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🌏 | Mr. Biden "prepares to compromise" with corporate tax rate 25% for infrastructure planning financial resources


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Mr. Biden "prepares to compromise" with corporate tax rate 25% to finance infrastructure planning

 
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Plans to increase budgets for schools, roads, vocational training and public works projects, while raising taxes on wealthy people and businesses, are supported by voters from both the ruling and opposition parties, but parliamentary Republicans strongly oppose them. ..
 

[Lake Charles (Louisiana, USA) XNUMXth Reuters] – US President Joe Biden has a federal corporate tax rate of XNUMX on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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Both ruling and opposition parties

Job training

Job trainingWhat is (Job Training)?WorkerAgainstOccupationrequired forskillTo develop and improve workers' abilities by acquiring knowledge and knowledgeTrainingSay[1][2].

EuropeAnd in Malaysia, roughlyInitial vocational education and training(IVET) andContinuedVocational education and trainingIt is roughly divided into (CVET)[3].. IVET is an education that is conducted before entering work (before entering employment) and is closely related to the school education system.[3].. CVET is conducted after entering work life (after joining the job), and training for turnoverIn-house educationPoint to[3].. About IVETVocational educationThis article mainly describes CVET, except for the Japanese section.[4].

JapanVocational training in[5]The system isschool educationIt has a different personality from the system[6]..Of the education that fosters work / vocational views and knowledge / skills, specialized and practical education that emphasizes the development of knowledge / skills isVocational educationと 呼 ば れ る[7].

Europe

The United Kingdom

The United KingdomCVCET inContinuing Education CollegeIt is carried out at (FE College)Department for Business, Innovation and SkillsIs in charge of[8][9].. At FE CollegeNational Vocational Qualification(NVQ) Level Introductory ~ 3 qualifications can be obtained[9].

France

FranceIn CVETContinuous vocational education / training(Formation continue) is carried out by the following organizations[10][11].

(French version(AFPA)
Under the control ofunemploymentFor people. Conducted more than 186 species on 700 campuses.
(French version
Certificat d'etat(CAP), Occupation Baccalaureate, Senior engineer diplomaGrant (BTS).As a facilityCollege,LyceeIs used.
More than 47 participants (2009)
National Conservatory of Arts of France(CNAM)
Grant bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.

Germany

Initial vocational education and training

GermanyInCompulsory educationIs up to 15 years old, but after completing the lower secondary education stage, it is necessary to choose whether to proceed to the advanced gymnasium stage or the vocational training system.[12]..Those who choose to get a job are obliged to go to a vocational school and receive vocational training until they reach the age of 18 while having a training contract with a company to get a job (training at a company).Dual system[13][14]..There are about 350 types of training occupations[15]..In some cases, it goes to an early vocational education school that focuses on learning at school.

Dual system
Berufsschule (vocational school, part-time vocational school, vocational training school, vocational education school,Part-time vocational training
In the dual system, the practical part is learned at the company and the theoretical part is learned at the vocational school.[16].
Berufsbildungswerk (vocational training center, vocational training school)
It is an institution where people with disabilities learn specialized skills under a dual system while receiving support from corporate workshops and lectures at vocational schools.[17].
Early Vocational Education School
Berufsgrundbildungsjahr (year of basic vocational education)
A system that separates the first year of initial vocational education conducted in a school form or dual system (dual system)[18].
Berufsfachschule (vocational school)
Schools set up to obtain a certificate of completion for certain official training professions or to obtain a certificate of vocational training that can only be obtained at school[19].

These schools may go on to higher schools (vocational schools and vocational senior schools).

Berufsaufbauschule (vocational school)
Schools that provide more advanced general specialized theoretical education than vocational schools[20].
Fachoberschule (vocational school)
A school whose purpose is to acquire practical knowledge and abilities in general specialized theory that require a person who has obtained a certificate of completion from a real school or a certificate approved equivalent to it.[20].

Continuous vocational education and training

Public vocational training for the unemployed and incumbents is provided by vocational schools, community adult education centers, training providers, businesses, etc.[21].

America

Public vocational training for the unemployed and incumbents in the United StatesMinistry of LaborIs in charge of[21]..Public vocational training is conducted by community colleges, training providers and businesses[21].

Asia

Malaysia

MalaysiaCVET in Germany has an NDTS led by the Ministry of Human Resources of MalaysiaDual systemWas used as a modelApprenticeship systemTraining by[22].

CVET is also carried out individually at the local government level.[23].

Japan

As vocational trainingCountry TheVocational development school for people with disabilitiesEstablished (operated byPrefecturesIndependent administrative agencyEmployment Support System for Elderly/Disability/Job SeekersIn addition to being entrusted to), it is set up and operated by the Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly, Disabled, and Job Seekers.Vocational training facility OfVocational Development College(Nickname: Polytech College)Vocational Development Promotion Center(Nickname: Polytech Center),PrefecturesStandingVocational development school(For each prefectureSelf-governmentTherefore, the name is different for each prefecture.Differences in names depending on prefectureRefer to)).

other,Vocational training corporationOtherCompany,Foundation,combination,Private enterprisesSuch asBusiness ownerOf the vocational training conducted byOccupational Ability Development Promotion ActThose certified by the prefectural governor based onCertified vocational trainingCalled.In addition, a private business operator was entrusted by the Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly, Disabled, and Job Seekers and prefectures.Outsourced trainingAlso called vocational training.For those who are already workersPublic vocational trainingApart fromIn-service trainingIt is called.

Regarding the underlying laws and regulations, training and certified vocational training conducted by the national government (including the Independent Administrative Institution Elderly / Disability / Job Seeker Employment Support Organization) and prefectures are stipulated in the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law, but are certified by business owners, etc. There is no legal basis for vocational training other than vocational training other than the law directly related to employees (labor of the Organization).

Job training

Vocational training is classified into two types according to the training level.

Advanced vocational training

Advanced vocational trainingIs the altitude required for a profession for workersskillAnd vocational training to acquire knowledge about this.This includes long-term training and short-term training, of which long-term trainingSpecialized course(Training period is 2 years, but extension is possible for 1 year or less) at Vocational Ability Development College andVocational Development Junior College, In certified vocational trainingVocational Development Junior CollegeIt is carried out at the vocational training facility where.Of long-term trainingApplied course(Training period is 2 years, but 2 years or more and 4 years or less is also possible) will be conducted at Vocational Ability Development College and Polytechnic University Tokyo School.Of the short trainingApplied short course(Training period 60 hours or more and 1 year or less.Business school(Also known as) is carried out at the Vocational Ability Development College.Of the short trainingSpecialized short course(Training period is 6 months or less, but 1 year or less is also possible.Ability development seminar(Also known as) is implemented at vocational ability development colleges, vocational ability development junior colleges, vocational ability development promotion centers, and vocational ability development schools for persons with disabilities.

Ordinary vocational training

Ordinary vocational trainingMeans vocational training other than advanced vocational training.This includes long-term training and short-term training, and long-term trainingRegular course(The training period for the subjects shown in Appendix 1 of the Regulations is 2 to 4 years. However, it can be extended up to XNUMX years if the special training is provided for junior high school graduates.) Conducted at the Vocational Ability Development School. * The attached table of rules refers to the attached table in the Enforcement Regulations of the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law.

There are two types of regular vocational training courses, one based on Appendix XNUMX of the rules and the other not based on Appendix XNUMX of the rules, but the former is equivalent.Technician,Vocational training instructorA licensed occupation is set and it is carried out in the facilitySkill verificationBy passingAssistant technicianThe title of is obtained.This title shortens the period for taking the graduation subject or the equivalent second-class technician course exemption, first-class technician and vocational training instructor license specified by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.There is no merit of assistant technician in training that is not based on the attached table, but if special permission is obtained from the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, it will be read as assistant technician for the corresponding subject.In the case of accredited vocational training, one of the purposes is to train technicians by industry groups, so unless there are special circumstances in the regular course, the training is based on Appendix 1 of the Regulations.

In the past, manyCompanyCombined training based on Rule Appendix XNUMX for junior high school graduates and curriculum with high schoolSkill cooperation systemWas going on.Hitachi, Ltd.[1],All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd.,Japan National Railway,Japan Monopoly Corporation,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation,Tokyo Electric Power Company(Toden Gakuen High School),Toshiba CorporationMany companies have also conducted such training, but as of 2011,Toyota Motor CorporationOperated byToyota Industrial Academy(High School),Hino Motors, Ltd.Hino Technical High School, operated byDenso CorporationOperated byDenso Industrial AcademyThere are only three schools (technical high school course).

For short-term trainingShort term(The most common training period is 12 hours, and many 24-hour courses are set in the Incorporated Administrative Agency Elderly / Persons with Disabilities / Job Seekers Employment Support Organization and public vocational training. This is a short-term course that does not comply with the rules. It is the minimum number of hours allowed in the course. There are 6 months, some 2/3, 4 months, etc. In the Incorporated Administrative Agency Elderly / Disability / Job Seeker Employment Support OrganizationTurnover trainingCarry outAbility course(Called) is carried out at vocational ability development colleges, vocational ability development junior colleges, vocational ability development promotion centers, vocational ability development schools, and vocational ability development schools for persons with disabilities.

The most common short-term courses are short-term courses that are not based on Appendix 6 of the Regulations, and account for most of the vocational training for the elderly, people with disabilities, and job seekers, public vocational training, and certified vocational training.This is for all professionals, including those who are incumbents and those who have changed jobs, to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills in a short period of time.Prefectural governments and the Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly, Disabled, and Job Seekers have curriculums such as 1 months, but these are all positioned as short-term courses that are not based on Appendix XNUMX of the Regulations.This curriculum occupies most of the certified vocational training.As a course based on Appendix XNUMX of the Regulations, there is a forklift operation department, etc.For the time being, in public vocational training, the establishment of short-term courses of one year or more has been suspended by the administrative communication of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

In addition to this, there is a supervisory course based on Appendix XNUMX of the rules as a short-term training.This is a strict curriculum (XNUMXst to XNUMXth departments,TWI trainingMethod etc.) and requires specially trained vocational training instructors, so usually eachPrefectural Vocational Ability Development AssociationProvides certified vocational training as needed.

In addition to this, there is a technician course based on Appendix 1 of the Regulations.Each of the rules, Appendix 2-3 is a first-class technician course, Rule XNUMX-XNUMX is a second-class technician course, and Rule Appendix XNUMX-XNUMX is a single-grade technician course. If you take the course and graduate, you will be exempted from the department corresponding to the technician course of each subject.For example, by taking the manufacturing equipment department of the first-class technician course and passing the examination at the time of completion, the department of the manufacturing equipment department of the first-class technician is exempted from the certificate of passing the examination at the time of completion.It is important to note that the certificate of passing the examination at the time of completion of only the relevant class of the subject is not exempt from the department of the second-class technician even if it is the certificate of passing the examination at the time of completion of the first-class technician course.

Instructor training

Training for the purpose of training vocational training instructors, improving the qualifications of vocational training instructors, and changing occupations of vocational training instructors.Instructor trainingThat is.It is different from general vocational training that aims to equip workers with the knowledge necessary for vocation, but it is vocational training in a broad sense.[24]..Established and operated by the Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly, Persons with Disabilities, and Job SeekersVocational Development CollegeConducts instructor training (long-term course, research course, applied research course, specialized course and training course).

In the long-term course for training vocational training instructors (training based on Appendix XNUMX of the Regulations, mainly for new high school graduates), multiple instructor licenses associated with the subject can be obtained only by applying.In addition to the training necessary for training vocational training instructors, the Polytechnic University has a teacher organization and educational content equivalent to those of ordinary universities, so it is an incorporated administrative agency.University Evaluation and Degree Conferring OrganizationBy application toBachelor(Engineering)Bachelor of ScienceWill also be awarded.

In addition, a research course (Rule XNUMX-XNUMX) that trains instructors and vocational training instructors with advanced technical leadership and R & D capabilities (Rule XNUMX-XNUMX) (graduate SchoolMaster's CourseEquivalent to.If you complete it, you will go through the examination and examination of the National Institution for Academic Evaluation and Degree Conferring.MasterA degree in (engineering) is awarded. ), Applied research course (Rule XNUMX-XNUMX) that trains teachers (vocational training instructors) who can take charge of advanced vocational training applied courses, for those who are already engaged in the work of vocational training instructors, etc. , There is a specialized course (Appendix XNUMX of the Regulations) for obtaining a vocational training instructor license for another occupation, and a training course (Appendix XNUMX of the Regulations) for training mainly those who have obtained a vocational training instructor license.In addition, in the training course, among those who enter as employees of the Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly, Disabled, and Job Seekers, it also serves as a role for new employee training provided to vocational training instructors.

In addition, based on the provisions of Article 27-2, Paragraph 2 of the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law, business owners, etc. may carry out instructor training with the approval of the prefecture.However, in reality, long-term courses, research courses, applied research courses and specialized courses are conducted only at the Polytechnic University.On the other hand, for the training course, the minimum training time is stipulated as 12 hours.Prefectural Vocational Ability Development AssociationIt can be easily implemented as needed even in the private sector including.

Types of vocational training under the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law

By the training subject

By course

  • Job training
    • Ordinary vocational training
      • Long-term training course
        • Ordinary course (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
        • Ordinary course (course not based on Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
      • Short training course
        • Short term
          • Management supervisor course (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
          • Short-term course (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
          • Short-term course (course not based on Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
          • TechnicianCourse (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
            • First-class technician course (Appendix XNUMX-XNUMX of the rules)
            • Second-class technician course (Appendix XNUMX-XNUMX of the rules)
            • Single-grade technician course (Appendix XNUMX-XNUMX of the Regulations)
    • Advanced vocational training
      • Long-term training course
        • Specialized course (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
        • Applied course (Appendix XNUMX of the rules)
        • Comprehensive course(Rule XNUMX-XNUMX)
          • Specific specialized course
          • Specific application course
      • Short training course
        • Specialized short-term course (Rule XNUMX)
        • Applied short-term course (Rule Article XNUMX)
  • Instructor training

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Occupational Ability Development Bureau, "New Edition Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law-Labor Law Commentary 8-" Labor Administration Co., Ltd., p. 108, 2002.
  2. ^ The definition of vocational training isJapanEstablish vocational training, etc.Occupational Ability Development Promotion ActIs not specified in.However, the vocational training law renamed the law (Old vocational training law) (Law No. 33 of May 5, 2) In Article 133, Paragraph XNUMX [In this law, "vocational training" means to make workers acquire or improve the skills necessary for their profession. Refers to the training to be carried out. ] Is stipulated.
  3. ^ a b c Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, p. 2.
  4. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, p. 1.
  5. ^ Professional trainingSometimes called.
  6. ^ "Occupational ability development facilities such as Vocational Ability Development College, Vocational Ability Development Junior College, and Vocational Ability Development School are training facilities based on the Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labor, and are referred to as" schools "based on the School Education Law. Is a facility with a completely different personality. (Omitted) Please be careful not to confuse students with vocational ability development facilities and schools. "(Ministry of Education, Lifelong Learning Bureau, Lifelong Learning Promotion Division, Ken Terawaki, Ministry of Education, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, Vocational Education Division, Kenro Fukushima, August 10, 8)
  7. ^ Definitions of "career education", "vocational education", etc.(Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Career Education and Vocational Education Special Subcommittee (1st) Handouts, p.49, January 21, 1)
  8. ^ Lifelong learning support project by utilizing ICT-Fact-finding survey in the UK (Report). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/zyouhou/1308670.htm. 
  9. ^ a b Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, p. 81.
  10. ^ Lifelong learning support project by utilizing ICT-Fact-finding survey in France (Report). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/zyouhou/1308670.htm. 
  11. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, pp. 176,182-185.
  12. ^ Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, p. 269.
  13. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, pp. 128.
  14. ^ Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, pp. 271-273.
  15. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, pp. 130.
  16. ^ Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, p. 274.
  17. ^ "Current status of inclusive education in Germany”. Tsukubada University Hearing Special Needs School. 2019th of February 10Browse.
  18. ^ Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, p. 276.
  19. ^ Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, p. 277.
  20. ^ a b Masaharu Amano, Akirō Beppu, Makoto Yuki, "German Education," Toshindo, 1998, p. 278.
  21. ^ a b c "Education and training system in other countries”. Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. 2019th of February 10Browse.
  22. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, pp. 330-331.
  23. ^ Vocational Ability Development University Report 2011, p. 333.
  24. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Occupational Ability Development Bureau, "New Edition Vocational Ability Development Promotion Law-Labor Law Commentary 8-" Labor Administration Co., Ltd., p. 317, 2002.

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