Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🌏 | Most of the corona limit will be lifted on the 19th, 3 states including NY and NJ


写真 

Most of the corona number limit will be lifted on the 19th, 3 states including NY and NJ

 
If you write the contents roughly
The New York City Subway will also resume operation 17 hours a day from the 24th.
 

[Reuters] – Governor Kuomo of New York, USA, said on the XNUMXrd as part of measures to control the infection of the new coronavirus. → Continue reading

 Reuters


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

24 hours operation

ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク

New York City(British: New York City) IsThe United States of AmericaNew York StateThe city in.

1790Since then, it has been the largest city in the country.[2], The city area population exceeds 800 million, and the metropolitan area population is more than 2,000 million, depending on the definition.[3][4].2015The city's gross domestic product is $ 6,625 billion, the largest in the United States.[5]

UKWith the highest standardWorld city[6],Financial centerIs[7],United NationsIt is also the headquarters of the world, and has a great influence on the politics, economy, culture, fashion and entertainment of the world.

KanjiJapanese alphabetIs "New York City", "New York City", etc.[8].

Overview

New York City faces the Atlantic Ocean in the northeastern United States and is hugeNew York Harborhave. The cityBronx,Brooklyn,マ ン ハ ッ タ ン,Queens,Staten Island5Administrative districtIt is divided into (Barrow, Borrow). The city population in the 2010 census was 817.[3], Land area is 790km2[9][10], Population density is second among the major cities in the United States[11].. The population of the New York metropolitan area is also the largest in the country,Hudson riverAcross the bankNew JerseyNewark,Jersey city, On the mainland sideYonkersAnd andLong islandThere are 1,889 people in the metropolitan area, includingConnecticut OfStanford,Bridge port,New HavenAnd the capital of New JerseyTrenton, Inland Poughkeepsie, etc., has a population of 2,208 (both according to the 5,649 census).[3].

In the cities of the United StatesPublic transportIs by far the most used, and many means of transportation operate 24 hours a day. The population density is also high and its diversity is remarkable. According to a 2005 survey, nearly 170 languages ​​were spoken in the city, and 36% of the population was born outside the United States.[12][13].

New York is also called "the city that never sleeps"[14],Besides that"Big apple'[15]"Gotham'[16]There is a nickname such as.

New York in 1624DutchIt is a town built as a trading ground by the hands of. This settlement is until 1664New AmsterdamWas called, but the same year the British rule began and it became the current name.[17].. From 1785 to 1790, it served as the capital of the United States.[18].

There are many world-famous districts and landmarks in the city.Statue of libertyMillions of people who came to the United States from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th centuryImmigrationWas greeted.Lower Manhattan OfWall street TheSecond World WarSince then, it has been an international center of finance andNew York Stock ExchangeIs placed.Empire State Building,1 World Trade Centerな どSkyscraperMany are lined up,World Trade CenterWas one of them.United Nations Headquarters BuildingIt is also the center of international politics.

Also in New YorkHarlem Renaissance, Painting抽象 表現 主義,ポ ッ プ ア ー トAndhip hop[19],Punk Rock[20],salsa,Disco,Tin Pan ArrayMusic genres such as were born.Broadway theaterIs also famous.

America'sthink tank 2017Announced in comprehensiveWorld cityIn the rankingUKIt was evaluated as the second largest city in the world after[21]. Also,2017ToJapanThe privategraduate SchoolWas also evaluated as the second largest city in the world after London in the "Global Power City Index" announced by[22].

on the other hand,Census BureauCenters for Disease Control and PreventionUsing the data ofHarvard Universityカナダ OfUniversity of British ColumbiaInvestigated that New York was the most unfortunate city in the United States.[23].

economistConducting research work at a brother company ofEconomist Intelligence UnitAccording to the report, as of September 2016, it was reported that it was ranked 9th in the world ranking of living expenses, and that living expenses in New York are high in the world.[24].. In addition, New York is the world's most billionaire city with over $ 10 billion in assets.[25], The investment activities they carry out have a tremendous impact on the world economy.

History

1524,FranceReceived the order of the kingイタリアExplorerGiovanni da VerazzanoReached the area and called it (Nouvelle Angoulême)[26].. At that time, there were about 5,000 people hereLenapeFamilyイ ン デ ィ ア ンLived in[27].

European settlementsDutch 1614At the southern tip of ManhattanFur tradeThe colony that was built for was the beginning, and this was later "New AmsterdamIt came to be called. NetherlandsThe colonial governor1626,Lenape tribe60 Manhattan Island from (Delaware)Guilder(2006Current conversion 1,000DollarExchanged for goods of about)[28].. Legend has it that Manhattan was priced at $ 24 worth of glass beads, which is now denied.[29].. It is doubtful that they understood the deal, as the Indians did not have a culture of "selling land" in the first place. Since then, the Lenape and surrounding tribes and the settlers have been fighting over the territory many times, with the buttons misplaced.

1664,The United KingdomPeople conquer the town,EnglandJames INamed "New York" after (Duke of York Albany)[30].Second Anglo-Dutch WarAfter that, the Netherlands, instead of admitting British control of New Amsterdam (New York) in North America, South AmericaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAnd IndonesiaBanda Islands OfRun island(At that timeSpice tradeIn the center ofFur tradeWas a more valuable land than New York).1700By then, the Lenape population had declined to 200[31].

New YorkBritish EmpireUnder the control of, it became more important as a trading port.1735ToJohn Peter ZengerThe case was tried and in North AmericaFreedom of the pressIt led to the establishment of.1754, KingGeorge VAs a Royal University of Lower Manhattan by Royal CharterColumbia UniversityWas established[32].. In March 1765Stamp Law ConferenceWas held in New York.

In New YorkAmerican Revolutionary WarDuring that time, large battles were repeated.1776ToUpper ManhattanMade inBattle of Fort WashingtonAfter the U.S. Army was defeated inNorth AmericaBecomes a military and political hub in Japan and ends the war1783The occupation of the British troops continued until. Shortly after the end of the warCongress of the ConfederationIs held here, New York City is in the United StatescapitalIt became. hereUnited States ConstitutionWas ratified and the firstPresidentGeorge Washington 1789We have reached the inauguration ceremony. 1stCongressThe first session ofBill of RightsWas drafted. These stages were on Wall StreetFederal HallMet[33].1790In New YorkPhiladelphiaIt had grown into the largest city in the United States.

19st century, New York has undergone a major transformation due to immigration and development.1811 Commission PlanCovered the entire Manhattan area with a grid of streets.1819ToErie CanalIs opened,大西洋Connected the port to the vast agricultural market in the interior of North America[34].. The politics of the region was dominated by Irish immigrantsmachineIsTamany HallMet[35].. By the petition of the merchant class full of public spiritCentral ParkConstruction began,1857It became the first landscape-designed park in an American city. There were also many free blacks in Manhattan and Brooklyn. In new york1827Slavery was maintained until1830 era, New York became the center of the abolitionist movement in the north.1840At that time, New York had a black population of over 1.[36].. By 1860, the Irish population was over 20, accounting for a quarter of the city's population.[37].

American Civil WarFrom dissatisfaction with the conscription system at the time of (1861-1865)1863ToNew York draft riotThere has occurred. This was one of the worst riots in American history[38].1898, Brooklyn (at that timeIndependent cityWas merged with New York County (which included part of the Bronx), Richmond County, and Western Queens County to form what is now New York City.[39].1904ToNew York City SubwayOpened and helped to integrate the new city.20st centuryIn the second half, New York City became the world's industrial, commercial and information center. However, there was a sacrifice behind the scenes. 1904, steamshipGeneral SlocumIssueEast RiverA fire broke out in the area, killing 1,021 people on board.1911Happened toTriangle Shirt Waste FactoryThe fire was the worst industrial disaster in New York City, killing 146 garment factory workers, boosting the growth of the International Women's Clothing Trade Union and significantly improving factory safety standards.[40].

1920 era, New York CityAfrican American migrationSouthernCame fromAfrican AmericanBecame a major destination for. By 1916, New York City had the highest number of African-American migrants in North America.Prohibition LawIn timesHarlem RenaissanceProspered, and at the same time with rapid economic growthSkyscraperWas built to compete, and the landscape of the city changed drastically. In the early 1920s, New York CityUKIt has become the city with the largest population in the world. The population of the New York metropolitan area is1930Over 1,000 million at the beginning, the first in human historyMega cityBecame[41].World DepressionIn the age of reformersFiorello La Guardia(Fiorello LaGuardia) has been elected mayor and has dominated the city administrationTamany HallLost 80 years of political control[42].

Second World WarWith the demobilization of soldiers from Japan, the post-war economy began to rise and the development of a vast residential area in the eastern Queens progressed. New York has grown into a world-class city without showing the scars of war.Wall streetPushes America to become the World Economy Champion,United Nations Headquarters Building(1950The establishment of (completed) signaled New York's political influence. Born in new york抽象 表現 主義In this cityParisIn the world that replacesartChanged to the center[43].

1960 era, New York suffers from economic stagnation, rising crime rates, rising racial conflicts,1970 eraPeaked in.1980 eraIt is,Financial industryThe city's finances have improved due to the rebound.1990 eraBy then, racial conflicts have eased and crime rates have fallen dramatically. AndAsiaLatin AmericaA new wave of immigrants has arrived.Silicon arrayNew York's population is rising, with new industrial sectors like2000 OfCensusReached the highest ever.

New York2001May 9 OfAmerican terrorist attacksIt became the site of.World Trade CenterKilled nearly 3,000 people in the collapse of[44].. new1 World Trade Center(Formerly Freedom Tower), Memorial Hall, and three other office towers will be built on the site[45].. The tallest one World Trade Center opened in 1.2006On December 12, the first steel frame was installed on the foundation of the building. The other three office towersGreenwich StreetConstruction is planned alongside, and will surround the World Trade Center Memorial, which is currently under construction. A memorial museum will also be built in this area.

NATURE

Terrain

New York CityNortheastern United States,New York StateLocated in the southeastern part ofWashington DCDuffel BagApproximately in the middle of[46].Hudson riverIt hits the mouth of the river. The Hudson River flows into a natural harbor and further大西洋Is connected to the cityTrading cityHas contributed to the development as.Most of New York Cityマ ン ハ ッ タ ン,Staten Island,Long islandBecause it is located on three islands, the land area is small and the population density is high.

The Hudson River is the Hudson Valley[47]ThroughNew York BayThe estuary is in New York CityTroy CityBetweenTriangle riverHas become[48].. Also by the Hudson RiverNew JerseyAnd New York City are separated.East river(Actually the strait)Long Island SoundIt flows from the Bronx and Manhattan, separating the Long Island.Harlem RiverThe strait that actually connects the East and Hudson rivers separates the Bronx, which is part of the mainland, from Manhattan.

The terrain of the city has been heavily modified. Large scale along the riverbank since the Dutch colonial eraLandfillIs because it was advanced. The most advanced landfillLower ManhattanAnd from the 1970s to the 1980sBattery Park CityWas developed[49].. Natural terrain has been flattened, especially in Manhattan[50].. Manhattan was originally a hill-filled terrain with very solid bedrock (Manhattan schist) Is underground, so the terrain is suitable for the construction of skyscrapers.

The total area of ​​the city is 1,214km2, Of which the water surface area is 425km2, Land area is 789km2Is[9][10].. The highest altitude is 124.9 meters on Todt Hill on Staten Island, which isMaineSouth ofEast coastIs the highest point in[51].. Near the summit(English: Staten Island GreenbeltIs part of the forest and is mostly covered with forest[52].

climate

Köppen climate classificationAccording to the climate of New York CityWarm and humid climate(Cfa). There are an average of 234 sunny days (sunny or cloudy) per year[53].. Based on the 0 ° C isotherm, it is located in the northernmost part of North America as a large city included in the temperate humid climate.

Summers are generally hot and humid, with an average maximum temperature of 26-29 ° C and an average minimum temperature of 17-21 ° C. There are an average of 32 days a year when the temperature exceeds 19 ° C. Winter is cold, blowing from land to seaPrevailing windAlthough the influence of the Atlantic Ocean is limited by the presence of the Atlantic Ocean, cities of the same latitude in inland North America (Chicago,Pittsburgh,CincinnatiEtc.), it is warmer. The average temperature in January, which is the coldest, is 1 ° C, with an average of 0 days below zero and one day below 75 ° C. The climate in spring and autumn is variable, from chilly to hot, but generally low in humidity and comfortable.[53].

The average annual rainfall is 1,180 mm, and there is little variation in precipitation depending on the season. The average annual snowfall (cumulative snow depth) is 71 cm.[53], Not so many, but depending on the yearNor'easterA low pressure system called a bomb can cause heavy snowfall that exceeds 50 cm. Hurricanes and tropical cyclones are few, but not entirely absent.

New York meteorological dew field is lushCentral Park内 のBelvedia CastleIt is located nearbyHeat islandThe effect of is relatively small.

New York City (Central Park), 1981-2010 Climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F22
(72)
24
(75)
30
(86)
36
(97)
37
(99)
38
(100)
41
(106)
40
(104)
39
(102)
34
(93)
29
(84)
24
(75)
41
(106)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F3.9
(39)
5.8
(42.4)
10.3
(50.5)
16.7
(62.1)
22.0
(71.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
28.6
(83.5)
24.4
(75.9)
18.1
(64.6)
12.6
(54.7)
6.6
(43.9)
17.09
(62.77)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F1.0
(33.8)
2.0
(35.6)
5.9
(42.6)
11.6
(52.9)
17.1
(62.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.3
(77.5)
24.8
(76.6)
20.8
(69.4)
14.7
(58.5)
9.2
(48.6)
3.7
(38.7)
13.21
(55.78)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F−2.8
(26.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
1.8
(35.2)
7.1
(44.8)
12.2
(54.0)
17.6
(63.6)
20.5
(68.9)
19.9
(67.9)
16
(60.8)
10
(50.0)
5.3
(41.6)
0
(32.0)
8.82
(47.88)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−21
(-6)
−26
(-15)
−15
(5)
−11
(12)
0
(32)
7
(44)
11
(52)
10
(50)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−11
(12)
−25
(-13)
−26
(-15)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)92.7
(3.65)
78.5
(3.09)
110.7
(4.36)
114
(4.49)
106.4
(4.19)
112
(4.41)
116.8
(4.60)
112.8
(4.44)
108.7
(4.28)
111.8
(4.40)
102.1
(4.02)
101.6
(4.00)
1,268.1
(49.93)
Snowfall cm (inch)20.3
(8.0)
23.9
(9.4)
9.4
(3.7)
1.5
(.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.8
(0.3)
12.2
(4.8)
68.1
(26.8)
Average days of precipitation (≥0.01 in)10.49.210.911.511.111.210.49.58.78.99.610.6122
Average number of snowfall days (≥0.1 in)4.12.91.8.30000000.22.311.6
Average monthlyDaylight hours162.7163.1212.5225.6256.6257.3268.2268.2219.3211.2151.0139.02,534.7
Source: NOAA [54][55]

Environment

In New York CityPublic transportUtilization is the highest in the United States,gasolineConsumption is at the same level as the national average in the 1920s[56].. The use of public transport saved 2006 billion liters of oil in 66, with New York's savings accounting for half of the national public transport savings.[57].. New York has become one of the most energy efficient cities in the United States due to its high population density, low car utilization and high public transport utilization.[58].Greenhouse gasThe national average of emissions is 1 per person.TIn contrast, New York City weighs 1 tons per person.[59].. New Yorkers make up 2.7% of the country's population, while 1% of the country's greenhouse gas emissions.[59].. The average electricity consumption of New Yorkers isSan FranciscoLess than half of the citizens,TexasDallasNearly a quarter of the citizens[60].

In recent years, New York City has focused on reducing its impact on the environment. Due to environmental pollution, among the citizensAsthmaHigh incidence of other respiratory illnesses[61].City HallIs obliged to purchase the most energy efficient equipment in city offices and public facilities[62].. Also cleanDiesel = hybrid vehicle,Compressed natural gas carIs the largest number in the country and the first hybrid in the countryTaxiIs also running[63].. New York CityUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyOrdered to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutantsFederal Supreme CourtHe was a member of the petitioner in the Massachusetts vs. US Environmental Protection Agency case. New York City is also energy efficientGreen architectureEven in the field ofHearst TowerStanding in an advanced position, as seen in the architecture of[64].

Drinking water in New York CityCatskill MountainsFrom the catchment area ofCatskill AqueductIt is supplied via a tunnel such as[65].. Due to the cleanliness of the catchment area and natural water filtrationWater treatmentThere are only four such cities in the United States, including New York City, without the need for plant-based drinking water purification.[66].

Cityscape

building

What characterizes New York's architecture above all elseSkyscraperIs. With the advent and spread of skyscrapers, New York has transformed from a European low-rise city to a towering business district. As of August 2008, there are 8 skyscrapers in New York[67], Over 200 meters of skyscrapers, 50 completed. This number is number one in the United States and in the worldHong KongSecond place after[68].

There are many architecturally superior buildings in various styles in New York. Built in 1913Woolworth BuildingIs the earlyGothic Revival architectureIt is a skyscraper, and the oversized Gothic decoration can be read from the streets nearly 200 meters below. Due to the 1916 Zoning Ordinance, new buildings will be built to allow sunlight to reach the streets.Set backWas required and the ratio of height to site area was limited[69].. In 1930Chrysler buildingIt is,Art decoIt has a tonal design, with a tapered top and a standing steel spire, reflecting the requirements of the Zoning Ordinance. The replica of the eagle's head on the corner of the 61st floor and the V-shaped lighting under the spire have made it one of New York's finest buildings by many historians and architects. ing[70].. In AmericaInternational styleAs an example of architecture, 1957 had a great influence.Seagram BuildingOn the front, a bronze I-beam (I-beam) representing the structure of the building can be seen from the outside. 20004 Times SquareIs an important example of a skyscraper in the United States[64].

As the buildings in the city center become taller, they are on the rooftop to secure water pressure.Water Storage Tank(High water tank) has come to be installed. Excellent durability and putrefaction resistance even in modern timesCedarPlaced a traditional elevated water tank made ofWater towerIs installed more than 1[71].

New York's large residential area is made of elegant brown sandstoneTerraced House,Townhouse, And the poorly built during the rapid development period of 1870-1930housing complexIs often divided into boundaries[72].. After the Great Fire of New York in 1835, the construction of wooden buildings was restricted, and stones and bricks were the main choices for building materials.[73].. Unlike Paris, which has been sourced from the town's own limestone ground for centuries, New York has always brought in building materials from a wide range of quarries, and its masonry has a variety of quarries. Shows hue[74].. A characteristic of many of the city's buildings is the wooden structure on the roof.Water towerThere is. In New York in the 1800s, if water towers weren't installed in buildings above the 6th floor, excessively high water pressure would have to be applied on the lower floors, which put the city's water pipes at risk of rupture.[75].. In the 1920s, in an area far from the centerRural cityBecame popular. Jackson Heights in Queens, which has become easier to access due to the extension of the subway, is one of them.[76].

park

110km to New York City2There are more municipal parks and 23 km of public sandy beaches[78][79].. In addition to this,National parkHow many kilometers are in the city area as part of2There is also. Jamaica Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, the only wildlife sanctuary in the national park, is 36km2Consisting of the above wetland islands and watersJamaica bayOccupies most of the.

ManhattanCentral ParkIt is,Frederick Law OlmstedDesigned by and, it is the busiest city park in the United States with 3,000 million visitors each year. Most of Central Park looks natural, but in fact it's almost entirely landscaped. Some that look natural(I.e.-, A long walking course, a riding path, twoice skateLink (one of which will be a swimming pool in July and August), Central Park Greenhouse, Wildlife Sanctuary, Vast Natural Forest, 7 hectares and a reservoir with 8 billion liters of water Surrounding it is the running track, the Delacourt Theater, an open-air theater where the "Shakespeare in the Park" summer festival is held. Indoor facilities include the Belvedia Castle and Nature Center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater and the historic merry-go-round. In addition, there are many large and small grasslands, some of which are used for sports and are divided into quiet areas, and there are also several playgrounds for children with enclosures.

Central Park has endemic wildlife, especially in spring and autumnMigratory birdIt is an oasis of. Many bird watchers are also gathering, and you can always see 200 species of birds. The 10-kilometer road in the park is especially open on weekends when cars are closed and after 7 pmjogging,Bicycle, Used for inline skating, etc.

Brooklyn's was also designed by Olmsted and Vaux. 36m2The grassland spreads out[80].. QueensFlushing Meadows Corona ParkIs the third largest park in the city1939 World's Fairand1964 World's FairIt is the venue ofForest parkThere is also.More than one-fifth of Bronx, 5km2Is devoted to public spaces and parks, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park,Bronx Zoo,New York Botanical GardenThere is[81].

Manhattan has Central Park and several small green areas and parks, but it is difficult to secure land for public use due to redevelopment of commercial areas. In a recent example, the site of a former elevated railway (ie, a structure in the air) was greened and developed as a park.High line[82]There are cases of park development that does not use the land on the ground surface.

Administrative district

New York City borough handbook
regionpopulationarea
Administrative districtcounty(September 2010, 4
Census
sq mikm²
1. マ ン ハ ッ タ ンニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク1,626,1592359
2. BrooklynKings2,592,14971183
3. QueensQueens2,296,175109283
4. BronxBronx1,418,73342109
5. Staten IslandRichmond472,62158151
New York City
8,405,830303786
19,651,12747,214122,284
Source: United States Census Bureau[83][84]
New York City borough

New York City has fiveAdministrative districtIt consists of (borough), but it is a rare form of government in the United States. Each administrative districtNew York StateEach ofcountyMatches the area of ​​(county). And each administrative district has hundreds of districts (neighborhoods), each with its own history and regional color.

If each province were an independent city, four of them (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and Bronx) would be among the top 4 most populous cities in the United States.

Manhattan(New York County, population 1,585,873)[3]
Manhattan is the most densely populated administrative district, with many skyscrapers in the city and many skyscrapers.Central ParkIs also here. The economic center of the city and many large corporations,United Nations, Many prestigious universities, and many museums,BroadwayTheater district,Greenwich Village,Madison Square GardenThere are many cultural facilities. Manhattan is roughlyLower Manhattan,Midtown,Upper ManhattanDivided into. Upper Manhattan is bordered by Central ParkUpper East SideUpper West SideDivided into, north of Central ParkHaremIs. One of the main flights to ManhattanNew JerseyNewark OfNewark Liberty International AirportFrom, it is accessible by rail, bus, taxi, etc., especially by railNew York Pennsylvania StationIs on 7th Avenue and is the starting and ending point on the Manhattan side.
Brooklyn(Kings County, population 2,504,700)[3]
Brooklyn is the most populous district.1898Until then it was an independent city. Known for its cultural, social and ethnic diversity, unique artistic activities, unique towns (neighborhoods) and unique architectural traditions. Other than Manhattan, it is the only administrative district with a distinct downtown area. With a long coastlineConey IslandIt was created as an amusement park in the 1870s, ahead of the rest of the United States.[85].
Queens(Queens County, population 2,230,722)[3]
Queens is the largest ward and is home to the most diverse ethnic groups in the United States.[86].. Recent growth could also allow the population to overtake Brooklyn. In the olden days it was a collection of small towns and villages built by the Dutch, but today it is a middle-class area with mostly residential areas.African AmericanOf annual incomeMedian(Median) is about $ 5, higher than whites, but this is the only large county in the United States.[87].New York MetsIs the home ofCity fieldBesides, every year, of tennisUS OpenIs done. Also, two of the three major airports in the New York metropolitan area,LaGuardia AirportJohn F. Kennedy International AirportThere is. In the northwest, Long Island City has had many immigrants from Manhattan in recent years. There are also many artists and musicians. PS1, Isamu Noguchi Museum, Kafman Studio, etc. have a strong artistic color.
Bronx(Bronx County, population 1,385,108)[3]
The Bronx is the northernmost province of New York CityNew York YankeesHome ofYankee StadiumIs the largest in the United StatesCooperative houseThere is[88].. With the exception of a small area called Marble Hill in Manhattan, the Bronx is the only area in New York City that connects to the American mainland.Bronx ZooIs the largest zoo in the United States in the metropolitan area, with an area of ​​1.07 km2There are more than 6,000 animals[89].Wrap,hip hopIt is also the birthplace of culture[19].
Staten Island District(Richmond County, population 468,730)[3]
In Japanese, it is sometimes written as "Staten Island". Located in the suburbs of the five administrative districts. What is BrooklynVerrazano Narrows BridgeIt is connected by a free Staten Island Ferry to Manhattan. Staten Island FerryStatue of liberty,Ellis Island, And it is very popular with tourists because it offers the best views of Lower Manhattan. 25km to the center of Staten Island2There is a green belt and a walking trail of about 56km, and one of the last natural forests in the city is here. The Greenbelt was designated in 1984 to protect the island's nature and consists of seven parks. The FDR promenade along South Beach is 7 kilometers long and is the fourth largest in the world.

culture

作家Tom Wolf"Culture seems to be in the air, like part of the weather," said New York.[90].. Numerous cultural movements in the United States began in this city.Harlem RenaissanceSet the standard for African-American literature. In the 1940sjazzIn the 1950s抽象 表現 主義Became the center of the 1970ship hopWas born.Punk,Hardcore punkThe movement had a great influence from the 1970s to the 1980s, and Jewish-American culture prospered for a long time.New York IntellectualWas born. In recent years came out of New YorkIndie rockAs a band ofThe Strokes,Interpol,Scissor sisters,They Might Be Giantsand so on.

Entertainment and performing arts

New York plays an important role in the American film industry. EarlyAvant-gardeThe movie "Manhatta" (1920) was filmed in New York[91].. Nintendo's Mario is modeled after the person who lived in this city. Today, New York is the second largest center of the United States film industry. There are over 2 art and cultural organizations and over 2,000 large and small art galleries[92].City HallSpending on art is more than the budget of the US Government's National Art Fund[92].. By a wealthy businessman in the 19th centuryCarnegie hall,Metropolitan Museum of ArtA network of important cultural facilities such as was built. With the advent of lamps, elaborate theatrical works were born, in the 1880s.BroadwayAnd at the theater along 42nd Street, "BroadwaymusicalA new stage that will be known as "is now being performed. In recent years, he has performed more experimental stages in small theaters, such as performance art and silent plays that go beyond the scope of traditional musicals.Off BroadwayHas appeared.

Strongly influenced by immigrants, Harrigan & Hart, George M. Cohan and others used narrative songs with many themes such as hope and ambition. These works are now the mainstay of the New York theater world. 39 major theaters in New York (with more than 500 seats)Times SquareTaken from Broadway, which is the main street that runs through the theater district, it is also called "Broadway".[93].. It is also called "Main Stem", "Great White Way", or "Rialto".

Lincoln CenterIs the largest performing arts center in the United StatesJazz at Lincoln Center,Metropolitan Opera,New York City Opera(2013XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Federal bankruptcy lawApplication application announcement)[94],New York Philharmonic,New York City Ballet, Vivian Beaumont Theater,Juilliard School of Sound, Alice Tully Hall, etc. are placed in it. At "Central Park Summer Stage"Central ParkFree stage and music performances at the venue, as well as 5 free concerts, dances and theater events in all five provinces during the summer.[95].

Tourism

4,700 million foreigners and Americans visit New York every year, and tourism is very important.[97].. As a famous tourist attraction,Empire State Building,Waldorf-Astoria,Ellis Island,Broadway theater,Metropolitan Museum of ArtThere are museums and art galleries such asCentral Park,Washington Square Park,Rockefeller Center,Times Square,Little Italy,Chinatown,ブ ル ッ ク リ ン 橋,Bronx Zoo,Coney Island,Flushing Meadows Corona Park,New York Botanical Garden,Circle line OfboatAround Manhattan Island, againFifth Avenue,Madison AvenueRich shopping at, and moreGreenwich VillageHalloween parade atMacy's Thanksgiving Day Parade,St. Patrick's Day・ Parade, ice cream at Central Park in winterskateSeasonal events such asTribeca Film FestivalThere are many things that attract tourists, such as events such as free performances at the Central Park Summer Stage.Statue of libertyIs a famous tourist attraction and at the same time one of the most well-known statues in the United States[98].. Ethnic settlements such as Jackson Heights (Queens), Flushing (Queens), and Brighton Beach are visited by first and second generation immigrants from a wide area of ​​the East Coast.

August 2012, 9,Michael bloombergThe tallest in the world with a view of the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor and the horizon of Lower Manhattan on the north coast of Staten Island by the mayorFerris wheelNew York Wheel construction announced[99][100].

2010 million tourists visit New York City in 4,900[101][102], Recorded 2011 million people in 5,000[103][104].

Food culture:

New York's food culture is very diverse due to its immigrant influence and the sheer number of people. What became famous by the hands of Eastern European and Italian immigrantsbagel,Cheesecake, New York style pizza. There are about 4,000 mobile grocery stores licensed by the city, many of which are immigrant-owned. Among them, Middle Eastern cuisine has become a supporting role of street food in modern New York (the leading role is still).Hot dog,pretzelsIs)[105].. In addition, the city is lined with some of the finest restaurants in the United States.[106].. The cuisine of the countries of the world is also substantial,Italian food,French cuisine,Spanish,German food,Russian food,British food,Greek food,Moroccan food,Chinese cuisine,Indian cuisine,Korean cuisine,Japanese cuisineAndAmerican foodAnd various.

Media

New York is the center of the world's television, advertising, music, newspaper and book industries, as well as the largest media market in North America (Los Angeles,Chicago,TorontoFollows)[108].

As a multi-media company in New YorkTime warner,News Corporation,Hearst Corporation,Viacomand so on. The 10 biggest in the worldAdvertising agencySeven of the networks are headquartered in New York[109].. Also, three of the four record labels that are considered "Big Four" in the music industry are based in New York along with Los Angeles.

America'sIndependent movie3/1 is produced in New York[110].. Over 200 newspapers and over 350 consumer magazines (non-industry magazines) have offices in the city[110].. The city's publishing industry employs about 2 people[111].

Of the three major American daily newspapersWall Street JournalNew York TimesIs a New York newspaper. As the city's main tabloid,Daily NewsAndAlexander HamiltonFounded in 1801 byNew York PostThere is.

In addition, there are many publications for each ethnic group, and 40 newspapers and magazines are published in more than 270 languages.[112].. El Diario La Prensa (El Diario La Prensa) Paper is New York's largest and oldest Spanish daily newspaper in the United States.[113].. The New York-Amsterdam News newspaper is the leading African-American newspaper published in Harlem.Village VoicePaper is the largest (en).

The television industry has developed in New York and is now a major employment leader in the city's economy. The four major American broadcasting networksABC,CBS,FOX,NBCAre both headquartered in New York. As a regional television stationNY1It is characterized by community-based programs and coverage.

MTV,FOX News,HBO,Comedy CentralMany cable TV channels are also based in the city. Over 2005 TV shows recorded in New York City in 100[114].

New York is also a major center for non-commercial media. The oldest in the United StatesPublic access tvChannel was founded in 1971[115].WnetIs the city's main public broadcaster and nationwidePublic broadcasting service(PBS) The largest station that supplies programs.WNYC-AM/WNYC-FMWas owned by the city until 1997Public radio stationSo nowNew York Public Radio(Non profit organization) Owns and has the largest listener in the United States[116].

New York City operates a public broadcasting service, with several shows featuring the city's music and culture.Emmy AwardHas been awarded.

Accent

The New York area is characterized by a dialect called "New York Dialect," or "Brooklinies," or "New Yorkys."American EnglishIs considered to be the most distinctive accent of the[117].. The archetype of this accent is based on the pronunciation of middle-class to working-class European-Americans, and has been altered by the influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades.[118].

The traditional New York accent is / r / (at the end of a syllable or before a consonant.International phonetic symbolsDo not pronounce [ɹ]) in (IPA). As a result, "New York" is pronounced like "New Yawk"[118].. "park" is IPA and is [pɔːk], "butter" is [bʌɾə], and "here" is [hiə]. Another feature is the so-called low back chain shift, with vowels [ɔ] such as "talk", "law", "cross", "coffee", and often "core", "more". [ɔr] is also tense and pronounced higher than General American.

In the most archaic and extreme New York accent, the vowels of words like "girl" and words like "oil" are both diphthongs [ɜɪ]. For this reason, it is easy for other speakers to hear that "girl" is pronounced "goil" and conversely "oil" is pronounced "erl". Based on this, New Yorkers are portrayed as if "Jersey" is pronounced "Joizey", "33rd St." is pronounced "Toidy-Toid Street", and "toilet" is pronounced "terlet". There are many[118].. 1970sSitcomArchie Bunker, the character of "All in the Family," is a typical person who speaks like that. However, such a way of speaking is not very common nowadays.[118].

Sports

New York4 major professional sports leagues in North AmericaEach has a team.

baseball
With teams in New YorkWorld seriesThere are 14 series in which the champion was contested,Subway seriesIt is called. There are only five metropolitan areas with two major baseball teams, including New York (the others are Chicago, Washington-Baltimore, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area).Major league baseballThe two teams that are currently joiningNew York YankeesNew York MetsBoth teams will play six times each regular season. The Yankees have won 6 times and the Mets twice. Also, the New York Giants (nowSan Francisco Giants) And the Brooklyn Dodgers (currentlyLos Angeles Dodgers) Was also in New York, but both teams moved to California in 1958.Minor leagueAs a team ofStaten Island YankeesBrooklyn CyclonesThere is.
New York is "baseballBaseball is so popular that it is called "the city of baseball"[119].. Many of the four major professional sports teams in the United States are based in New York or its suburbs, but among them, it has a long history and can be said to be one of the symbols of New York.MLB OfNew York Yankees(1901Founded,A League East District). Also currently the captain of the YankeesDerek JeterIs one of the most popular athletes in New York[120].. 27 degrees, the most in MLB teamsWorld seriesThe Yankees, who have a brilliant history of winning, are one of the most popular baseball teams in MLB and are in the same area.Boston Red SoxHas a fierce rivalry with.
On the other hand, baseball fans who do not support the YankeesNew York Mets(1962Founded,Na League East District). Mets is generally said to have more popular fans than the Yankees.[121]The tradition, popularity, and results are inferior to those of the prestigious Yankees, and the treatment in the local media is always hidden behind the Yankees. The average admission fee for the home base is the YankeesYankee Stadium) Is MLB at $ 73, while Mets ()City field) Is $ 37 (4th overall)[121].. Although not as good as the Yankees, Mets' popularity is above average across MLB.2009According to a survey by the Yankees, the Yankees are No. 30 and Mets is No. 1 in the popularity ranking of the MLB11 team.[122].InterleagueThe confrontation between the Yankees and Mets in the (interleague game) is called the "Subway Series" and has become a specialty.
American Football
New York JetsNew York Giants(Officially New York Football Giants)NFLIs participating in. However, both teamsNew Jersey OfMeadowlands StadiumIs based in.
There are twoNFLIn the team, Yankees fansNew York Giants, Mets fansNew York JetsTend to support. This begins with the deliberate rhymes of the popular and lagging Mets, Jets, and the former New York-based NBA Nets. Alliances between the teams are also progressing, and Jets'ド ラ フ トIt is customary for the 1st place nominated player to hold the opening ceremony in the match against Mets before his debut.
Ice hockey
NHLAs a New York City team belonging toNew York RangersThere is. Within the New York metropolitan areaNew jersey devilsWhen,Long island OfNew York IslandersThere are also two NHL teams. No other metropolitan area in North America has three teams in one of the four major professional sports leagues.
サ ッ カ ー
Major League SoccerToNew York Red BullsNew York City FCBelongs to. Red Bulls in New JerseyRed Bull ArenaIs also based. AlsoNASLToNew York CosmosBelongs to.
basketball
NBAToNew York KnicksBut,WNBAToNew York LibertyBelongs to.Speaking of the New York metropolitan areaBrooklynBased in the NBABrooklyn NetsThere is also. The National Invitation Tournament, the first college-level basketball championship in the United States, was held in New York in 1938 and is still held in the city.[123].HaremIs a basketball court where many professional athletes play in the summer league.
The current situation is that the NBA is not as popular as the MLB and NFL, partly due to the long-term stagnation of the prestigious team Knicks.[120].
Pro wrestling

1925From MSG (Madison Square Garden)WWE Pro wrestlingIs holding a box office.

Other
In addition to these sports, there are various competitions in New York. In QueensGrand slamOne of theUS OpenIs performed.New York City MarathonIs the world's largest marathon event, with 2007 finishers in 3, and the number of finishers in the race from 8,557 to 2004 was 2008st to 1th in the history of the world. Occupy[124].IAAF Diamond LeagueComposeAdidas Grand PrixWill take place in New York. Millrose Games is an annual track and field competition, the famous event of which is Wanamaker Miles. Boxing is also active, and every year, Amateur Boxing Golden Grabs is held at Madison Square Garden.
Many sports are linked to the New York immigrant community.StickballIs a street version of baseball, but it became popular among young people of Italian, German, and Irish working class in the 1930s. Stickball is still popular, and one of the Bronx streets has been renamed Stickball Street. Recently, with the influx of immigrants from South Asia and the Caribbean Islands, some amateurscricketThere is also a league. Street hockey, football and baseball can also be seen playing throughout New York City. New York is also called "the world's largest urban playground" because many people, young and old, enjoy street sports.[125].

Economy

2009New York City's gross domestic product is $ 6,014 billion (about 50 trillion yen)[126],TokyoAbout 89% of the total production in Tokyo (about 60 trillion yen)[127].2014The total production of the New York metropolitan area is $ 1 billion in the world.Tokyo metropolitan areaIt is the second largest megacity area after $ 1 billion.[128].

It is a major center of commerce and business in the world,Multi national companyIn the overall ranking of business fields such as the number of head offices and the size of the capital market, it was evaluated as the best city in the world.[6].2021No. 1 in the world according to the survey at that timeFinancial centerIs[7].. It is also the center of American real estate, media and art.

In 2005 in the New York metropolitan areaPurchasing power parityGMP (Gross Domestic Product) is approximately $ 1 trillion[129][130], America's largest regional economy and, according to the magazine, the world's second largest urban economy[131].. According to Cinco Dias, New York controls 2008% of the world's finances at the end of 40, making it the world's largest financial center.[132][133][134].

Fortune global 500According to the number of headquarters of large global companies in the worldTokyo,Beijing,ParisIt is the fourth most common city after[135].. New York is by far the largest city in the United States in terms of the number of foreign companies. About 1% of the work in the private sector is from foreign companies[136].

It has recorded the highest land prices not only in the United States but also in the world.Park AvenueAddress 450 was $ 2007 million (7 m) on July 2, 5.2Traded at about $ 1 per), last monthMadison AvenueAddress 660 is 1m2Breaking the record of trading at about $ 1 per[137].

It happened in Japan at the end of 1980Bubble economyByMitsubishi EstateIn 1989Rockefeller CenterWas sensationally reported to have been acquired with a huge amount of financing.Nikko Development Essex HouseAcquired,Royal HotelHas opened a 54-story skyscraper hotel (currently The London NYC), and a large amount of Japan money has flowed into the real estate field, leading to the opening of luxury-oriented Japanese hotels one after another. But,Bubble burstThese have been sold in response to the agitation of. Currently, Japanese hotels in Manhattan areGrand Central Station"The Kitano /" located in the park avenue facingKitano ConstructionOperates) ”.

In Manhattan, about 2001 million m as of 3,2862Has office space[138].

Among themMidtownIs the largest business district in the United States, with a concentration of skyscrapers.Lower ManhattanIs the third largest business district in JapanWall street OfNew York Stock ExchangeWhen,NASDAQThere is. Both exchanges are the world's No. 1 and No. 1 stock exchanges in terms of daily trading volume and the capital of the entire market, respectively.[139].. The financial industry accounts for 35% of the city's salary income[140].. The real estate industry is also one of the city's core industries, with a total market capitalization of $ 2006 billion in New York City as of 8,024.[141].Time Warner CenterIs the city's highest market value of $ 2006 billion as of 11[141].

New York's television and film industryHollywoodIt is the second largest in Japan after[142].New mediaCreative industries such as advertising, fashion, design and architecture are increasing in the city's employment share, and New York is a strong competitor in these industries.[143].. For multiple communicationsSubmarine cableTaking advantage of its position as a terminalBiotechnology,Software Development,Game designHigh-tech industries such as Internet services are also growing[144].. In addition, pharmaceutical research and technology, non-profit organizations, and universities are also important sectors with employment.

The employment share of the manufacturing industry is also large, but it is on a downward trend. Main products are clothing, science, metal products, processed foods, furniture, etc.[145].. Processed foods are the most stable major industry in the manufacturing industry.[146].. The food industry is $ 50 billion and employs more than 1 citizens. Among them, the export value of chocolate reaches $ 9,000 million every year.[146].

Government agency

Since the merger in 1898, New York has a "strong" mayoral and parliamentary system.New York City GovernmentAuthority is more concentrated than in many other American cities. The central government has authority over public education, correctional facilities, libraries, security, welfare facilities, public health, water supply, welfare services, etc.MayorCity councilParliamentarians are elected for a four-year term. The city council is unicameral and consists of 4 members selected from each constituency.[147].. The term of office of the mayor and city council members is limited to three consecutive terms, but re-election is possible after four years.

The current mayor isDemocratic Party OfBill DebrascioIs. 2002-2013 term is former Democratic Party, thenRepublican Party(2001-2008), and when he was in officeIndependent OfMichael bloombergServed. He,Republican PartyAnd with the support of the New York Independence PartyDemocratic PartyIn 2001 (50.3% vs. 47.9%), 2005 (58.4% vs. 39%), and 2009 (50.6% vs. 46%), he was selected as a rival horse recommended by the Working Family Party.[148].. The mayor is famous for the transfer of authority over the city's education system from the state, city planning and economic promotion, fiscal consolidation, and strong public health policies. In the second term, school reform, poverty reduction, strict gun control, etc. were placed as central administrative issues.[149].Duffel BagMayor'sThomas MeninoIn 2006, he formed an organization called "Mayors and Independents to Fight Illegal Firearms" with the goal of ensuring public safety by clearing illegal firearms from the city.[150].. On the other hand, the majority of public officials are Democrats, and as of November 2008, 11% of voters are Democratic.[151].. Since 1924, Republicans have not won state-level or presidential elections. The central issues of the election promise are the reduction of house prices, education, economic promotion, etc., and labor policy is important.

New York is the most important place in the United States for political fundraising.ZIP codeLooking separately, four of the top five political contributions are in Manhattan. The first place "5" isUpper East SideIn the 2004 presidential electionGeorge W. BushJohn KellyWas the largest source of funding for both candidates[152].. There is a major imbalance in the financial relationship between the city and the federal and state governments. For $ 1 a tax paid by the city to the federal government, the city receives only 83 cents of service from the federal government (the city's annual overpayment is $ 114 billion). In addition, the overpayment to the state government is $ 110 billion.[153].

Each province is consistent with the judicial district where the New York Supreme Court is located. In addition to theState courtThere is also a city court. Manhattan has the First Division of the New York Supreme Court of Appeals, and Brooklyn has the Second Division. Near the City Hall, there are the US District Court for the Southern District of New York, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and the International Trade Court.Federal courtIs also placed. Brooklyn has the United States District Court for the East District of New York.

Security

1820s "40 thieves" and "Roach Guards"Street gangNew York has been around sinceOrganized crimeIt has been seen as a stage for. In the 20th centuryFive major familiesThe dominated American Mafia has emerged.Black spaceStreet gangs such as also expanded in the latter half of the 20th century[154]..Police were also not functioning well, resulting in 1969 to 1995 murders between 1,000 and 2,000.

For many years since 2005, New York's crime rate has remained the lowest of the 25 largest cities in the United States. Crime deterrence policies from the 1980s to the early 1990s have devastated many areasCrack boomIt has become safer than in the past. By 2002, New York City had the 10th highest incidence of all crimes among 216 American cities with a population of over 197. Violent crime fell by 1993% between 2005 and 75, during which time it continued to decline, while it was on the rise across the country.[155].

Criminal statistics have begun to be collected for the number of reported cases of completed murders.1960 eraCompared to the middle2005The lowest ever[156],2007Cut 500 cases[157],2013335 cases, less than 400 cases[158].. And in 2017, there were 292 cases, which was less than 72 cases for the first time in 300 years.2018The number decreased to 290,World War IIHas ended1945Since then, record the lowest number of recognition cases in history[159].. However, in 2019, there were 318 cases, an increase from the previous year.[160].

Police officers have also reduced the number of shots at suspects, reaching 2010 for the first time in 1971, the lowest since the statistics began in 93.[161]。過去最高が1972年の994件で、2010年はそれのおよそ10分の1である。さらに、それ以降は2012年の105件の増加を除き減少しており、2015年は2010年より25件低い67件となり、1971年以後最低件数であった[162].. In addition, the number of people killed or injured by being shot by police officers was the lowest ever in 2010, and the number of people who were suppressed by shooting by police officers was 33. After that, the number increased to 2012 until 45, but decreased after 2013, and in 2015 it was 2010, the same as in 33.[163].. The rate of fatal shooting per 1000 police officers (fatal shooting of suspects) was 2002 in 0.34, but 2010 in 0.24.[161].
This is thought to have reduced the situation in which police officers need to shoot, and Kelly New York City Police Department Chairman (Police Commissioner, equivalent to Japan's Public Security Commissioner) said, "Increasing the number of police officers and the number of loaded bullets. Despite this, the number of lethal executions has decreased because the training and deterrence of police officers has contributed to improving security. "[164].

There is no consensus among sociologists and criminologists as to why New York's crime rate has declined so dramatically.CompStat,Broken window theory such asNew York City PoliceSome attribute it to the new tactics they have taken, while others attribute it to the end of the crack boom and population fluctuations.[165].

But,2020Death of George FloydAfterBlack Lives MatterIn response to protests byBill DebrascioMayor announces police budget cuts[166].COVID-19Security has deteriorated sharply again due to the rapid increase in unemployment due to the situation, shootings have surged to the same level as in 1995, and murders have increased by 134% from the previous year.[167].

Education

New York City's public school systemNew York City Department of EducationIt is operated by and is the largest in the United States. Approximately 110 million students are educated in over 1,200 elementary and junior high schools[168].. In addition, there are about 900 private schools, both religious and non-religious.[169].. It's hard to imagine New York as a college city, but it actually has about 59 college students, the largest in the United States.[170].. As of 2005, three in five Manhattan residents are college graduates and one in four has a higher degree, making it one of the most highly educated cities in the United States. is there[171].Columbia University,New York University,Fordham University,St. John's University, (New School For Social Research),Yeshiva University,Cooper Union,Juilliard School of SoundThere are many prestigious private universities, including religious and specialized universities. It is also the third largest public university in the United States for post-secondary education.City University of New York,New York State UniversityThere is. A specialized educational institution for fashion art, suitable for the center of fashionNew York State Fashion Institute of Technology(FIT: Fashion Institute of Technology).

Research in the fields of medicine and life science is also active. New York City has the largest annual life science degree above the bachelor's degree in the United States, with 4 medical licenses and 127 Nobel winners from medical institutions here.[172].National Institutes of HealthIt is the second largest city in the United States in terms of research funding received from[173].. As a major biomedical research institute,Rockefeller University,Albert Einstein College of Medicine,Mount Sinai Medical College,and so on.

New York Public LibraryIs the largest public library in the United States, serving Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.[174].. In Queens, there is, which is the second public library in the country. In Brooklyn (EN) Is[174].. Within the New York Public Library, there are several research libraries, including the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research on Black Culture.

Transportation

In new yorkPublic transportIs highly developed, which sets it apart from other large cities in the United States. According to 2005 figures, 54.6% of citizens commute to work or school using public transportation.[175].. About one-third of all public transport users in the United States and about two-thirds of railroad users live in and around New York.[176][177].. In contrast, about 90% use cars to commute in other areas.[178].. According to the United States Census Bureau, New Yorkers spend an average of 38.4 minutes a day commuting, the longest of any big city.[179].

Train

In new yorkAmtrakIs passing,Pennsylvania StationTo and from. AmtrakNortheast corridorThroughDuffel Bag,Philadelphia,Washington DCIn addition to being tied toChicago,New Orleans,Miami,Toronto,MontrealIt is also connected by long-distance trains.

New York City SubwayHas 468 business stations, which is the largest in the worldsubwayIt is a net. It is the third largest passenger in the world in terms of annual passenger numbers (2006 billion in 15).[176].London Underground,Paris metro,Montreal subway,Washington metro,Madrid subway,Tokyo subwayWhile it is closed at night in most cities, it is also a major feature that it is open 1 hours a day on almost all lines.

The city and the tristate region that surrounds it (New Jersey,New York State,Connecticut(Urban area) is connected by railroadLong Island Rail Road,Metro North Railway,New Jersey TransitIs running. These railroad networksGrand Central StationPennsylvania StationConcentrated in, with over 250 stations and over 20 lines[176][180].

In addition, run on Staten IslandStaten Island RailwayConnects the New York City Subway to northwestern New JerseyPath trainThere is.

bus

New York City Transportation Authority(MTA) buses run in all five provinces. There are 5 bus stops. It has been used by a total of 1 million people in the year of 2,507, and the number of users greatly exceeds the second place or lower in Los Angeles, Chicago, etc.[181].

Port Authority Terminal1 buses arrive and depart daily, and 7,000 commuters use it daily. The busiest bus station in the world[182].

Air route

New York is the largest gateway to the United States for international passengers[183].. For access to New YorkJohn F. Kennedy International Airport(Queens),Newark Liberty International Airport(NJ),LaGuardia AirportThere are three major airports (Queens).

In particular, John F. Kennedy Airport is a hub for air flights around the world. Also, as the fourth airport, New YorkNewbergSuburbsStewart International AirportHowever, it manages the above three airportsNew York New Jersey Port AuthorityThere is a plan to expand and develop it as a mitigation airport to accommodate the increasing number of passengers. In 2005, about 1 million passengers used three airports, making New York City the busiest air route in the United States.[184].. In 2004, passengers departing from John F. Kennedy and Newark accounted for about a quarter of American passengers.[185].

Other

In New York, there are many public transport users and many bicycle users (1 people a day).[186]), With many walking commuters, it is the most energy efficient city in the United States.[56].. Walking and biking account for 21% of the city's transportation methods, which is considerably higher than the ratio of 8% in metropolitan areas nationwide.[187].

In New York to complement the public transport networkhighway,Park road(Parkway) is widespreadNew JerseyNorthern New YorkWestchester County,Long island,ConnecticutIt connects the southwestern part with the city. These roads are used by millions of people as commuting roads from the suburbs, especiallyAt rush hourOn a daily basisTraffic jamIt is not uncommon for people to get stuck for hours.George Washington BridgeIs considered to be one of the busiest bridges in the world for car traffic[188].

1811 Commission PlanThe grid of streets has had a great impact on the cityscape and its development. Among the many streets and avenuesBroadway,Wall street,Madison AvenueEtc. are also used in the United States to refer to the theater, finance, and advertising industries of their own countries.

Other legs that support New York's transportation network include:

Demographics

New York City has the largest population in the United States, with a 2010 census of 8,175,133 (up about 1980 million from the 110 census).[3].. That's about 42.2% of New York's population. Over the last three decades, the city's population has been on the rise, and demographics estimate that the city's population will reach 30 to 2030 million by 920.[192].

What is characteristic of New York's population isThe population densityHighness and cultural diversity. The city's population density is 1km2The number is 1, which is the highest among local governments with a population of 194 or more.[193].. Manhattan has a population density of 1km22 people per person, number one in the US County[194][195].

The diversity of the population is also remarkable. Throughout history, New YorkImmigrationWas the gateway to the inflow. "Crucible of Race The word "melting pot" was first usedLower East SideIt was coined as a new term for a densely populated immigrant district. Currently, 36.7% of the city's population is foreign-born and 3.9%プ エ ル ト リ コBorn in the American Islands, or born abroad with an American parent[196].. The ratio of the foreign population is higher than thisLos AngelesMiamiIs only[195].. In the case of both cities, most are occupied by several nationalities, but in New York, there is no particular dominant nationality or place of origin. Most of the domiciles of modern immigrantsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Chugoku,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ガイアナ,メキシコ,エクアドル,ハイチ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,コロンビア,ロシアIs[197].. About 170 languages ​​are spoken in the city[12].. Even in the modern age of the 21st centuryIllegal immigrationTake tolerant measuresSanctuary cityThere are many residents who are not reflected in the statistics.[198].

New York metropolitan areaイ ス ラ エ ルThe biggest outsideJewIt is a community.Tel AvivNew York is the largest Jewish community in the world, as the population of the city (not in the metropolitan area, but within the boundaries of the municipality) is less than the Jewish population in New York. Called Mayor Fiorello La Guardia or "Master Builder of New York"Robert MosesMany celebrities in New York are of Jewish descent, and about 12% of New Yorkers are Jewish orJewishIs a descendant of[199].. In addition, the population of Indian-Americans is also large, with about a quarter of the population in the United States.[200].African AmericanCommunity is also the largest of the American cities. In addition, the New York metropolitan area has the largest Chinese population in metropolitan areas outside Asia, with 2007 as of the 61 community survey.ChinatownAlso count at least six.

According to 2005 estimates, the five major ethnic groupsPuerto Rican,Italian descent,Caribbean,Dominicasystem,ChineseIs[201].. New York's Puerto Rican population is the largest outside Puerto Rico[202].. A large influx of Italian descent in the early 20th century.Irish descentIs the 6th largest ethnic group and also occupies an important position.European descentOne in 50 New Yorkers in New York has a genetic feature on the Y chromosome that dates back to the 1th century King of Ireland.[203].

United States Census BureauAs of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the United States, 44.1% of the city's population was white (35.1% non-Hispanic). Black or African Americans account for 25.2% of the city's population (23.7% for non-Hispanics), Native Americans 0.4% (0.2% for non-Hispanics), 11.6% for Asians (11.5% for non-Hispanics), and Pacific Islands. Is less than 0.1%. Other races account for 16.8% (1.0% for non-Hispanics), and mixed races of two or more races account for 2% (1.9% for non-Hispanics). Hispanics and Latins make up 1.0% of the city's population[204][205].

Income inequality is large. As of 2005, the median household income in the richest areas was $ 18, compared to $ 8,697 in the poorest areas.[206].. The gap is widening due to rising salaries in the high-income group and stagnant salaries in the middle- and low-income groups. In 2006, Manhattan's average weekly wage was $ 1,453, the highest and fastest growing county in the United States.[207].. In addition, Manhattan is experiencing a rare baby boom in the United States. Since 2000, the number of children under the age of 5 living in Manhattan has increased by more than 32%.[208].

The vacancy rate (vacancy rate) of rental real estate is between 3% and 4.5%, well below the dangerous line of housing business conditions of 5%, which is the basis for asserting the legitimacy of rent regulation policy. .. About 33% of rental properties are subject to rent regulations. Finding a home in New York can be quite difficult, especially if you're looking for something affordable.[209].

Urban population

The population of New York's metropolitan area and each county that forms a metropolitan area is as follows (2010 census)[3].

New York / North New Jersey / Long Island Metropolitan Area
countyStatepopulation
New York County(マ ン ハ ッ タ ンNew York State1,585,873
Kings County(Brooklyn2,504,700
Queens County(Queens2,230,722
Bronx County(Bronx1,385,108
Richmond County(Staten Island468,730
Suffolk County1,493,350
Nassau County1,339,532
Westchester County949,113
Bergen CountyNew Jersey905,116
Middle sex county809,858
Essex County783,969
Hudson County634,266
Monmouth County630,380
Ocean County576,567
Union County536,499
Passaic County501,226
Morris County492,276
Somerset County323,444
Rockland CountyNew York State311,687
Sussex CountyNew Jersey149,265
Hunterdon County128,349
Putnam CountyNew York State99,710
Pike CountyPennsylvania57,369
Total18,897,109
New York Newark Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area
Metropolitan area / Metropolitan areacountyStatepopulation
New York / North New Jersey / Long Island Metropolitan Area18,897,109
Bridgeport Stanford Norwalk Metropolitan AreaFairfield CountyConnecticut916,829
New Haven Milford Metropolitan AreaNew Haven County862,477
Poughkeepsie Newberg Middletown Metropolitan AreaOrange CountyNew York State372,813
Dutchess CountyNew York State297,488
Trenton-Ewing metropolitan areaMercer County366,513
Torrington metropolitan areaLitchfield CountyConnecticut189,927
Kingston metropolitan areaUlster CountyNew York State182,493
Total22,085,649

City area population transition

Below in New York City1698から2010In the table, the population transition in the census up to1790から2010Show the population transition up to[210][211][3].. Since 1790, the figures are based on the census every 10 years, and after 1900, the figures are the sum of the five administrative districts.

Population transition
Yearspopulation±%
16984,937—    
17125,840+ 18.3 %
17237,248+ 24.1 %
173710,664+ 47.1 %
174611,717+ 9.9 %
175613,046+ 11.3 %
177121,863+ 67.6 %
179049,401+ 126.0 %
180079,216+ 60.4 %
1810119,734+ 51.1 %
1820152,056+ 27.0 %
1830242,278+ 59.3 %
1840391,114+ 61.4 %
1850696,115+ 78.0 %
18601,174,779+ 68.8 %
18701,478,103+ 25.8 %
18801,911,698+ 29.3 %
18902,507,414+ 31.2 %
19003,437,202+ 37.1 %
19104,766,883+ 38.7 %
19205,620,048+ 17.9 %
19306,930,446+ 23.3 %
19407,454,995+ 7.6 %
19507,891,957+ 5.9 %
19607,781,984−1.4%
19707,894,862+ 1.5 %
19807,071,639−10.4%
19907,322,564+ 3.5 %
20008,008,288+ 9.4 %
20108,175,133+ 2.1 %
20128,336,697+ 2.0 %

sister city

All American Sister Cities Association(Sister Cities International) Member cities.

New York City has 10 official sister cities[212].

Cities other than Beijing, like New York, are the most populous cities in each country.[213].. On the other hand, cities other than Johannesburg are de facto or legal.capitalIt differs from New York in that it is.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Why is New York City known as “the BigApple” and “Gotham?””. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2011th of February 2Browse.
  2. ^ "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790-1990”. US Census Bureau (February 1998, 6). 2009th of February 2Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k American FactFinder. US Census Bureau. February 2011, 2.
  4. ^ Demographia: World Urban Areas & Population Projections
  5. ^ PROGRESS REPORT OneNYC 2017 The City of New York Retrieved August 2017, 8.
  6. ^ a b Global Cities 2016AT Kearney Retrieved November 2016, 6.
  7. ^ a b The Global Financial Centers Index Retrieved November 2021, 3.
  8. ^ In the Meiji era, there is also a description example of "new York".
  9. ^ a b "NYC Profile (PDF)”. New York City Department of City Planning. 2008th of February 5Browse.
  10. ^ a b Roberts, Sam (May 2008, 5). “It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big”. The New York Times. 2008th of February 5Browse.
  11. ^ "2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density”. Demographia. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  12. ^ a b "Queens: Economic Development and the State of the Borough Economy (PDF)”. New York State Office of the State Comptroller (June 2006). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  13. ^ "The Newest New Yorkers: 2000 (PDF)”. New York City Department of City Planning (2005). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  14. ^ [1] City nicknames
  15. ^ Nicknames for Manhattan
  16. ^ Irving's mocking Salmagundi Papers, 1807, noted by Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York to 1898 (Oxford) 1999: xii.
  17. ^ Shorto, Russell (2005). The Island at the Center of The World, 1st Edition. New York: Vintage Books. Pp. 30. ISBN 1-4000-7867-9 
  18. ^ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  19. ^ a b Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1852422432 
  20. ^ Scaruffi, Piero. “A timeline of the USA". 2008th of February 9Browse.
  21. ^ JLL analyzes world urban comparison index and announces "decoding urban performance" JLL Retrieved October 2017, 10.
  22. ^ Global Urban Power Ranking (GPCI) 2017 Retrieved November 2017, 10, Mori Memorial Foundation Institute for Urban Strategy.
  23. ^ Quentin Fottrell (August 2014, 8). “Five Reasons Americans Are Unhappy”. Wall Street Journal. http://jp.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203403704580106752201910386 2014th of February 8Browse. 
  24. ^ Measuring the cost of living worldwide The Economist September 2017, 3
  25. ^ "World's "Most Billionaire Cities" Ranking, NY Leads for 5 Consecutive Years”(Japanese). Forbes JAPAN (September 2019, 5). 2020th of February 2Browse.
  26. ^ Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper 
  27. ^ "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1500 ―― 1700
  28. ^ "Value of the Guilder / Euro”. International Institute of Social History. 2008th of February 8Browse.
  29. ^ Miller, Christopher L., George R. Hamell (September 1986). “A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade”. The Journal of American History 73 (2): 311. two:10.2307/1908224. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-8723%28198609%2973%3A2%3C311%3AANPOIC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A 2007th of February 3Browse.. 
  30. ^ Homberger, Eric (2005). The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History. Owl Books. Pp. 34. ISBN 0805078428 
  31. ^ "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1700-1800
  32. ^ Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754-1876. Columbia College. Pp. 8 
  33. ^ "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)”. US News and World Report. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  34. ^ Bridges, William (1811). Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
  35. ^ Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat (1990). Fernando Wood: A Political Biography. Kent State University Press. Pp. 36. ISBN 087338413X 
  36. ^ "African-Americans in New York City, 1626-1863 by Leslie M. Harris”. Department of History at Emory University (2001). 2009th of February 6Browse.
  37. ^ "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York”. VNY, City University of New York. 2009th of February 6Browse.
  38. ^ Cook, Adrian (1974). The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. pp. 193–195 
  39. ^ "The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City”. New York City. 2007th of February 6Browse.
  40. ^ "Cornell University Library: Triangle Factory Fire”. Cornell University. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  41. ^ "New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)”. Www.demographia.com. 2009th of February 6Browse.
  42. ^ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). “Chapter 9: The Decline”. The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company 
  43. ^ Burns, Ric (August 2003, 8). “The Center of the World --New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)”. PBS. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  44. ^ “2008 9/11 Death Toll”. Associated Press. (July 2008). http://www.nysun.com/new-york/missing-doctor-added-to-list-of-9-11-victims/81626/ 2006th of February 9Browse. 
  45. ^ “Report: WTC Faces Up To 3-Year Delay”. Associated Press via New York Post (New York). (June 2008, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20080924194029/http://www.nypost.com/seven/06302008/news/regionalnews/report__wtc_faces_up_to_3_year_delay_117912.htm 2008th of February 7Browse. 
  46. ^ The driving distance from Washington DC is 367km and the driving distance from Boston is 349km.Google Maps
  47. ^ "Hudson Valley, NY: Culture and Nature GoUSA”. Brand USA. 2009th of February 9Browse.
  48. ^ "Information about the Hudson River estuary". 2009th of February 6Browse.
  49. ^ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. Pp. 71 
  50. ^ Lopate, Phillip (2004). Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press. ISBN 0385497148 
  51. ^ Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY. Arcadia Publishing. Pp. 10. ISBN 0738524433 
  52. ^ Howard, David (2002). Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City. WW Norton & Company. Pp. 35. ISBN 0393322122 
  53. ^ a b c "weatherbase: New York, New York”. Weatherbase.com. 2009th of February 6Browse.
  54. ^ "NowData-NOAA Online Weather Data”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2011th of February 12Browse.
  55. ^ NOAA
  56. ^ a b Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0762738359 
  57. ^ "A Better Way to Go: Meeting America's 21st Century Transportation Challenges with Modern Public Transit (PDF)”. US Public Interest Research Group (March 2008). 2008th of February 4Browse.
  58. ^ Owen, David (October 2004, 10). “Green Manhattan”. The New Yorker 
  59. ^ a b "Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions (PDF)”. New York City Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability (April 2007). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  60. ^ "Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases”. PlaNYC / The City of New York (December 2006, 12). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  61. ^ Coburn, Jason, Jeffrey Osleeb, Michael Porter (June 2006). “Urban Asthma and the Neighborhood Environment in New York City”. Health & Place 12 (2): pp. 167–179. two:10.1016 / j.healthplace.2004.11.002. PMID 16338632. 
  62. ^ DePalma, Anthony (December 2005, 12). “It Never Sleeps, but It's Learned to Douse the Lights”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/11/nyregion/11efficiency.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  63. ^ "A Century of Buses in New York City”. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. As of May 2006, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse. See also “New York City's Yellow Cabs Go Green” (Press Release), Sierra Club, (July 2005, 7), http://www.sierraclub.org/pressroom/releases/pr2005-07-01a.asp 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  64. ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin (April 2006, 4). “7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/16/arts/design/16gree.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  65. ^ "Current Reservoir Levels”. New York City Department of Environmental Protection. 2007th of February 6Browse.
  66. ^ Lustgarten, Abrahm (August 2008, 8). “City's Drinking Water Feared Endangered; $ 10B Cost Seen”. The New York Sun. http://www.nysun.com/new-york/citys-drinking-water-feared-endangered-10b-cost/83288/ 2008th of February 8Browse. 
  67. ^ "High-rise Buildings of New York City”. Invest.com. 2008th of February 8Browse.
  68. ^ "XNUMX Skyline Ranking”. Invest.com. 2008th of February 6Browse.
  69. ^ Fischler, Raphael (1998). “The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York City Ordinance”. Journal of the American Planning Association 64 (2). 
  70. ^ "Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York Towers”. The Skyscraper Museum (January 2006, 1). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  71. ^ "Wooden tank (wooden aquarium enforcement sale)”. Japan Wood Tank & Pipe Co., Ltd. 2020th of February 4Browse.
  72. ^ Plunz, Richar A. (1990). “Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond the Tenement]”. History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis.Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231062974 
  73. ^ Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; Wilson, Rufus Rockwell (1902). New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, andlands. JB Lippincott. P. 354 
  74. ^ B. Diamonstein–Spielvoegel, Barbaralee (2005). The Landmark of New York. Monacelli Press. ISBN 1580931545  Incidentally,Whyte, William H. (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City. New Press. ISBN 1565843215 
  75. ^ Elliot, Debbie (December 2006, 12). “Wondering About Water Towers”. National Public Radio. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  76. ^ Hood, Clifton (2004). 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and how They Transformed New York. Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 175–177 
  77. ^ "City Park Facts”. The Trust for Public Land, Center for City Park Excellence. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  78. ^ "Mayor Giuliani Announces Amount of Parkland in New York City has Passed 28,000-acre Mark”. New York City Mayor's Office (February 1999, 2). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  79. ^ "Beaches”. New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  80. ^ "General Information”. Prospect Park Alliance. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  81. ^ Beth J. Harpaz, Travel Editor of The Associated Press (AP) (June 2008, 6). “Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming!”. As of May 2011, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 7Browse.
  82. ^ The Climax in a Tale of Green and Gritty --The High Line Opens Its Third and Final Phase New York Times August 2014, 9
  83. ^ Per the County and City Data Book: 2007 (US Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008, New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and.
  84. ^ American Fact Finder (US Census Bureau): New York by County --Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
  85. ^ Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: The People's Playground. Rutgers University Press. P. 3. ISBN 0813531381 
  86. ^ O'Donnell, Michelle (July 2006, 7). “In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ...”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/04/nyregion/04fourth.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  87. ^ Roberts, Sam (March 2006, 1). “Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/nyregion/01census.html?ref=nyregion 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  88. ^ Frazier, Ian (June 2006, 6). “Utopia, the Bronx”. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/06/26/060626fa_fact_frazier 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  89. ^ Ward, Candace (2000). New York City Museum Guide. Dover Publications. P. 72. ISBN 0486410005 
  90. ^ “Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening” (Press Release), Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany, (May 2007, 5), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2007, 7., https://web.archive.org/web/20070723115555/http://frankfurt.usconsulate.gov/frankfurt/speech05092007.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  91. ^ Bruce Posner (2005). Picturing a Metropolis: New York City Unveiled (DVD). Unseen Cinema. 
  92. ^ a b "Creative New York (PDF)”. Center for an Urban Future (December 2005). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  93. ^ Welsh, Anne Marie (2004 June 6). “2 plays + 9 nominations = good odds for locals”. San Diego Union-Tribune. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20081005110339/http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/features/20040606-9999-1a6tony.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  94. ^ October 2013, 10 Chunichi Shimbun morning edition 4 pages
  95. ^ "Summerstage: Our Mission”. Summerstage.org. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  96. ^ "The Crossroads of the World”. PBS. 2008th of February 1Browse.
  97. ^ "NYC Statistics”. NYC & Company. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  98. ^ "Statue of Liberty”. New York Magazine. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  99. ^ Jennifer Peltz; AP communication (October 2012, 9). “NYC to get'world's largest' Ferris wheel". NBC.As of August 2013, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012th of February 9Browse.
  100. ^ James Barron (September 2012, 9). “World's Tallest Ferris Wheel Planned for Staten Island”. The New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/27/worlds-tallest-ferris-wheel-planned-for-staten-island/ 2012th of February 9Browse. 
  101. ^ “New York City draws 48.7 million tourists in 2010”. © 2012 Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. All Rights Reserved. (January 2011, 1). http://articles.cnn.com/2011-01-04/travel/new.york.city.tourism_1_room-rates-hospitality-industry-job-data?_s=PM:TRAVEL 2012th of February 1Browse. 
  102. ^ "NYC The Official Guide nycgo.com – nyc statistics”. © 2006–2011 NYC & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 2012th of February 1Browse.
  103. ^ Patrick McGeehan (December 2011, 12). “As City Closes In on 50 Millionth Visitor, British Couple to Be Feted”. © 2011 The New York Times Company. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/20/as-city-closes-in-on-50-millionth-visitor-british-couple-to-be-feted/?scp=1&sq=tourists&st=Search 2012th of February 1Browse. 
  104. ^ "NYC reaches goal of 50 million tourists”. © 2011 North Jersey Media Group (December 2011, 12). 2012th of February 1Browse.
  105. ^ Bleyer, Jennifer (May 2006, 5). “Kebabs on the Night Shift”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/14/nyregion/thecity/14vend.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  106. ^ Collins, Glenn (November 2005, 11). “Michelin Takes on the City, Giving Some a Bad Taste”. The new york times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C03E0D9163EF930A35752C1A9639C8B63 2006th of February 7Browse. 
  107. ^ Ivry, Sara (December 2005, 12). “Since Riders had no Subways, Commuter Papers Struggled, Too”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/26/business/media/26commute.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  108. ^ “Tampa Bay 12th largest media market now” (Press Release), Tampa Bay Partnership, (August 2006, 8), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 9., https://web.archive.org/web/20080928205103/http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=991& 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  109. ^ "Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue”. Advertising Age (April 2007, 4). 2007th of February 6Browse.
  110. ^ a b "Request for Expressions of Interest (PDF)”. The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation (2005). As of August 2008, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  111. ^ "Media and Entertainment”. New York City Economic Development Corporation. As of January 2008, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  112. ^ “Ethnic Press Booms In New York City”. Editor & Publisher. (July 2002, 7). http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1538594 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  113. ^ "el diario / La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily”. New America Media (July 2005, 7). As of May 27, 2008オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  114. ^ “2005 is banner year for production in New York” (Press Release), The City of New York Mayor's Office of Film, Theater and Broadcasting, (December 2005, 12), http://www.nyc.gov/html/film/html/news/010106_2005_banner_year.shtml 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  115. ^ "Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary”. Manhattan Neighborhood Network (August 2006, 8). As of August 6, 2010オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007th of February 4Browse.
  116. ^ "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron (PDF)”. Radio Research Consortium (August 2006, 8). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  117. ^ Newman, Michael (2005) "New York Talk" in American voices Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward (eds). P.82–87 Blackwell ISBN-1 4051-2109-2
  118. ^ a b c d Sontag, Deborah (February 1993, 2). “"Oy Gevalt! New Yawkese An Endangered Dialect?"”. The New York Times. 2007th of February 7Browse.
  119. ^ Yo Usami "Baseball City New York" (Heibonsha New Book)
  120. ^ a b Poll says Red Sox more popular statewide than lowly Knicks New York Daily News, viewed August 2009, 8
  121. ^ a b Daisuke Sugiura "Invitation to New and Old NY Yankee Stadium & Citi Field Thorough Guide" "Monthly Slugger" September 2009 issue, Nippon Sports Kikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 9, magazine 2009-15509, p. 9.
  122. ^ New York Yankees Are the Favorite Baseball Team For Seventh Year in a Row The Harris Poll, viewed August 2009, 8
  123. ^ "Postseason Overview”. National Invitation Tournament. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  124. ^ "World's Largest Marathons”. Association of International Marathons and Road Races (AIMS). 2009th of February 11Browse.
  125. ^ Sas, Adrian (Producer) (2006). It's my Park: Cricket (TV-Series). New York City: New York City Department of Parks & Recreation .. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2009, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20090927214100/http://www.nycgovparks.org/sub_newsroom/video/index.html?key=16 
  126. ^ The City of New York Monthly Report of Current Economic Conditions
  127. ^ 20 Metropolitan Accounts Report
  128. ^ Cities Rank Among the Top 100 Economic Powers in the World Chicago Council on Global Affairs Retrieved October 2016, 10.
  129. ^ "World's Most Economically Powerful Cities”. Forbes. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  130. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005”(May 2007, 3). 2007th of February 7Browse.However, Taipei is not included.
  131. ^ "London ranked as world's six largest economy”. IT Week. 2008th of February 8Browse.
  132. ^ "London vs. New York, 2005–06 (PDF)”. Cinco Dias. 2008th of February 3Browse.
  133. ^ "London may have the IPOs ...”. Marketwatch. 2009th of February 8Browse.
  134. ^ "Is New York Still the Financial Capital of the World?”. New York Times. 2009th of February 8Browse.
  135. ^ Global 500
  136. ^ Wylde, Kathryn (January 2006, 1). “Keeping the Economy Growing”. Gotham Gazette. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/fea/20060123/202/1727 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  137. ^ Quirk, James (2007 June 6). “"Bergen offices have plenty of space"”. As of May 2007, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007th of February 7Browse.,
  138. ^ "Four Percent of Manhattan's Total Office Space Was Destroyed in the World Trade Center Attack”. Allbusiness (September 2001, 9). 2008th of February 8Browse.
  139. ^ "Electronic Finance: Reshaping the Financial Landscape Around the World (PDF)”. The World Bank (September 2000). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  140. ^ Orr, James and Giorgio Topa (Volume 12, Number 1, January 2006). “Challenges Facing the New York Metropolitan Area Economy (PDF)". Current Issues in Economics and Finance --Second District Highlights. New York Federal Reserve. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  141. ^ a b "Tentative Assessment Roll: Fiscal Year 2008 (PDF)”. New York City Department of Finance (January 2007, 1). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  142. ^ "NYC Film Statistics”. Mayor's Office of Film, Theater, and Broadcasting. As of February 2008, 2オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  143. ^ Currid, Elizabeth (2006). “New York as a Global Creative Hub: A Competitive Analysis of Four Theories on World Cities”. Economic Development Quarterly 20 (4): 330–350. two:10.1177/0891242406292708. 
  144. ^ "Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action (PDF)”. New York City Economic Development Corporation (March 2005). As of March 3, 2008オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2006th of February 7Browse.
  145. ^ "Protecting and Growing New York City's Industrial Job Base (PDF)”. The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business (January 2005). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  146. ^ a b "More Than a Link in the Food Chain (PDF)”. The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business (January 2007). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  147. ^ "About the Council”. New York City Council. 2007th of February 6Browse.
  148. ^ "Statement and Return Report for Certification: General Election 2005 (PDF)”. New York City Board of Elections (November 2005, 11). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  149. ^ "About Mike Bloomberg”. The Official Site of Mike Bloomberg. As of September 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  150. ^ "Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition History”. Mayor Against Illegal Guns. 2009th of February 11Browse.
  151. ^ "NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status”. New York State Board of Elections (November 2008). 2009th of February 2Browse.
  152. ^ "2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes”. Opensecrets.org. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  153. ^ "A Fair Share of State Budget: Does Albany Play Fair with NYC?”. New York City Finance Division (March 2005, 3). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  154. ^ Lardner, James, and Thomas Reppetto (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. Owl Books. Pp. 18–21 
  155. ^ “Don't tell New York, but crime is going up”(July 2002, 12). http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/len/2002/12.31/page5.html 2009th of February 12Browse. 
  156. ^ Langan, Patrick A .; Matthew R. Durose (October 2004, 10). “The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City”. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. 2009th of February 2Browse.
  157. ^ "Fewer Killings in 2007, but Still Felt in City's Streets”. The New York Times (June 2008, 1). 2009th of February 6Browse.
  158. ^ NYPD. “Citywide Seven Major Felony Offenses 2000-2016". 2017th of February 4Browse.
  159. ^ "About New York City Security". Japan in New YorkConsulate General. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  160. ^ “New York City has the lowest number of crimes in 2019, with more murder and hate crimes” (Japanese). mashup NY editorial department(July 2020, 1). https://www.mashupreporter.com/nyc-crime-rates-2019/ 2020th of February 5Browse. 
  161. ^ a b TOTAL NYPD FIREARMS DISCHARGE INCIDENTS 1971-2010 (pdf)
  162. ^ NYPD. “Annual Firearms Discharge Report 2015 Figure 46 Total Shooting Incidents involving Officers, 1971-2015". 2017th of February 4Browse.
  163. ^ NYPD. “Annual Firearms Discharge Report 2015 Figure 2 Historical Snapshot, 2005-2015". 2017th of February 4Browse.
  164. ^ New York Police Department Public Relations
  165. ^ Johnson, Bruce D., Andrew Golub, Eloise Dunlap (2006). “The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York”. In Blumstein, Alfred, Joel Wallman. The Crime Drop in America.Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521862795 ; Karmen, Andrew (2000). New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s. NYU Press. ISBN 0814747175 
  166. ^ Mayor of NY promises $ 10 billion cut in police budget-Mashup NY
  167. ^ "Gun Violence Spikes in NYC, Intensifying Debate Over Policing”(May 2020, 6). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  168. ^ "School Enrollment by Level of School and Type of School for Population 3 Years and Over (MS Excel) ”. New York City Department of City Planning (2000). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  169. ^ "Private School Universe Survey”. National Center for Education Statistics. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  170. ^ ( New York in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000. Brookings Institution. (November 2003). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2006, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20061121164151/http://www.brookings.edu/es/urban/livingcities/newyork2.pdf 2008th of February 9Browse.. 
  171. ^ McGeehan, Patrick (August 2006, 8). “New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates”. The new york times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9404E7DE143EF935A2575BC0A9609C8B63 2007th of February 3Browse. 
  172. ^ “Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan” (Press Release), New York City Economic Development Corporation, (November 2004, 11), http://home2.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/menuitem.c0935b9a57bb4ef3daf2f1c701c789a0/index.jsp?pageID=mayor_press_release&catID=1194&doc_name=http%3A%2F%2Fhome2.nyc.gov%2Fhtml%2Fom%2Fhtml%2F2004b%2Fpr310-04.html&cc=unused1978&rc=1194&ndi=1 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  173. ^ "NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003”. National Institutes of Health (2003). As of June 2009, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007th of February 3Browse.
  174. ^ a b "Nation's Largest Libraries”. Library Spot. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  175. ^ Les Christie (August 2007, 6). “New Yorkers are Top Transit Users". CNNMoney.com.Cable News Network. 2008th of February 1Browse.
  176. ^ a b c "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region”. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  177. ^ Pisarski, Alan (October 2006, 10). “Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts (PDF)”. Transportation Research Board. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  178. ^ "NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05 (PDF)”. US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2001). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  179. ^ "New York Has Longest Commute to Work in Nation, American Community Survey Finds”(December 2004). As of March 12, 2008オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 3Browse.
  180. ^ "About the MTA Long Island Rail Road”. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. As of May 2008, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  181. ^ "Facts and Figures: Buses”. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2010th of February 2Browse.
  182. ^ “Architect Chosen for Planned Office Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal's North Wing” (Press Release), Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, (November 2008, 11), http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressReleases/PressRelease/index.php?id=1154 2009th of February 5Browse. 
  183. ^ "US International Travel and Transportation Trends, BTS02-03”. US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2002). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  184. ^ "2005 Annual Airport Traffic Report (PDF)”. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (November 2006, 11). 2007th of February 2Browse.
  185. ^ “Port Authority Leads Nation in Record-Setting Year for Travel Abroad” (Press Release), The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, (August 2005, 8), http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressReleases/PressRelease/index.php?id=724 2007th of February 2Browse. 
  186. ^ Schaller, Bruce (June 2006). “Biking It”. Gotham Gazette. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/transportation/20060718/16/1910/ 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  187. ^ "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends (PDF)”. US Department of Transportation (December 2004). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  188. ^ "George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration”. Times Herald-Record (October 2006, 10). 2010th of February 2Browse.
  189. ^ "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge”. Nycroads.com. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  190. ^ "Holland tunnel (PDF)”. National Park Service (October 1993, 11). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  191. ^ "The State of the NYC Taxi (PDF)”. New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission (March 2006, 3). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  192. ^ "New York City Population Projections by Age / Sex and Borough, 2000-2030 (PDF)”. New York City Department of City Planning (December 2006). 2008th of February 9Browse. Incidentally,Roberts, Sam (March 2006, 2). “By 2025, Planners See a Million New Stories in the Crowded City”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/19/nyregion/19population.html?ex=1298005200&en=c586d38abbd16541&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  193. ^ "United States – Places and (in selected states) County Subdivisions with 50,000 or More Population; and for Puerto Rico”. United States Census Bureau. 2007th of February 6Browse.
  194. ^ "Population Density”. Geographic Information Systems --GIS of Interest .. 2007th of February 5Browse.
  195. ^ a b "Census 2000 Data for the State of New York”. US Census Bureau. 2008th of February 9Browse.
  196. ^ "New York city, New York --Selected Social Characteristics: 2005-2007". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. 2009th of February 7Browse.
  197. ^ "The Newest New Yorkers, 2000”. New York City Department of City Planning (2004). 2008th of February 5Browse.
  198. ^ "The mysterious reality of the US "sanctuary city" that the Japanese do not know”. Toyo Keizai Online (20174-03-17). 2019th of February 4Browse.
  199. ^ "Jewish Community Study of New York (PDF)”. United Jewish Appeal-Federation of New York (2002). As of June 2007, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008th of February 9Browse.
  200. ^ "Census Pro File: New York City's Indian American Population (PDF)”. Asian American Federation of New York (2004). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  201. ^ "NYC2005 — Results from the 2005 American Community Survey: Socioeconomic Characteristics by Race / Hispanic Origin and Ancestry Group (PDF)”. New York City Department of City Planning (2005). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  202. ^ Archive of the Mayor's Press Office, Mayor Giuliani Proclaims Puerto Rican Week in New York City, 1998-06-09.
  203. ^ Moore LT, McEvoy B, Cape E, Simms K, Bradley DG (February 2006). “A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland” (PDF). The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 334–338. two:10.1086/500055. PMID 16358217. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1380239 2007th of February 6Browse..  See also: Wade, Nicholas (October 2006, 1). “If Irish Claim Nobility, Science May Approve”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/18/science/18irish.html?ex=1149652800&en=2336ca46c937614b&ei=5070 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  204. ^ "New York city, New York --Fact Sheet". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. 2009th of February 7Browse.
  205. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. “New York city, New York --ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2007". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. 2009th of February 7Browse.
  206. ^ Roberts, Sam (March 2005, 4). “In Manhattan, Poor Make 2 Cents for Each Dollar to the Rich”. The new york times. http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/SamRoberts4Sep05.htm 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  207. ^ "Average Weekly Wage in Manhattan at $ 1,453 in Second Quarter 2006 (PDF)”. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor (February 2007, 2). 2008th of February 9Browse.
  208. ^ Roberts, Sam (March 2007, 3). “In Surge in Manhattan Toddlers, Rich White Families Lead Way”. The new york times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/23/nyregion/23kid.html 2008th of February 9Browse. 
  209. ^ How to find a cheap apartment in New York City Archived August 2012, 1, at the Wayback Machine.; Housing Vacancy Survey
  210. ^ Greene and Harrington. "American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790". 1932. Quoted by Ira Rosenwaike, in "Population History of New York City". Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. 1972. ISBN 0815621558
  211. ^ Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. US Census Bureau. 2005.
  212. ^ "New York City Global Partners”. New York City. 2010th of February 2Browse.
  213. ^ Barry Turner (ed.) (2002). The Statesman's Yearbook 2003. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN-0 333-98096-4 

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close