on high unemployment. Also, in Japan, where the unemployment rate was lower than in Europe and the United States,Bubble economyAfter the collapseLong recessionUnemployment becomes apparent due to社会 問題It became.

2009Before and afterWorld financial crisisPeaked and high unemployment rates were recorded around the world. Also,2020ToNew coronavirusIn each country due to the spread ofCurfewAnd urbanLockdownAs a result of the significant decline in economic activity, the unemployment rate has also risen significantly. US GDP hits -32.9% in second quarter[34].. As a result, the number of new unemployed people also increased.

Economy and unemployment

Unemployment rate definition

It is a measure of unemploymentUnemployment rateIs defined as the ratio of the number of unemployed to the labor force. Generally speaking, the unemployment rate isUnemployment ratePoint to[35].. An unemployed person is a person who has the will and ability to work but is unable to get a job, so a person who gives up looking for a job (spontaneous unemployed person) is not included in the unemployed person.

If you give up looking for a jobUnwillingness to work It is called (discouraged worker). By the way,Labor force surveyThen, it is said that they have the will to work, that they are trying to find a job such as going to Hello Work and preparing to start a business. The inability to get a job does not include the case where the employee receives salary from the workplace even if he/she does not have a job, and in such a case, he/she is treated as a leave of absence.

To unemployment rate including part-timers and people who gave up looking for jobs,U6 unemployment rateThere is a statistic[36].

For definitions of unemployment and unemployment in the Labor Force Survey, seeLabor force surveySee item.

Relationship with the economy

The unemployment rate is an important indicator for understanding the economic trends of the entire country[35].. Rising unemployment rate due to recession means increasing economic waste of underutilized workforce[37].

Unemployment rates fluctuate in relation to various economic activitiesLabor marketSignal that indicates the degree of tightening of supply and demand in[38].

Controlling unemployment is an important goal of economic policy[4]. Also, reducing unemployment is an important issue in labor economics.[39].

The unemployment rate is

  1. "Results" of various economic activities
  2. "Factors" that affect economic fluctuations triggered by the unemployment rate

There are two aspects[4].

Unemployment rateBusinessIt is said that there is a correlation with, but the movements are not always the same. The unemployment rate is driven by factors related to the economic structure as well as business cycle factors.[40]. traditionalJapanese managementUnder theemploymentIs one of the social missions of a company,Personnel reduction,In particularDismissalThis is because they try to avoid the situation as much as possible and try to determine the situation to the last minute. On the other hand, with regard to recruitment, the larger companies are, the more careful and careful the balance of planning and personnel composition is, and the tendency to avoid unnecessary and urgent recruitment.Non-regular employmentHiring is flexible, and that point must be taken into consideration when looking at employment-related indicators).

On the worker side as well, as the recession lasts longer, the number of people who lose their willingness to work will increase (the number of job offers will decrease due to the recession, and more people will give up saying that they will not be able to find a job anyway). It becomes a factor to push down, and it seems that the economy has recovered on the surface. On the other hand, in the economic recovery phase (sometimes the number of job offers will increase as the economy improves), some people will start looking for new jobs, so the number of “unemployed people” wishing to work will increase, increasing the unemployment rate. become.

From the above, the unemployment rateLagging indexHas become[40], It is necessary to look at not only the unemployment rate but also other economic indicators. The unemployment rate fluctuates within a year to a year and a half compared to economic trends.[41]. It is also a representative of the leading index of the economyStock priceAnd the unemployment rate, which is one of the lagging indexes, may temporarily show the opposite movement.[42].

In China, a 1% drop in economic growth will yield 100 million unemployed people[43].

  • Non-regular employment
previousRegular employmentEasier to hire and fire thanPart-time job,Worker dispatch such asNon-regular employmentIn the current situation where labor patterns are becoming more fragmented and complicated, including the increase in the number of workers, it is necessary to exercise caution in using the unemployment rate.

Unemployment rate in foreign countries

The unemployment rate and the general condition of each country are shown. However, the calculation standard is different from Japan in many countries.

  • The United States of America -America suffered from high unemployment in the 1970s, butIT revolutionAs a result, the unemployment rate has improved. The unemployment rate, which is one of the Fed's benchmarks for interest rate judgments, has attracted the most attention in the world.
  • Germany -The unemployment rate in former West Germany was not high until the 1980s, but in 1989Berlin Wall CollapseSince then, the unemployment rate has remained high due to the high unemployment of the former East Germany, but the export economy has developed due to the benefit of the weak euro of the EU membership, and it is said that one of the euro-introducing countries will win. It was a very low unemployment rate.Germany # EconomySee also
  • France -Suffering from high unemployment, labor policy is affecting political affairs. Also, assuming that you are taking jobsImmigrationThere is also a strong wind hit.France # high unemployment rate,2005 Suburban Paris Riot CaseSee also
  • Singapore 2.25% (2019)[1]
  • Republic of China(Taiwan) 3.73% (2019)[1]
  • Euro area(EU) 6.7% (2019, ages 15 to 75)[47]
  • (I.e. -The unemployment rate is set at 2004% as of 90 because almost all people except government employees are unemployed due to economic collapse and financial failure. After that, the unemployment rate will be 2011% as of 23.[1].

Countries with longer unemployment benefit periods tend to have higher unemployment rates, while shorter periods of benefit tend to lower unemployment rates.[48][49][50]

For the unemployment insurance benefit period of each countryUnemployment benefitchecking ...

High youth unemployment issues in foreign countries

According to an analysis by the research team, there was no intergenerational disparity in relative poverty level in Europe until 2007. However, since 2007, the income of Europeans aged 65 and older has increased by 10%, while the income of young people aged 15 to 24 has declined sharply over the same period. The research team points out "" in the background. According to the European Bureau of Statistics, the youth unemployment rate in the EU region was 2007% in 15.6, but after jumping to 2014% in 23.8, the youth unemployment rate continued to be high for a long time at 2016% in 20.9. .. In 2014, when the number of youth unemployment problems reached the limit in Europe, Spain accounted for 53.2%, Greece 52.4%, and Italy 42.7% in Southern European countries. "The long-running curse of unemployment makes it even harder for young people to find jobs," said researchers at the International Monetary Fund. It is the highest proportion of generations and will be the most vulnerable and hard-hit to young people when the financial crisis recurs." In 15, the youth unemployment rate in the world worsened for the second consecutive year to 25%. It is predicted that the number of unemployed people aged 2017-13.1 years in the world will increase to 15 million in 24 and to 2017 million in 7090[51][52]. The number of Koreans who find employment in Japan, which has a shortage of manpower, is increasing every year, which is in contrast to South Korea, where youths have a high unemployment rate and it is difficult for young people to find employment. According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's 2017 ``Foreign Employment Status'', which was about 2008 in 2, the number of Koreans who worked in Japan was 2017 as of October 10, the first 5 Over 5900 people. The maximum increase since 5 has increased by about 2016 in the past year and about 1 times in the nine years from 8000. The youth unemployment rate in South Korea in 2008 was 9%, the highest since 2.7, and the number of Koreans who are paying attention to Japan as a employment place has increased, and the enthusiasm for learning Japanese has recovered.[53].

Unemployment and unemployment rate in Japan

Below isMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHas been published byLabor force surveyIs the total number of unemployed people and the unemployment rate, which is the sum of "4 years old to 1 years old" and "15 years old or older", which is adjusted to the age as of April 64, every year.

Changes in the number of unemployed people and the unemployment rate
(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau)
YearsUnemployed (XNUMX)Unemployment rate (%)
Male and female totalFemaleMaleMale and female totalFemaleMale
199013457772.12.22.0
199113659782.12.22.0
199214260822.22.22.1
199316671952.52.62.4
1994192801122.93.02.8
1995210871233.23.23.1
1996225911343.43.33.4
1997230951353.43.43.4
19982791111684.14.04.2
19993171231944.74.54.8
20003201231964.74.54.9
20013401312095.04.75.2
20023591402195.45.15.5
20033501352155.34.95.5
20043131211924.74.44.9
20052941161784.44.24.6
20062751071684.13.94.3
20072571041543.93.73.9
20082651071594.03.84.1
20093361332035.14.85.3
20103341282075.14.65.4
20113021151874.64.24.9
20122851121744.34.04.6
20132651031634.03.74.3
2014236961423.63.43.7
2015222891353.43.13.6
2016208821263.12.83.3
2017190781122.82.73.0
201816667992.42.22.6
201916266962.42.22.5
2020191761152.82.53.0

[55][56]

1990 eraBehind the increase in demand for non-regular employment since then is JapanBubble economy collapseThis is because companies faced the "three excesses" of "employment, debt, equipment" before the collapse of the bubble economy. Measures to deal with the three excesses Now, companies have begun restructuring, focusing on controlling labor costs, and making heavy use of non-regular employees. Bonuses that make it easier to link wage structure to corporate performance for each year rather than basic salary (ボ ー ナ スEtc.), the emphasis is on salary.2003According to Asahi Noguchi, the voluntary unemployment / sound unemployment rate due to the transformation of the industrial structure is 2-3%.[57]. Pacific War(Second World War) Japan's unemployment rate was low at 1-2% for a long time, butIT bubbleAfter the collapse2001At that point, the unemployment rate is just under 5%, which is higher than before.[58].2002At that time, Japan recorded a record high unemployment rate of 5.5% after the war.[59],AmericanLehman shockLater in July 2009, the unemployment rate was 7%, the highest post-war record.[60].

As of 2000, the average number of unemployed was 320 million, more than double that of 1990.[61].

In Japan in 2010, the ratio of voluntary unemployed and frictionless unemployed is about 3.5%[9].

As of 2020, if the unemployment rate is 2%, the total number of unemployed people in Japan is approximately 137 million, but if it is 5%, it will be approximately 343 million.[55][62].. Japan's unemployment rate is 2020% and the number of unemployed people is about 2.8 million as of 191, and it is necessary to create about 1 new jobs to improve the unemployment rate by 69 point.[55][63].

The unemployment rate varies widely by age and region.[64].. By age group, the unemployment rate among young people (15-24 years old) is 4.6% on average, well above the overall average of 2.8% (as of 2020).[55].. There was also a survey by an international organization that Japan's generational unemployment rate was close to 2009% until the early teens in their teens in 10, when the economy deteriorated due to the Lehman shock.[65]..By region, there is a large difference between regions, from 2.5% in Kita-Kantou / Koshin and Hokuriku to 3.3% in Hokkaido / South Kanto (as of October-December 2020).[66].

In 2016, the average number of regular employees/employees was 3364 million, an increase of 51 from the previous year. In the backgroundAbenomicsWith the economy rising, new jobs were first created as non-regular, causing companies to become less manpowered than initially planned for employment because of higher demand for workers and a shift to a job-seeker-friendly seller market. As a result, the number of non-regular employees and those who were eligible began to be switched to regular employment in 2015, increasing for the second consecutive year.

In 2017, "regurgitation from non-regular to regular" began, and in 2017, the "effective job openings-to-applicants ratio for regular jobs" exceeded 1, and the number of job offers for regular jobs increased.AbenomicsFrom subsequent growth and employment growth, the unemployment rate was projected to reach 2018% in 0.9 and close to 2019% in 0, but the actual unemployment rate did not.However, the unemployment rate is declining, and companies are deflationary due to wage increases, treatment competition, and deflation, in addition to the continued increase in regular hiring of non-regular workers and new hires currently hired due to unprecedented labor shortages. It was an optimized model when prices and sales decreased.Black companiesIt was expected that there would be a series of route changes and bankruptcies due to the gathering of workers. [67][68][69].

after that,Economic impact of epidemic of new coronavirus infectionBy2020The unemployment rate was about 0.4%, 2.8 points higher than the previous year.[55].. However,Employment adjustment subsidyIt has been pointed out that the unemployment rate will more than double if the leave of absence that keeps employment is included.[70].

In the five years from 2012 to 2017, the youth unemployment rate in South Korea rose by 5 points to 2.3%, while in the United States it fell by 9.8 points to 5.8% and Japan dropped by 7.2 points to 2.6%. Japan's youth unemployment rate dropped to half of OECD[71].

Definition and calculation method in Japanese statistics

The following are terms used in the “Labor Force Survey” by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.[72].

  • Labor force population-Population of workers aged 15 and over, including "employed" and "unemployed"[73]
    • Workers-a combination of "employees" and "leaves"
      • Employee-During the survey weekwageThose who have worked for more than one hour with income, such as salary, allowances, and internal income. It is assumed that family employees worked even if they were unpaid.
      • Leave of absence-Among those who have a job but do not do any work during the survey week, "employer who is or will be paid salary/wage" or "self A business owner who does not have more than 30 days from the start of his/her work without leaving the business he/she owns."
  • Unemployed-Those who meet the following three conditions
    1. I had no job and did not do any work during the survey week (not a worker).
    2. If you have a job, you can get one immediately.
    3. During the survey week, he was preparing to start a job search activity or business (including waiting for the results of past job seekers).
  • Non-Labor Population-Populations over the age of 15 other than "employed" and "unemployed"
  • Labor force ratio-Percentage of the "labor force" in the population aged 15 and over
  • Employment Rate-Percentage of "workers" in the population over the age of 15
  • Unemployment rate-Percentage of "fully unemployed" in the "labor population"

The terms, etc. newly introduced in the tabulation from January to March 30 are as follows.

  • Workers who wish to work additionally-Those who meet the following four conditions. Specifically, there are women who work part-time etc. who want to work full-time, and those who work shorter hours due to company reasons.
    1. I am a worker.
    2. Less than 35 hours a weekWorking hoursIs[74].
    3. I want to add more working hours.
    4. You can add working hours.
  • Unemployed-Those who meet the following three conditions
    1. I had no job and did not do any work during the survey week (not a worker).
    2. If you have a job, you can get one immediately.
    3. I was preparing to start a job hunting activity or business during a month, including a survey week (including waiting for the results of past job seekers). -The difference from the unemployed is that the job seeking period is expanded to one month.
  • Potential labor force-Those who are neither employed nor unemployed, who fall under any of the following. Those who wish to work and did a job search but are not classified as unemployed because they cannot work immediately, or those who can work immediately but are not classified as unemployed because they did not perform job search,The reality is close to the unemployedBecome a state person.
    • Extended Job Seekers-Those who meet the following two conditions
      1. You are looking for a job within a month.
      2. Not soon, but you can work within two weeks.
    • Non-Job Seekers-Those who meet the following three conditions
      1. You have not been looking for a job within a month.
      2. I want to work.
      3. You can get a job immediately.

The situation surrounding employment has changed drastically, as employment forms have diversified as seen in the increase in non-regular employment, and the environment surrounding employment and unemployment has become uneven. Therefore, in order to grasp the employment situation in a more multifaceted manner, we changed the questionnaire in the Labor Force Survey from January 2018 to add to the employment status such as employed, fully unemployed and non-labor population. For those who want to work more in the workforce and those who want to work in the non-labor population.Unutilized laborAs a result, it will be newly announced and will be announced quarterly as an index for multiple unused labor. Those who apply to “Unutilized labor” include unemployed people, candidates for additional employment, and potential labor force population. In addition to the unemployment rate, the following six new indicators on underutilized labor are announced.[75].

  • Unutilized Labor Index 1 (LU1)-Percentage of "unemployed" in the "labor force". It can be said that the “international standard unemployment rate” based on the ILO's definition is slightly different from the “total unemployment rate,” which is an indicator unique to Japan. The publication of LU1 enables international comparison of unemployment rates on the same basis.
  • Unutilized Labor Index 2 (LU2)-Percentage of the "unemployed" and "employed for additional employment" in the "labor population." If LU1 is decreasing even though LU2 is decreasing, the number of unemployed people is decreasing, but the number of people who want to work additionally is increasing.As LU1 decreases, the employment situation improves. You can also see if you haven't.
  • Unutilized Labor Index 3 (LU3)-The ratio of "unemployed" and "potential labor force population" to "labor force population" and "potential labor force population". If the difference between LU1 and LU3 is large (such as during a sudden economic downturn),Those who want to work, but have a non-labor population because they gave up looking for a jobIt can be considered that there is a large number of underutilized labor force populations (the labor market is more severe than the unemployment rate).
  • Unutilized Labor Index 4 (LU4)-Percentage of the "labor force" and "potential labor force population" in the "unemployed", "employed as additional employment" and "potential labor force population".Total size of unused labor(Increase in labor supply). It is the most widely used workforce grasp, and can be said to be the rate for all those who can be utilized in the labor market in addition to the unemployed.
  • Unutilized labor subsidy index 1-of "involuntary unemployed" in the "labor population" (of unemployed persons whose job search reason is "expiration of retirement age or employment contract" or "workplace or business convenience") Percentage.Persons with high severity who are unemployed due to involuntary reasonsWhat to grasp.
  • Unutilized Labor Assistance Indicator 2-Percentage of "Unemployed" and "Extended Job Seekers" in the "Workforce Population" and "Extended Job Seekers". It expands the workable period compared to LU1 and enables comparison with EU countries that have a workable period within 2 weeks.

According to the 2020 (Reiwa 2) labor force survey, the average unemployment rate is 2.8% and the number of unemployed is 191 million, which is an increase due to the economic deterioration of the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection. ..On the other hand, the number of workers wishing to work additionally is 228 million, the potential labor force population is 44, LU1 is 3.1%, LU2 is 6.4%, and LU4 is 7.0%. Looking at LU4 by gender, males accounted for 5.7% and females 8.5%. Looking at the breakdown of LU4 by gender and age group, males have a high proportion of unemployed in all age groups except 65 years old and over, and females want additional employment in all age groups except 25-34 years old. The proportion of traders has increased[76].

影響

The problem of high unemployment is not limited to the decline in national income,

  1. Cause inequality in income distribution
  2. Bring poverty
  3. It hinders people's well-being
  4. Increase the crime rate and suicide rate

Giving people such pain[77].

There is a correlation between the unemployment rate and the number of crime cases, and it is reported in the 2006 White Paper on Crime that the number of crime cases decreases when the unemployment rate decreases.

Life support for the unemployed

Japan

  • By Hello Work
    • Training and living support benefits-Payment of living expenses. However, you must take training
    • Long-term support for unemployed-entrusted to a private business to support reemployment. Lending a living fund
    • Difficulty finding employment-Private companies provide housing to support re-employment. Payment of living and job hunting costs
    • Employment Security Financing-Housing rent, rent subsidy (employment insurance Lending for living and job hunting costs (same)
  • By welfare office
    • Emergency housing allowance special provision-Housing allowance based on welfare
  • Social welfare councilDue to
    • Comprehensive support fund-Lending living support costs, housing expenses, etc.
    • Extraordinary Special Bond Lending-Lending living expenses. Until public benefit system is decided

Unemployment debate

EconomistShunsuke Tachibana"Unemployment is one of the greatest unhappiness that occurs in humans, because losing a job means zero income to live."[78].. EconomistJoseph E. StiglitzPoint out that unemployment is one of the worst situations that accompanies existing human values, and eliminating it will promote human well-being.[79].

EconomistHeizo Takenaka"The most serious economic problem is obviously the problem of unemployment. Unemployment directly affects people's lives. Unemployment is a state in which valuable resources are idle and not being used effectively. The situation is not so inefficient in terms of economic efficiency.The problem of unemployment is the biggest policy issue.[80]"Of course it depends on the times, but the biggest goal of economics and economic policy is to prevent unemployment.[81]"I point out.

EconomistHideomi Tanaka"When a large number of unemployed people drift, there are various social costs.Welfareincrease of,minimum wage, Lowering the academic ability of children due to low parents' income and increasing the crime rate. In that way, the burden of society on the back and the direct employment of taxAnnual expenditureThere is no substitute for that."[82].. Tanaka has pointed out that "unemployment problems will be exacerbated if only efficiency is pursued in an economic stagnation".[83].

EconomistYoichi Takahashi"It is known that if the unemployment rate goes down, the suicide rate and the crime rate go down. In addition, the welfare rate goes down.Black companiesCan also be eliminated. In any case, the unemployment rate is one of the most important economic indicators."[84].

EconomistMotoshige Ito"It's not just the number of unemployment that matters, but how long the person who is actually unemployed remains unemployed. It is necessary to take a closer look at the situation of the unemployed." Has pointed out[85].

EconomistFumio OtakeIs "recessionThen there will be unemployment and some people will not be able to get a job regardless of their efforts."[86].

statistics

Economist Steven Randsburg, on the US unemployment statistics, said, "Unemployment statistics include not only the number of unemployed people, but also the average unemployment period. Calculated by averaging the answers over a period of time, resulting in an oversize, long-term unemployed are more likely to be unemployed on the survey day, and short-term unemployed are much more likely to be unemployed on the survey day. Small, so the sample collected on a particular day/week contains a relatively large number of long-term unemployed people."[87].

Japanese statistics

Workers cannot quickly change jobs because it is difficult to find a workplace that suits their abilities and it takes time to improve their skills.[88].. This is called "employment mismatch"[88].

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's 2002 version of the Labor Economic White Paper estimates that 2001% of the total unemployment rate of 5% in 3.9 was structural mismatch unemployment, and 1.1% was unemployment due to lack of demand.[89].Daiichi Kangin Research InstituteAccording to the estimate, the number of unemployed people caused by the mismatch of labor supply and demand in 2000 accounts for about 7% of the total unemployed people. To improve employment, the economic recovery will increase the labor demand. At the same time, it is indispensable to eliminate the labor supply-demand mismatch.[90].

EconomistTakao KomineSays that mismatches are caused by differences in 1) occupation, 2) age, 3) region, 4) industry, etc.[91].

Economist Junro Asada points out that "the index of "total unemployment" in Japan has a bias that the "unemployment rate" is extremely low compared to the indicators in the West."[92].. EconomistYasuyuki Iida"The unemployment statistics in Japan are not recorded as unemployed when job hunting is stopped. This can cause the unemployment rate to temporarily drop even in a recession," he said.[93].. EconomistYasushi Harada"Currently (2013) Japan's unemployment rate is about 4%, of which 1% is forced to control the unemployment rate through an employment adjustment subsidy," he said.[94].

EconomistShunsuke TachibanaAccording to their research, the potential unemployment rate in Japan will reach 10% (as of 2001).[58].

EconomistNorihisa Iwata"In the case of the Japanese economy, an unemployment rate of about 2.5% is a guideline for full employment, judging from the Phillips curve-Okan law."[95].. As of 2004, Hideomi Tanaka said, "In Japan, the unemployment rate at which inflation does not accelerate (NAIRU, non-inflation accelerated unemployment rate) can be estimated to be about 2.3-2.4%. When the unemployment rate is higher than NAIRU, this unemployment rate is high. Inflation will not accelerate even if the deflation is lowered, and the unemployment rate will drop dramatically if deflation disappears."[96].. As of 2009, Tanaka pointed out that "the natural unemployment rate in Japan is said to be in the low 3% range or high 2% range".[97].. As of 2015, Yasushi Harada points out that "the unemployment rate for full employment in Japan is in the 2% range" as of XNUMX.[98].. Harada pointed out in 2013, "In the case of Japan, when the unemployment rate approaches 2%, there will be rapid inflation. The inflation rate immediately before that is about 2%."[99].. Yoichi Takahashi points out that "the unemployment rate for full employment in Japan will be around 2015-3% in 3.5".[100].

UnemploymentIs a phenomenon peculiar to Japan and is pointed out as a factor that keeps the unemployment rate statistically low in Japan.[101].

Yasuyuki Iida said, "In Japan, the unemployment rateEffective job openings-to-applicants ratioIs more useful as a statistic that shows the state of the labor market. In Japan, there is a lag between the ratio of job offers to applicants and the unemployment rate."[102].

(I.e.

1943'sBeveridge Report], full employment is appropriate for the governmentMacroeconomic policyIs reported to be realized by[103].

Nobuo Ikeda"It is not because the labor market is distorted, and it is not the responsibility of the unemployed that the unemployment occurs due to lack of demand and demand for labor," he said.[104].. Ikeda pointed out that the only employment measure that strengthens employment regulations as "employment measures" is to raise labor costs and reduce employment, and to raise GDP to create employment. Are[105].

EconomistAsahi NoguchiHideomi Tanaka said, “For those who live in the post-Keynes era, fluctuations in employment and prices are not the “fate” that must be accepted. This is because it is possible to maintain the unemployment rate and price increases."[106].. Noguchi and Tanaka said, "If the government and central bank fail to exercise the function of macro stabilization, the cost will not be manageable.deflation・If you are unemployed, it will come back."[107].

Meiji UniversityNaoaki Okabe, Fellow of the International Research Institute, said,Industrial policyIs needed."[108].

Norihisa Iwata points out, "If you do not maintain the potential growth rate in the long run, involuntary unemployment will exist for a long time."[109].

Relationship with wages

Motoshige Ito said, “In Japan, many workers are hired by companies, so wages do not change daily and labor supply does not increase or decrease. However, depending on market conditions such as part-time work, part-time work, temporary work, etc. It is also true that the labor supply of the economy as a whole is adjusted when wages rise and fall, and workers with similar retirement ages can choose whether or not to retire, depending on their high wages. Therefore, if wages increase, labor supply will increase, and if wages decrease, labor supply will decrease.”[110].. Ito said, "In common sense, if wages are high, companies do not use workers as much as possible, and rely on machines and equipment for production and sales. On the other hand, if wages are low, companies use expensive machines and equipment. Labor-intensive production.Wages greatly affect the way companies produce and their activities that depend on workers.In general, the cheaper the wage, the greater the demand for labor by the company, and the higher the wage, the more Labor demand will decrease."[111].

Yasuyuki Iida points out that "the higher the unemployment rate, the easier it is to reduce wages. The biggest condition for workers to improve their treatment is the lack of workers."[112].

Heizo Takenaka said, "The solution to the adjustment of employment without increasing the problem of unemployment is to reduce wages.[113]"In order to protect employment, we must control wages[114]"I point out. Takenaka said, "In the event of a recession, if wages do not fall, companies will not hire. Labor demand will decrease and a large number of unemployed people will come out. However, if wages can be significantly reduced, the decrease in employment will be suppressed The number of unemployed people does not increase and social unrest does not increase.”[115].

Daiwa Institute of Research"The relationship between the rate of increase in nominal wages and the unemployment rate is inversely related to the Phillips curve," he said.[116].

Yoichi Takahashi said, "The real employee compensation isReal wageAnd, for the economy as a whole, the decline in real wages is compensated by the increase in the number of employees."[117].

Hideomi Tanaka points out that "real wages are nothing more than costs for companies"[118].. EconomistYasuyuki Iida"The rise in real wages means higher costs for companies that employ workers, so companies try to reduce working hours or dismiss full-time employees," he said.[119].

Regarding the argument that "the economy will recover if wages are increased and consumption is increased," Takenaka said, "Such an opinion is after all Zerosum's argument. Conversely, "reduce wages and increase corporate profits. Then, capital investment will increase and the economy will recover.” In other words, it depends on the economic situation whether a wage increase will activate the economy.”[120].

Shunsuke Tachibaki said, “Low wages can reduce the number of unemployed people.Neoclassical economicsCan be interpreted as being carried out by the policy of increasing the number of non-regular workers with low wages. The question remains as to whether or not the lives of these non-regular workers may be difficult."[121].

Norihisa Iwata said, “Under deflation, if a company reduces wages to maintain employment, it will leave the excellent workers that the company wants to remain. Yes, reducing wages is the last resort for companies."[122].

Motoshige Ito said, ``If unemployment occurs, lowering wages will eliminate unemployment, but the reality is not that simple, and wages tend to move for various reasons, causing serious unemployment. However, there are many cases where wage adjustments are not made (downward rigidity of wages)."[123].

Asahi Noguchi and Hideomi Tanaka said, “The problem of high cost is not the nominal wage but the increase of “real wage”, and if the real wage rises, companies have no choice but to reduce employment. Real wages can only be reduced in order to do so, either by reducing nominal wages or raising prices."[124].

John Maynard KeynesUnionPaying attention to the fact that wages are not reduced by the pressure of the government, and pointed out the existence of "involuntary unemployment"[125].. According to Keynes's theory, a decline in nominal wages reduces consumer purchasing power, and further restrains real wages from falling prices, so it does not increase employment. It is said that it will reduce effective demand and employment.[126].. Keynes' logic states that lower nominal wages do not increase employment and do not reduce unemployment.[126].. Keynes points out, "If there is demand, employment will usually increase under current monetary wages."[127].

Hideomi Tanaka said, "It is the looseness of the downward rigidity of nominal wages.[128]It shows the deterioration of the employment environment in Japan, such as the reduction of wages before construction, the increase in the number of personnel cuts and layoffs, and the reduction of wages before performance.[129]"It is known in Japan and the United States that impairing the downward rigidity of nominal wages during the recession period destroys long-term workers' morale, credibility, and spirit of teamwork."[130]"I point out. Tanaka said, “A policy that does not reduce the nominal wage is important. Since corporate wages are calculated as real wages, it is necessary to consider how to reduce the real wage without reducing the nominal wage. In that case, the only means left is to raise prices."[131].. "In order for companies to increase employment, real wages need to fall, which means that if prices rise, employment will increase and nominal income will increase," said Tanaka.[132].

Asahi Noguchi and Hideomi Tanaka point out that "If prices moderately rise by 2-3%, the wage cost reduction efforts on the management side will be considerably eased."[133].

Iwata said, “Workers strongly resist wage cuts, but do not strongly resist wage rises even if the rate of increase in wages is lower than the inflation rate. However, if the rate of increase in wages is kept at around 2%, which is lower than the rate of inflation, the actual labor cost burden can be reduced, and employment can be maintained and expanded."[134].

Dismissal restrictions

“Fluidization of employment” indicates the ease of leaving or changing jobs and means the efficient use of human resources[135].

EconomicsThere are statistical surveys on dismissal regulations and unemployment rates, and many of them result in lower unemployment rates when employees can be freely dismissed.[136].. Nobuo Ikeda points out that employment is easier when it is easier to dismiss. This is evidenced by the fact that the unemployment rate in the US, which is free to dismiss, is lower than the unemployment rate in Europe, which is well protected.[137].. Ikeda said,Working poorWill be changed to "Poor" without work. If a non-regular employee becomes unemployed, the unemployment rate goes up.''[138].

Yasuyuki Iida said, “If you do not change the favorable treatment/dismissal regulations for full-time employees, you will be cut off from the bottom. Labor unions still refuse.[139]"Non-regular employment has increased in order to reduce personnel costs without reducing the apparent treatment of regular employees[140]"I point out. Iida also pointed out that "making employment liquidation policy in a recession would make it easier to just cut off."[141].

Hideomi Tanaka said, "In Japan, mobilization of employment is used to facilitate restructuring of people with weak positions because of the convenience of the company, rather than promoting mobility of employment of people with high skills and expertise. Has been done"[142].. Tanaka said, "Even if the industrial structure can be changed to one with high productivity, if demand remains insufficient, it will only exacerbate unemployment.[143]“When the demand for labor in the economy as a whole is declining, encouraging mobilization of employment is equivalent to competing for a shrinking pie. Drop people to the bottom of unemployment, then change yourself Is a social guilt that should be questioned[144]"I point out. In addition, Tanaka pointed out, "If the temporary ban on dispatched labor is prohibited in Japan, it may take away the work of the workers who were dispatched. It is better to leave the dispatching mechanism and improve the treatment." Are[145].

Norihisa Iwata pointed out that "If the deregulation of worker dispatching had not progressed, unemployment would have increased because the road to work was temporarily shut down. If the number of unemployed increased, the gap would widen." doing[146].

Fumio Otake points out, "Even if we control layoffs to prevent unemployment, the number of new hires will decrease. The potential cost of high youth unemployment is high."[147].

Takuro Morinaga"It is a basic principle of American companies to hire as many people as they need, when they need it, because the market for mid-career hires in the United States makes it easier to dismiss middle-aged and older people," he said.[148].

Japanese case study

In the Japanese labor market, there are precedents that support employment practices that favor regular employees over non-regular employees (UnderstandingCase law)[149]. In this case, even if the company faces the risk of bankruptcy and needs to understand and hire, it is not possible to dismiss a full-time employee unless the requirements such as 1) necessity of dismissal and 2) effort to avoid dismissal are met.[150][151]. Efforts to avoid dismissal include restraining new hires and suspending renewal of employment contracts for non-regular employees before dismissing full-time employees.[152]. That is, before the court dismisses a full-time employee,Dispatch cut) Seeking[152].

Hideomi Tanaka said, "In Japan, it is difficult to restructure even if the economy goes down. We employ staffing and seconded to the company. So we adjust by restructuring of non-regular employees. For the past 20 years or so. The number of young people in their late twenties and late thirties has increased considerably, and if a large-scale restructuring occurs for the current (20) non-regular employees that include these people directly, It threatens our lives, which in turn leads to tighter younger generations. Compared to the United States and the United Kingdom, the value of living for younger Japanese people is declining."[153].

Regarding the argument that "if we reduce the wages of regular employees and make them easier to dismiss, the barrier between regular employees and temporary employees will decrease and the opportunities for temporary employees to be hired will increase." If it only ends in a decline, it could worsen the economy further."[154]. Tanaka pointed out, "If the regulations on the dismissal law are relaxed during a recession when business performance deteriorates, it will be easier for restructuring and the unemployment rate will increase."[155].

Yasuyuki Iida points out that "there are many laws in Japan that do not need to be protected. The rules for dismissal are practically only for large companies, not for small and medium-sized enterprises."[156].

About strengthening the safety net

Yasushi Harada,Daiwa Institute of Research"The government is required not to press companies to raise wages and maintain employment during the recession, but to do the safety net itself," he said.[157].

Norihisa Iwata said, "As a safety net in case of unemployment,employment insurance Is effective in expanding membership and public rent subsidies."[158].

In Germany, there is a rent subsidy system, etc., and you will not suddenly become homeless due to unemployment[159]. According to economists, “If you are unemployed, the situation is very different in the United States and Germany. It is difficult for unemployed people to make a living in the United States, but in Germany, unemployed people receive assistance from the government, Life can be maintained indefinitely.opportunity costIs less in Germany than in the US"[160].

Unemployment insurance

Fumio Otake said, “The typical public policy to prepare for unemployment risk is the unemployment insurance system. With complete unemployment insurance, people will not have to reduce their consumption levels even if they lose their jobs. The biggest problem with unemployment insurance Is that people who are unwilling to get a job falsely get unemployment insurance and do not seek employment seriously.In many countries, in order to eliminate unemployed unemployed workers, unemployment benefits Are lowering the level of unemployment benefits and shortening the period of unemployment benefits."[161].

Otake is unemployed for unemployed people to ease the conditions for unemployment benefits and extend the benefit period.Moral HazardPoint out that it is easy to produce[162].

Mizuho Research Institute"In the European example,employment insurance The more untidy, the longer the unemployment period of the unemployed is. Unemployed neglect efforts to obtain employment opportunities, causing moral hazard. If unemployment benefits are substantial, the intent to continue unemployment will work. Easy expansion of unemployment insurance must be avoided. In Europe, learning from the failure to expand unemployment insurance, we are shifting the focus of our employment policy from unemployment insurance to education, training and employment placement."[163].

Job training

Motoshige Ito said, “If unemployment occurs due to structural adjustment, it is necessary to take regional measures in response to structural adjustment, support for the acquisition of skills and placement of employment so that workers can move from a declining industry to a growing industry. Will be"[164].

Fumio Otake said, “Skill training is effective not in fields where unemployment is increasing, but in fields that enrich our lives. Specifically, investment/public investment that does not improve productivity but improves the living environment. It is a field of intellectual service”[165].

Norihisa Iwata pointed out that it is a great waste to call the safety net, hire unemployed people in the public sector that is not in the right place, or put taxes on education and training investments that are unlikely to be useful. ing[166].

Takuro Morinaga said, “The vocational training system does not always help re-employment.White collarIn the case of, short-term vocational training received after unemployment makes little sense. However, for low-paid workers, being able to use a word processor/PC Excel can be a professional skill.''[167].

Asahi Noguchi and Hideomi Tanaka said, "Most of the Japanese qualification system is a kind of "sign" that is not based on the intention to increase the skill of workers, and the benefits obtained by maintaining the qualification system. It exists just for the sake of[168].

Hideomi Tanaka pointed out, "Under severe unemployment, it is common for people to have skills but not work. Policies such as vocational training to improve the quality of human capital have only a secondary effect." ing[169]. Asahi Noguchi and Hideomi Tanaka said, ``Even if we were able to educate and train workers displaced from a “low productivity” industry and push them into another industry, as long as total demand did not increase, someone would I have no choice but to lose my job."[170].

Yasuyuki Iida points out that "the nation's direct provision of vocational training tends to be a rigid system. It is better to create only guidelines and leave it to the private sector."[171].

Cause-and-effect relationship with suicide

Economist Daniel Hummermesh believes that higher unemployment will lead to lower incomes in the long run and will not lead to a satisfactory life.suicidePoint out that more people will choose[172].

Takeshi Nakano"Increasing unemployment increases suicides and destabilizes society, but it not only imposes financial hardship but also destroys human dignity. If financial hardship alone, the government will provide unemployment benefits. You can solve it by simply doing.孤独Feelings cannot be solved with money."[173].

Yasuyuki Sawada, Michiko Ueda and Tetsuya Matsubayashi reveal the relationship between economy and suicide after showing many empirical studies.[174]. In Japan, the correlation between unemployment rate and suicide isOECDCompared to other countries, the unemployment rate is increasing the suicide rate among male working age groups (35-64 years old).[174].. Also, looking at the suicide rate by occupation for men in their 40s and 50s, it is said that it is particularly high among the unemployed and unemployed.[174].. Analysis of international and prefectural data also shows that unemployment and personal bankruptcy rates have led to higher suicide rates among men (especially 40-59 years old).[174].

Kenji Kawano, General Manager, Center for Suicide Prevention, said, "If you look at all of Japan, the unemployment rate and the suicide rate correlate nicely, but there are wide variations among prefectures. It shows that the protection factors such as welfare and support of the surroundings are different depending on the region.スウェーデンIn case of, it is not supported at the national level. Even if the unemployment rate goes up, the suicide rate goes down. In other words, it seems that there are social systems that are not driven to death even if they lose their jobs."[175].

Fumio Otake said, “Sweden has high unemployment benefits, and as a measure against unemployment, it has an active employment policy such as employment placement, vocational training, and direct employment in the public sector. It suggests that the relationship will change depending on the employment measures."[176].

Impact of low crude oil

EconomistKoichi Hamada"Changes in exogenous variables such as low oil prices have a positive impact on employment,"[177].

Japanese unemployment debate

Before the war, as seen in the slogan "Unemployed is the parasite of the country" of the country, the windfall against unemployment was tough. Fumio OtakeHigh economic growth periodIn the age of full employment, the unemployed and poor were conditions that occurred only when they did not work seriously. Perhaps the Japanese were not aware that they would fall into poverty even if they worked hard."[178].

Yasuyuki Iida said, "The major cause of the current (2010) increase in Japan's unemployment rate is the rise in real wages due to deflation. In other words, the increasing number of unemployed people in Japan is involuntary unemployed." Pointing out[179].

Nobuo Ikeda points out that “current (2009) unemployment insurance and welfare are insufficient as a safety net, and what is important is not the redistribution of income but the expansion of job opportunities.”[180].

Yamazaki Gen"The current (March 1999) recession is very good. We need to be more positive about the need for corporate bankruptcy and the resulting high unemployment rate. Coexistence with high unemployment rate We have to become a society, and some degree of macro unemployment is necessary for workers to move from wasteful places to non-useful ones."[181].. Yamazaki points out, "There is no need to do anything extra in the sense that workers will move faster to where the private sector is efficient."[182].

Heizo Takenaka said, “Japan's unemployment does not have to be so pessimistic in the medium to long term, because the population is declining. It is not a serious society. In the short term, it is necessary to eliminate the supply and demand mismatch through vocational training and education."[183].

Youth unemployment and lifetime income and savings levels

Fumio Otake points out, "Under the current situation in Japan (2005), once unemployed, it is difficult to get a job with high wages. An increase in the unemployment rate of young people is directly linked to an increase in the lifelong income disparity."[184].

UFJ Research Institute"The increase in youth unemployment in Japan, combined with the increase in freeters, has reduced the level of savings," the research department said.[185].

EconomistNaohiro Yatsushiro"No new jobs can be created without economic growth. The people who are hired may not have to grow, but the victims are the youngest. More mature than Japan The United States is growing. There is plenty of room for Japan to grow, and it is "human disaster" that does not do it."[186].

Government allocation

EconomistYouichi ItoIs "the worldCentral BankIn many cases, the mission is to maintain employment as much as to stabilize prices.”[187].. US Fed (Federal Reserve) Is legally required to stabilize prices and maintain employment.[188].

Yoichi Takahashi said, “I have to question how to approach employment in Japan. It is an economic problem that the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is in charge of employment. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Act No. 4 Although it is legally stipulated in Article 59 “Countermeasures for Unemployment and Others to Secure Employment Opportunities”, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, which is not in charge of macroeconomics, cannot take measures against unemployment in the true sense. It is important to lower the structural unemployment rate, but it is difficult to do so.The unemployment rate has both a structural part and a demand shortage, but MHLW has no effective means for the latter demand deficit. In the US, it is the Fed's responsibility to maximize employment, and it is the central bank's responsibility to reduce unemployment in response to demand shortages."[189].. Takahashi said, "It is clear that the unemployment rate decreases as inflation rises, but in JapanBank of JapanThe big problem is that it is handled by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, which wants to keep the unemployment rate as low as possible, has scattered employment adjustment subsidies. Without the subsidy, the current (2012) unemployment rate in Japan is 7%, which is the same as in the United States, and this is not a decent policy."[190].. Takahashi points out that "the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's policy is significant in reducing mismatches, but it is not enough to significantly increase or decrease the level of the unemployment rate."[191].

Yasushi Harada points out that the BOJ should also realize stable employment unless price stability is constrained.[192].

Asahi Noguchi and Hideomi Tanaka said, “What is said to be “structural unemployment due to a mismatch in labor demand” is actually a type of demand shortage unemployment, and if labor demand increases due to an increase in total demand, the “mismatch” will disappear. Point out"[193].

Related program

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d CIA (20121). CIA Fact Book Field Listing :: Unemployment rate (Report). https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/unemployment-rate/country-comparison 2021th of February 3Browse.. 
  2. ^ Youth unemployment rate in major countries, Japan is 5%, the lowest OECD surveySankei Shimbun
  3. ^ What Korea should learn from FinlandChosun Ilbo Japanese version
  4. ^ a b c Mitsubishi Research Institute "Understanding with the latest keywords! Introduction to Nihon Keizai Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2008, 128 pages.
  5. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications-Q & A about labor force survey
  6. ^ a b c d Gyosuke Kamiki "The most interesting and understandable mechanism of the latest economy-solving simple questions from macroeconomics to microeconomics (textbooks not taught at school)" Nippon Bungeisha, 2008, p. 54.
  7. ^ What is voluntary unemployment?Koto bank
  8. ^ What is frictional unemployment?Koto bank
  9. ^ a b Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world. From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, p.199.
  10. ^ Takashi Oshio, "Introduction to Economics for High School Students," Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma Shinsho>, 2002, 110 pages.
  11. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 37 pages.
  12. ^ Norihisa Iwata, “What's happening in the Japanese economy,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2005, p. 5.
  13. ^ 2nd Unemployment, 3 categories by causeRIETI Nihon Keizai Shimbun October 2013, 10
  14. ^ 14 Labor Economic AnalysisMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare(As of January 2013, 1Internet archive
  15. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "Learning Economic Policy in History," SoftBank Creative <SoftBank Shinsho>, 2006, page 23.
  16. ^ a b Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 43.
  17. ^ a b c Nihon Keizai Shimbun ed., "A Masterpiece of Economics that Changed the World", Nikkei Business Nikkei Business Bunko, 2013, p.217.
  18. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 42.
  19. ^ "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 211.
  20. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 46.
  21. ^ a b c Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 47.
  22. ^ a b Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 71.
  23. ^ This effective demand is the money supplyCurrency preference・Depends on expected profit rate and propensity to consume. Keynes argued that the effects of wage devaluations had to be taken into account through their impact on these factors, and that the neoclassical debate did not apply to wage devaluations across all industries.
  24. ^ Daiichi Kangin Research Institute, "The Japanese Economy Starting with Basic Terms", Nikkei Business Journal, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2001, page 56.
  25. ^ For this section, see Paul Krugman, Macroeconomics, Chapter 15.
  26. ^ George A. Akerlof, William T. Dickens and George L. Perry (2000), "Near-Rational Wage and Price Setting and the Optimal Rates of Inflation and Unemployment"
  27. ^ George A. Akarov, Robert Schiller (2009), Animal Spirit
  28. ^ S. Kuroda and Isao Yamamoto (2003), "Effect of downward rigidity of nominal wage on unemployment rate ─ Verification by simulation of macro model ─"
  29. ^ Tanaka Hideomi, Seiji Adachi, "Heisei University Stagnation and Showa Depression-Introduction to Practical Economics", NHK Publishing <NHK Books>, 2003, p. 42.
  30. ^ Stiglitz "Macroeconomics" p102-103
  31. ^ "Analysis of Labor Economy in 14" Chapter 7 Overemployment and Potential Unemployment[1]
  32. ^ In underdeveloped countries, workers in the traditional sector (such as self-sufficiency) are called “camouflaged unemployment” or “potential unemployment”. Yasuhisa Sato, ``Potential unemployment in underdeveloped countries: A general equilibrium analysis of causes of stagnation"Research on Economics," Vol. 33, No. 3, p.77-87, Faculty of Economics, Hokkaido University.
  33. ^ Kenshi Hirokane, Masaru Takagi "Introduction to Economics from Zero Knowledge" Gentosha, 2008, p.115.
  34. ^ "US GDP worst at 32.9%, unemployment also increased”. AFP (July 2020, 7). 2020th of February 5Browse.
  35. ^ a b Nori Kurihara/Diamond, Inc. “Understand the illustration! The Mechanism of Economy [New Edition]] Diamond, 2010, 198 pages.
  36. ^ [Economic English learned with WSJ] 148th U6 unemployment rateWSJ June 2014, 9
  37. ^ Fumio Otake, “Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, p.174.
  38. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute "Understanding with the latest keywords! Introduction to Nihon Keizai Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2008, 128-129 pages.
  39. ^ Masahiko Sato, Heizo Takenaka, "What was the economy like? Conference," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2002, pp. 342-343.
  40. ^ a b Mitsubishi Research Institute "Understanding with the latest keywords! Introduction to Nihon Keizai Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2008, 129 pages.
  41. ^ Takaaki Mitsuhashi: Read the back of economic news! TAC Publishing, 2009, 90 pages.
  42. ^ Takaaki Mitsuhashi: Read the back of economic news! TAC Publishing, 2009, 77 pages.
  43. ^ Gyosuke Kamiki, "The World Economy That Is Interestingly Well-Understood-The Present Situation and Problems of the World Economy Surrounding Japan (textbooks not taught at school)," Nihon Bungeisha, 2010, p.182.
  44. ^ Eurostat (June 2020). “Unemployment statistics at regional level". 2021th of February 3Browse.
  45. ^ Eurostate (March 2021, 3). “Unemployment by sex and age – monthly data". 2021th of February 3Browse.
  46. ^ . "Local Area Unemployment Statistics >Tables and Maps Created by BLS >COUNTY DATA >Map (PDF, GIF) ”. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  47. ^ Unemployment statistics at regional level Eurostat, April 2020
  48. ^ http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2010/12/labour_markets
  49. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/03/us-usa-economy-joblessbenefits-idUSBRE9B20XA20131203
  50. ^ http://ftp.iza.org/dp3570.pdf
  51. ^ [2]Global youth unemployment rate, 17% in 13.1, worsening for second consecutive year, 2 November 2017
  52. ^ [3]청년에게 더 불리한 사회보장, 돌이킬 수 없는 세대간 빈부격차 기사입력, February 2018, 2
  53. ^ [4]Japanese Korean workers exceed 5 for the first time
    2018th of February 2
  54. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (March 2021, 3).<Reference> Labor Force Survey (Basic tabulation) Results by prefecture Table 6 Unemployment rate (annual average)". 2021th of February 3Browse.
  55. ^ a b c d e Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (October 2021, 3). “Labor force survey (basic tally) (Excel) ”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau Home Page. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  56. ^ Long-term time series data (basic aggregation) Table 1 [Monthly results-nationwide] Seasonally adjusted values ​​and original figures for monthly results a-1 Main items
  57. ^ Asahi Noguchi “Lecture on how economics works”, Natsumesha, 2003, page 23.
  58. ^ a b "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 217.
  59. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 151.
  60. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 151-152.
  61. ^ Daiichi Kangin Research Institute, "The Japanese Economy Starting with Basic Terms", Nikkei Business Journal, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2001, page 55.
  62. ^ Hideomi Tanaka/Nenji Kamijin “Earthquake Depression! ~ Depression comes due to economic failure! ] Takarajimasha, 2011, p.212.
  63. ^ Yuichiro Koizumi, Illustrated Economist Battle Royale, Natsume, 2011, p. 43.
  64. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute "Understanding with the latest keywords! Introduction to Nihon Keizai Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2008, 130 pages.
  65. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 160.
  66. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (March 2021, 3). “Labor force survey Long-term time series data Table 8 [Results by region] Original figures and seasonally adjusted values ​​of quarterly average results (3) Unemployment rate by region (Excel) ”. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  67. ^ [5]"Summary of Labor Force Survey (Basic Data) 28 (2016) Average (Preliminary Report)"
  68. ^ [6]"The labor shortage due to the expansion of the economy, it is difficult for black corporate workers to fall into trouble"
  69. ^ [7]"Unemployment rate will be zero in 2019! Will the "1 million total wage increase era" ever come? Unprecedented labor shortage, at that time companies"
  70. ^ (September 2020, 9). "The grounds that Japan's unemployment rate" cannot be 2.9% "" (Japanese). Toyo Keizai ONLINE: pp. 2-4. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/373385?page=2 2021th of February 3Browse. 
  71. ^ [8]42% youth employment rate... Korea's worst in OECD
  72. ^ Labor Force Survey Terminology Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau
  73. ^ According to the data for the period from October to December 2017, "People aged 29 and over except for "employed" and "unemployed""
  74. ^ The reason for targeting employees who work less than 35 hours a week is that most Japanese companies have a specified working time of 35 hours or more a week. Also, the number of countries with a threshold of 35 hours is the most internationally. The “Labor Force Survey” has traditionally determined whether or not a week's working hours are short, based on 1 hours.
  75. ^ Explanation of unused labor indexMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau
  76. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (March 2021, 2).Summary of average results for 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa) XNUMXth Unutilized Labor (PDF)”. Pp. 9-11. 2021th of February 3Browse.Labor force survey (detailed count) 30 average (preliminary report)Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau
  77. ^ Fumio Otake, "Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money," Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, pp. 172-173.
  78. ^ "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 208.
  79. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "Learning Economic Policy in History," SoftBank Creative <SoftBank Shinsho>, 2006, page 58.
  80. ^ Heizo Takenaka, "Economics of Professor Takenaka", Gentosha, 2000, p. 42.
  81. ^ Masahiko Sato, Heizo Takenaka, "What was the economy like? Conference," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2002, p.337.
  82. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Employment Collapse, The Arrival of the Era of the Unemployment Rate of 10%, NHK Publishing <Shinseijin Shinsho>, 2009, 132 pages.
  83. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "Unscrupulous Economics," Kodansha <Kodansha biz>, 2008, page 117.
  84. ^ Shoot Yoichi Takahashi's popular theory! The Bank of Japan's aim is to establish a "price outlook for companies", which is a headwind to the monetary easing called the consumption tax hike.Diamond Online August 2014, 4
  85. ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, 122-123.
  86. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.19.
  87. ^ Stephen Randsburg, "Lunchtime Economics-Unraveling the Mysteries of Daily Life," Nikkei Business Journal, 2004, 210 pages.
  88. ^ a b Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 104.
  89. ^ Yuichiro Koizumi, Illustrated Economist Battle Royale, Natsume, 2011, p. 109.
  90. ^ Daiichi Kangin Research Institute, "The Japanese Economy Starting with Basic Terms", Nikkei Business Journal, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2001, page 58.
  91. ^ Takao Komine, "Basics of Visual Japanese Economy," Nikkei Newspaper, 4th Edition, Nikkei Bunko Visual, 2010, 32 pages.
  92. ^ Research: On the economic basis of the new Abe administration's monetary policyChuo Online: YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun) December 2012, 12
  93. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.215.
  94. ^ Edited by Hideomi Tanaka, "Can the Japanese Economy Revive?" Fujiwara Shoten, 2013, p. 103.
  95. ^ Edited by Diamond Co., "Issues on the Japanese Economy, What's wrong?" Diamond Co., 2004, p. 104.
  96. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "How to read economic warfare" Kodansha <Kodansha Shinsho>, 2004, p. 84.
  97. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Employment Collapse, The Arrival of the Era of the Unemployment Rate of 10%, NHK Publishing <Shinseijin Shinsho>, 2009, 104 pages.
  98. ^ Further monetary easing, government bonds can still be bought Professor Yasushi Harada, Waseda University Archived August 2015, 1, at the Wayback Machine.Asahi Shimbun Digital January 2015, 1
  99. ^ Edited by Hideomi Tanaka, "Can the Japanese Economy Revive?" Fujiwara Shoten, 2013, p. 103.
  100. ^ Shoot Yoichi Takahashi's popular theory! Wages will rise half a year after the GDP gap closesDiamond Online August 2015, 3
  101. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 179.
  102. ^ Katsuyo Katsuma, Tetsuya Miyazaki, Yasuyuki Iida, “Economic Restoration: The Simplest Method,” Kobunsha <Koubunsha Shinsho>, 2010, page 115.
  103. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 211.
  104. ^ Nobuo Ikeda, Courage to Give Up Hope-Economics of Stagnation and Growth, Diamond, 2009, p. 21.
  105. ^ Nobuo Ikeda, Courage to Give Up Hope-Economics of Stagnation and Growth, Diamond, 2009, p. 4.
  106. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 11 pages.
  107. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 198 pages.
  108. ^ Naoaki Okabe, "Introduction to Basic Nihon Keizai," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 4th edition (Nikkei Bunko), 2009, p. 64.
  109. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "Ben Bernanke, New Emperor of the World Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha BIZ>, 2006, p. 103.
  110. ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, 125-126.
  111. ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, p. 130.
  112. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.87.
  113. ^ Heizo Takenaka, "Economics of Professor Takenaka", Gentosha, 2000, p. 43.
  114. ^ Heizo Takenaka, "Economics of Professor Takenaka", Gentosha, 2000, p. 45.
  115. ^ Heizo Takenaka, "Economics of Professor Takenaka", Gentosha, 2000, p. 130.
  116. ^ Daiwa Institute of Research “Latest edition: An introduction to how economics work-see, read and understand”, Nihon Jitsugyo Publisher, 4th edition, 2002, p. 59.
  117. ^ Politics/Society [How to solve Japan] Is real wage decline a problem? Full-scale increase in wages is yet to come (1/2 page)ZAKZAK December 2014, 6
  118. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Last "Winter Sona" Theory, Ota Publishing, 2005, 160 pages.
  119. ^ Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world. From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, p.200.
  120. ^ Heizo Takenaka, Heizo Takenaka, "Economics of Living Japan", Gyosei, 2nd Edition, 2001, pp. 152-153.
  121. ^ Shunsuke Tachibaki, “Asahi Adults Re-learning Economics: A History of Economics to Solve Problems”, Asahi Shimbun, 2012, p. 132.
  122. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Refreshing! An Introduction to the Japanese Economy-The 15 Laws of Reading the Modern Society, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 2003, pp. 226-227.
  123. ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, p. 128.
  124. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 160 pages.
  125. ^ "Easy Economics" edited by Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc., Nikkei Business Human Bunko, 2001, p. 210.
  126. ^ a b Shunsuke Tachibaki, “Asahi Adults Re-learning Economics: A History of Economics to Solve Problems”, Asahi Shimbun, 2012, p. 83.
  127. ^ Heizo Takenaka, “Economic Classics Are Useful” Kobunsha <Koubunsha Shinsho>, 2010, 107 pages.
  128. ^ The looseness of nominal wage downward rigidity means that the nominal wage is being devalued (Hideomi Tanaka, The Last "Winter Sona" Theory, Ota Publishing, 2005, p. 161).
  129. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 213.
  130. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 214.
  131. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Last "Winter Sona" Theory, Ota Publishing, 2005, 163 pages.
  132. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 197.
  133. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 144 pages.
  134. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Refreshing! Introduction to the Japanese Economy-Fifteen Laws to Read and Read Contemporary Society," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 15, p. 2003.
  135. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 190.
  136. ^ Rei Tachibana "Talking about life after the Great Earthquake" Kodansha, 2011, p.83.
  137. ^ Nobuo Ikeda, Courage to Give Up Hope-Economics of Stagnation and Growth, Diamond, 2009, pp 22-23.
  138. ^ Nobuo Ikeda, Courage to Give Up Hope-Economics of Stagnation and Growth, Diamond, 2009, p. 46.
  139. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.84.
  140. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.85.
  141. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.236.
  142. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Employment Collapse, The Arrival of the Era of the Unemployment Rate of 10%, NHK Publishing <Shinseijin Shinsho>, 2009, 161 pages.
  143. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 198.
  144. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 217.
  145. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 180.
  146. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Economics that turns "anxiety" into "hope"" PHP Research Institute, 2010, p.237.
  147. ^ Fumio Otake, "Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money," Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, pp. 173-174.
  148. ^ Morinaga Takuro, "The 50 Big Questions of the Japanese Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho>, 2002, pp.147-148.
  149. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Recommendations for Economic Thinking" Chikuma Shobo, 2011, p.194.
  150. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Recommendations of Economic Thinking" Chikuma Shobo, 2011, pp. 194-195.
  151. ^ It is considered a reasonable reason if the four requirements of 1) necessity of personnel reduction, 2) effort to avoid dismissal, 3) validity of selection, and 4) reasonableness of procedures are satisfied, and it is not considered to be abuse of dismissal rights. (Four requirements for dismissal doctrine) (Fumio Otake, "Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of the Market Economy" Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, 163-164).
  152. ^ a b Norihisa Iwata "Recommendations for Economic Thinking" Chikuma Shobo, 2011, p.195.
  153. ^ [Interview with Mr. Hideomi Tanaka] It is mediocre but the best prescription "reflation policy" to save Japan from deflation. SoftBank Business + IT September 2010, 9
  154. ^ Hideomi Tanaka "How to enter a good company from a deviation of 40" Toyo Keizai, 2009, 182.
  155. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Last "Winter Sona" Theory, Ota Publishing, 2005, 157 pages.
  156. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.213.
  157. ^ Yasushi Harada and Daiwa Institute of Research "Introduction to Japanese Economy for New Adults" Mainichi Shimbun <Mainichi Business Books>, 2009, p. 37.
  158. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Economics that turns "anxiety" into "hope"" PHP Research Institute, 2010, p.244.
  159. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.141.
  160. ^ Robert H. Frank, "Thinking Everyday Questions with Economics" Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2013, p.244.
  161. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.122.
  162. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Japanese Salaryman Will Revive", Japan Broadcast Publishing Association <NHK Books>, 2002, p. 209.
  163. ^ Mizuho Research Institute, "Economics in Three Hours-Points to Know", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 3, p. 2002.
  164. ^ Motoshige Ito, The First Economics (below), Nikkei Publishing, Nikkei Bunko, 2004, p. 124.
  165. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.149.
  166. ^ Norihisa Iwata "Refreshing! Introduction to the Japanese Economy-Fifteen Laws to Read and Read Contemporary Society," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 15, p. 2003.
  167. ^ Morinaga Takuro, "The 50 Big Questions of the Japanese Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho>, 2002, pp.160-161.
  168. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 155 pages.
  169. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, "The Employment Collapse: The Unemployment Rate is at 10%," NHK Publishing <Living People New Book>, 2009, pp. 50-51.
  170. ^ Asahi Noguchi, Hideomi Tanaka, “Misunderstanding of Structural Reform Theory,” Toyo Keizai, Inc., 2001, 18 pages.
  171. ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.239.
  172. ^ Fumio Otake, “Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, p.178.
  173. ^ Takeshi Nakano "Regime Change-The Idea of ​​Reversal that Overcame the Depression" NHK Publishing <NHK Publishing New Book>, 2012, p. 79.
  174. ^ a b c d Why Japanese liberals hate reflationary policiesWEDGE Infinity September 2014, 9
  175. ^ Was the sudden increase in suicide due to the consumption tax increase?Web Magazine Monthly Charger September 2011 (Internet Archive as of September 9, 2011)
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  177. ^ Interview: Bank of Japan reconsiders price targets, 1%, 3 years, etc. = Counselor HamadaReuters February 2015, 2
  178. ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.9.
  179. ^ Yasuyuki Iida “Introduction to the simplest economy in the world. From everyday questions to deflation” Enterbrain, 2010, p.201.
  180. ^ Nobuo Ikeda, Courage to Give Up Hope-Economics of Stagnation and Growth, Diamond, 2009, p. 71.
  181. ^ Hideomi Tanaka, The Last "Winter Sona" Theory, Ota Publishing, 2005, 147 pages.
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  183. ^ Heizo Takenaka, Heizo Takenaka, Economics of "Japan Lives", Gyosei, 2nd Edition, 2001, p. 72.
  184. ^ Fumio Otake, “Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, p.198.
  185. ^ UFJ Research Institute, Research Department, "The Japanese Economy in 50 Words", Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2005, p. 94.
  186. ^ Neoliberal denial is nonsense! After all, Koizumi reform was necessary for JapanDaily Cyzo October 2011, 10
  187. ^ Finance for teenagers Lecture 10: “In the global market”man@bouw Manabou June 2011, 6
  188. ^ Yoichi Takahashi "Professor Takahashi's Introduction to Economics" Aspect, 2011, p.209.
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  190. ^ 2012 interviewFN holding
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References

HMG (UK Government)Kenzo KashinoTranslated "New welfare contract British ambition" Tezukayama University Press, 2008.

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4

4(Shigatsu) isGregorian calendarYearsThe ninth ofMonthThere are 30 days.

JapanThen,Lunar month septemberTheYuzukiCalled (Uzuki), and nowNew yearAlso used as an alias for April. It is a dogma that the origin of Uzuki is an abbreviation for "Uno Hanazuki", the month in which Usu flowers bloom. However, there is a theory that the origin of Uzuki is different and that it is called a flower because it blooms in Uzuki. Theories other than "Uzuki no Kagetsu" include:ZodiacThe fourth isTherefore, the theory of "Uzuki",RiceBecause it is the month for planting seedlings, it is "Uzuki", "Uetsuki", "Tanahezuki" and "Nauezuki". There is such a theory. Another name is "Natsu Hazuki".

In Japan, it is famous as the beginning of a new school year or semester, and schools, government agencies, companies, etc.Entrance ceremony-Entrance ceremonyWill be held, and it will be rushing as in March of the previous month. Although the number of households and population is small,Yuzuki"Last name(Last name) also exists. April is every year7Starts on the same day asleap yearTo1Both will be the same.

The month name in English is AprilLatin Of Aprilis,Venus(Equivalent Greek GoddessAphrodite OfEtruriaFirst name Apru Month) dedicated to.

Synonym

Engetsu (Old moon), Uetsuki (Uetsuki), Uzuki (Uzuki), Unohanazuki (Ukatsuki), Kengetsu (Dry moon), Kenshigetsu (Kentsuki), this Torizuki (Koba leaf harvesting month), Chingetsu (Chinese moon), Natsuhazuki (first summer), Bakushu (barley autumn), Hananokozuki (Hanazukuri), Mouka (Mengatsu)

September annual events

Sports held in September

July theme song

Other

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2021 4(Yuzuki
DayMonthTueWedThuFriSat
123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
252627282930
365 Day
Each month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12



 

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