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🌏 | Turkey and other allies should avoid purchasing additional Russian weapons = US Secretary of State


Allies such as Turkey should avoid purchasing additional Russian weapons = US Secretary of State

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"It is also very important that Turkey and all of its allies in the United States do not purchase additional Russian-made weapons, including the surface-to-air missile S400," he said.

[Washington, XNUMXth, Reuters] – US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on the XNUMXth that all allies of the United States, including Turkey, are in Russia ... → Continue reading


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Surface-to-air missile

Surface-to-air missile(Chitaiku missile,English: surface-to-air missile, SAM / ground-to-air missile, GAM) Is fired from the ground against an aerial targetmissile..Some require large-scale missile sites to be set up, while others carry launchers on their shoulders to launch small ones.


Surface-to-air missiles can be broadly divided into three types according to their uses.

Surface-to-air missiles for HIMAD have been in operation since the earliest days.Since it is necessary to detect and capture enemy aircraft at a long distance, a fairly large-scale facility is required.On the other hand, surface-to-air missiles for VSHORAD have appeared relatively recently, and because they have a short range, they are small and can be carried and used by individuals.Portable air defense missile systemThere is also (MANPADS). Many VSHORAD missiles other than MANPADS and short-range SHORAD missiles that fill the space between HIMAD and VSHORAD are mounted on vehicles so that they can move and deploy quickly.

Ship-launched onesShip-to-air missileAlthough the basic principle is the same, it is necessary to operate it on a swaying ship and take measures against wind waves, and since the operation form is different, special consideration is required.ロシアOften developed separately, unless considered from the design stage (like some missile systems made by).However, since the SHORAD system has been developed to handle harsh field battle environments, it is relatively easy to carry on board.America OfLarrea,France OfCrotaleThere is also an example that was diverted as.

Brief history


Surface-to-air missiles are many othermissilethe same as,Second World WarInGermanyWas conceived in.1943From around the timeNazi GermanyIt is,AlliesIn response to the intensification of the German mainland bombing, they decided to apply their advanced missile technology to air defense.Hs 117OrV2 rocketDerived from "Wasserfall"(Wasserfall) and others were developed.However, due to the exhaustion of Germany's national power, these were not put into actual battle on a large scale.

Can fly at an altitude of 10,000 mAmericaNew modelBomberB-29The threat ofJapanBut independently, a surface-to-air missile that can shoot down the B-29 "Funryu"Or"Autumn water explosive rocket"1944It had been developed from the beginning, but it was not in time by the end of the war.

after that,Nuclear strategyWith the advent of the times, the nuclear-armed bombers that invade the sky above their own countrynuclear weaponsIt became necessary to intercept from a long distance rather than the influence of the above, and surface-to-air missiles as air defense weapons became more important.During this period, the focus was on developing missile systems for HIMAD applications, reflecting these missions.In addition, in the HIMAD system at this timeNuclear warheadThere was one equipped with.This is one missile and oneaircraftOr one shotBallistic missileRather than trying to shoot down, it comes in large numbers with one shotLong range bomberIt was an attempt to shoot down formations and ballistic missiles descending in quick succession as much as possible.However, as long as it is a surface-to-air missile, it will cause a nuclear explosion over the territory of its own country or its allies.FalloutAnd powerfulElectromagnetic pulseIt was expected that the damage to allies caused by (EMP) would be enormous.Radioactive fallout causes human and environmental damage, and electromagnetic pulses include electric power and other types.InfrastructureDamage to.For this reason, surface-to-air missiles equipped with nuclear warheads have disappeared early.


The HIMAD missile system developed in this way became famous.1960May 5 OfU-2 shooting down incidentIs. this is,USSRWas the first generation HIMAD missile system ofS-75(SA-2 guideline) is high altitudestratosphereThanreconnaissanceWas flyingU-2Reconnaissance aircraftDefeated the conventionalInterceptor fighter,Anti-aircraft gunIt was well known that surface-to-air missiles can attack even at altitudes that cannot be reached.

The Soviet surface-to-air missile technology, including the S-75 used here, isSecond Indo-Pac WarAfter experiencing the first actual battle inVietnam WarとFourth Middle East WarWas put into actual battle on a large scale inWestern countriesGave a big shock to.Vietnam WarSo, in addition to the S-75, it has a slightly shorter range but is more agile.S-125(SA-3 Gore), and the earliest MANPADS9K32 Strela 2(SA-7 Grail) has been introduced, S-75 at high altitude, S-125 at medium to low altitude, 9K32 at ultra-low altitude andAnti-aircraft gunAnd defense in depthFirepowerIt was possible to demonstrate it.During the Vietnam War, North Vietnam launched 4,000 S-75s and faced its dense air defense network.U.S. ForcesIt is,ECMとWild WeaselDepends on the machineSuppress the enemy air defense networkI countered with.Although this Wild Weasel tactic was extremely bleeding, these sacrifices also established countermeasures against surface-to-air missiles.

In addition,Fourth Middle East WarThen, the new model2K12(SA-6 Gain Full) was introduced.It has a lower maximum firing height than the S-75 and S-125, but is agile and has a wider range of fire.Israel Defense ForcesECM did not work, so it is a new type of anti-aircraft gun introduced from this war.ZSU-23-4WithIsraeli Air ForceWas forced to make a big sacrifice.Israel immediately improved the ECM device, but the Arab army alsoECCMThe measures were taken, and it looked like a cat-and-mouse game.

Since the 1980s

1980 era,Afghanistan conflictAtPortable air defense missile system(MANPADS) was put into action on a large scale.This makes heavy use of aerial aircraft operation battlesSoviet armyAir power and air defense againstFirepowerAlmost noMujahideenIt was a countermeasure.MujahideenConflictInitially,CatchingMade in the Soviet Union9K32 Strela 2Although it was countered by (SA-7 Grail), the 9K32 was already obsolete in terms of performance, and because it was a domestic weapon and the Soviet side was familiar with the countermeasures, it could be almost successful. could not.

However, since the early 1980sAmericaNew madeFIM-92 StingerThe situation changed drastically when the Soviet Union was given in secret.helicopter,Transport aircraftThe number of shots down has increased rapidly.Soviet army1989ToアフガニスタンAlthough it will withdraw more, it is said that the loss of the helicopter due to Stinger was one of the major factors.But thenCollapse of the Soviet UnionWith the spread of MANPADS and MANPADSterrorismThe risk of being used for is increasing, and it is being watched.

On the other hand,American terrorist attacksAs seen inaircraftThere is also a movement to deploy SHORAD / VSHORAD missile systems in the vicinity of important facilities, etc., to be wary of suicide bombings using.

On the other hand, especially21st centuryAfter entering,Third worldIn response to the spread of ballistic missile technology, the HIMAD missile systemBallistic missile interceptionThe movement to add functions is spreading.

High / medium altitude air defense missile

High / medium altitude air defense(HIMAD: High-to-Medium-Altitude Air Defense) system is an air defense system with a maximum firing height of 10,000 m or more.The range is around 30 kilometers or more.In the field battleLegion,SquadronAir defense under direct controlFirepowerIt is operated as.Also, take advantage of its long rangeInterceptorComplementNational air defenseAlso used as a meansUSSRInAir defense,Western countriesIn many cases, it is deployed to the Air Force.

Large-scale HIMAD systems require the construction and operation of missile sites, with little tactical maneuver.In recent years, many have become portable, and in a short time, launchers and control systems,radarIt is possible to move by mounting a device or the like on a vehicle.However, even in this case, since it is necessary to connect multiple units to build a system, it takes time to deploy and withdraw, and quick tactical maneuvering is still difficult.This is because the mission of the long-range HIMAD system does not require consideration of frequent movements.

Also, the HIMAD system has a surface-to-ground missile orBallistic missileSome have the ability to intercept.In addition, some were developed from the beginning with the main task of intercepting ballistic missiles, especiallyBallistic interceptor missileIt is called (ABM). Many ABMs cannot be used in the atmosphere (such as THAAD missiles), and unlike regular HIMAD missiles, they are different.aircraftCannot be used to attack against.

Typical model

Indian flag India

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

Japanese flag Japan

Russian flag ロシア

Short range air defense missile

Short range air defense(SHORAD: Short Range Air Defense) The system is an air defense system with a maximum range of about 10 kilometers.DivisionOrbrigadeIn addition to being used for field warfare air defense, the Navy and Air Force also use it for the defense of important facilities on the ground.Long time agoLarge diameter OfAnti-aircraft gun(M51 75mm anti-aircraft gunEtc.) were used, but now in the field of land warfare, surface-to-air missiles (Short SAM) Is almost completely replaced by[Note 1].

Many are self-propelled, and some models have a control and launcher mounted on the same vehicle for quick deployment and withdrawal.This is to provide air defense assistance to accompany frequently moving field forces.

Typical model

Short range air defense missile

Short-range air defense(VSHORAD: Very Short Range Air Defense) The system is an air defense system with a maximum range of about 5 kilometers. Complementing the SHORAD systemDivisionOrbrigadeIn addition to participating in the field warfare air defense system ofbattalionIt is also used as a means of self-defense and air defense on the following steps.

Although it has a short range, it is said to have excellent responsiveness and maneuverability. As VSHORAD, conventionalHigh fireMachine gunHas been used, but nowPortable air defense missile system(MANPADS) and its in-vehicle and fixed systems are becoming widely deployed.However, since the surface-to-air missile system has major problems in terms of responsiveness at close range, anti-aircraft guns are still in operation in a way that complements these.

In-vehicle / fixed type

Many of these are shoulder-shootingPortable air defense missile system(MANPADS) is improved and diverted.However, since it solves the problems of power supply and system connection that limit the performance of MANPADS due to its portability, it should be regarded as a separate system in fact.In other words, the power can be supplied from the vehicle side, which enables much more stable operation and more advanced.Fire control systemAnd network connection is possible, so efficient shooting is possible.

Typical model

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

Russian flag ロシア


Portable air defense missile system(MANPADS) Is1960 eraIt is a relatively new technology that began to be deployed in the second half.

The concept of MANPADS isSecond World WarAt the endWehrmachtDeveloped byFliegerfaustAlready seen in, this continues to accelerate thereafteraircraftCould not be dealt with.US Army The1948We considered several models including Fliegerfaust, but decided to develop our own because all of them had insufficient air defense effect.ConveyorAfter 10 years of basic research by the company,1959More development projects have started.The world's first MANPADS was developed by this.FIM-43 Red EyeIs. Also,USSRBut1959Similar research has been conducted since that time, and this is9K32 Strela 2Deployed as (SA-7 GRL).All of these 1st generation MANPADS are simpleInfraredInduction was adopted.However,The United Kingdom1st generation MANPADS (enIn)Manual command line of sight matching guidance method(MCLOS) is used.

After that, the development of the second generation MANPADS was started.These have increased the attackable range by adopting seeker cooling and two-wavelength light wave induction.AmericaThen.FIM-92 Stinger, In the Soviet Union9K34 Strela 3(SA-14 Gremlin) was deployed.Also,Japan OfType 91 mobile surface-to-air missileIn, a more advanced image guidance method is adopted.On the other hand, Britain is the second generationJavelinNow with more automated wireless SACLOS guidance, 3rd generationStarburstHas adopted the laser SACLOS method,スウェーデン OfRBS 70But likewiseLaser guidanceWas selected.

1st generation MANPADSVietnam WarAlthough it was put into actual battle from around that time, it is relatively easy to avoid it, so as VSHORAD,Anti-aircraft gunIt did not go beyond the scope of complementation.After that, in the conflict in Afghanistan, Stinger, the second generation MANPADS, was put into actual battle and achieved great results (# Since the 1980s(See also), which attracted attention and became popular worldwide.

But thenCollapse of the Soviet UnionWith the spread of MANPADS and MANPADSterrorismIncreased risk of being used in.1994ToRwandaGovernment aircraftDassault Falcon 50Was shot down by MANPADS, President RwandaJuvénal HabyarimanaWas piggybackingEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euPresidentCyprien NtaryamiraDied together (Assassination of Presidents Habyarimana and Ntaryamira), With this incident as a direct triggerOne of the best genocides in historyWas caused.Also,2002IsEl Al AirlinesAn incident occurred in which the aircraft was attacked with 9K32 (El Al aircraft is infraredSeekerThis attack failed because it was equipped with a deception device against; English version articles).In response to this2003 Of29th Summit of Major CountriesAt"Strengthening management of traffic security and portable surface-to-air missiles (MANPADS)"Action plan was adopted.

Typical model

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

Russian flag ロシア


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the naval field, most combatants are still equipped with 57-76 mm dual-purpose guns to double as anti-water firepower.



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