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🌏 | Three Chinese telecommunications companies delist NY certificate under US investment regulations


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Three Chinese telecommunications companies delist NY certificate under US investment regulations

 
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President Biden has maintained this regulation amid continued tensions in US-China relations.
 

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US-China relations

US-China relationsWhat is (Beichikankei, English: China–United States Relations, Chinese: Sino-US Relations)?The United States of America(USA / USA)People's Republic of China(China) is a bilateral relationship.

Overview

Sino-US relations are complex and multifaceted, and it is said that Sino-US relations are neither an alliance nor a hostile relationship.White HouseU.S. ForcesAuthoritiesPeople's Republic of ChinaIs regarded as a military threat, and the People's Republic of China is distrustful of interference with other countries against the backdrop of the power of the United States.However, they consider each other as partners in other areas such as trade and culture.

Data comparison between the two countries

United States flag The United States of AmericaFlag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China
population314
area962 square kilometers960 million square kilometers
capitalWashington DC北京市
Largest cityニ ュ ー ヨ ー クShanghai
政府Presidential Federal RepublicOne-party Socialist People's Republic
LeaderPresident : Joe Biden
Vice President : Kamala Harris
General Secretary of the Communist Party of China-Head of state : Xi Jinping[Annotation 1]
Prime Minister : Lee Keqiang
Vice President of the State : 王岐山
Official terminologyEnglish (in fact)Chinese(Mandarin
Religious77% キ リ ス ト 教, 18% No religion, 1% Buddhism, 2% Judaism, 1% Islam, 1% Other89% non-religious, 5.5% Buddhist, 0.5% Taoism, 3% Christianity, 3% Islam
RaceCaucasian American(European American,Arab American),Hispanicas well as the Latin American(All races),
African American,Mixed,Asian american,Native AmericanOr Americans living in the Pacific Islands
Han people,Mongolian,Manchurian,Korean,Tibetans,Uighur(OthersChinese minority(See)
GDP (Exchange Rate)US $ 21 billion (US $ 4394 per person)US $ 14 billion (US $ 1401 per person)
GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)US $ 21 billion (US $ 4394 per person)US $ 27 billion (US $ 3088 per person)
Military expenditureUS$6490 billionUS$2500 billion
Number of nuclear weapons6,450280

History

From the US-Qing trade through the Opium War

Sino-US relationsRevolutionary WarAfter1784Merchant shipEmpress of China Clear countryOf the eraGuangzhouIt started when I arrived at.米清貿易で仲買商人は巨万の富を得、アメリカで最初の世代の億万長者となったBrokers gained huge wealth in the U.S. Qing trade and became the first generation of millionaires in the United States[Annotation 2]..Exports from China have motivated Western merchants to open up the consumer market.

after that,1842ToOpium WarIs over.清国はQing dynastyNanjing TreatyOf many portsOpen portI was forced to.これにより米清関係のThis is related to KomeseiTradeIs strengthened, while due to the effects of the Treaty of NankingThe United KingdomThe threat of increasing the interests of American merchants and squeezing the interests of American merchants was becoming more serious.そこでThereforeJohn TylerThe president is Qing dynastyTreaty of WanghiSigned, not only in the United Kingdom but also in the United StatesExtraterritorial lawWas also admitted.以降米清貿易は新たな時代を迎え、アメリカは他のSince then, the US-Qing trade has entered a new era, and the United States is anotherStrong lineAnd gained privilege in trade.

1857, Second Opium War (Arrow war) After the defeatXianfeng EmperorEscaped from Beijing and is his younger brotherPrince GongByTianjin TreatyRatified,1860May 10ToBeijing TreatyWas signed.この条約には当時At that time in this treatyClosed cityWas to Beijing, England, France, Russia, USAMinisterWas included as a condition.

Huaihua Immigration Law

California Ofgold Rush,Transcontinental railroadAround the time of construction, a large number of immigrants from China came in, which made the American people uncomfortable.Civil WarLater in the 1870sBusinessWhen it gets worse,Chinese people OfcoolieBySalaryClaimed that the level has been lowered(English edition OfDennis KearneyCaliforniaBy Governor John BiglerAnti-middleEmotions are politically embodied in 1868Tianjin TreatyFollowing the additional treaty1882May 5th, the first freedom in American historyImmigrationIs a regulation ofChinese exclusionAs (Exclusion Act)US CongressPassed through.The bill will allow the United States to suspend immigrants, and Chinese people engaged in mines will be denied entry with or without skills.ImprisonmentOrDeportationWas done[Annotation 3]..中国人はChinesemineIf you are forced to move out ofSan FranciscoSuch asChinatownLived in and got a bottom job.

Giwadan Rebellion

1899November, myselfBoxer RebellionThe group calledNorthern ChinaIn anti-foreigners,Anti-imperialistStarted the exercise (Giwadan Rebellion).暴動はRiot農民"Great powers" foreigners who started as a movement and were thought to dominate the Qing dynastyキ リ ス ト 教徒,KazeIgnoreTrainAttacked a foreigner who builds. 1900年6月には義和団は北京に侵攻し、外国人In June XNUMX, the Boxer Rebellion invaded Beijing and foreignersMinisterAnd 230 foreignersShandongShaanxiKilled thousands of Chinese Christians. June 6stWestern empressTo Western countriesDeclaration of warThen,Diplomat・ General foreigners, soldiers, Chinese Christians, etc.Austria-Hungary Empire-France-Germany-イタリア-Japan-ロシア-The Eight-Nation Alliance of 2 British and American troops evacuated to the legation for 55 days before arriving to rescue them.この時、アメリカはAt this time, AmericaUS-West Waras well as the US-Pacific WarBecause of the US warships and troopsフィリピンBecause it was deployed in, it played a major role in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion.[Annotation 4].1901May 9After the Boxer Rebellion that continued until, the Qing Dynasty government gave victimscompensationAnd many concessions, whichXinhai RevolutionbyRepublic of ChinaIt brought about the founding of the country and the destruction of the Qing dynasty.

Open Door Policy and the Age of World War

France·America·The United Kingdom-Germany-イタリア-Japan-ロシアEtc. of the world at the end of the 19th centuryStrong line TheClear countryEach of them was competing with the expansion of the sphere of influence. 1899,US Secretary of State OfJohn hayIs within their respective powers against the great powersTreaty PortWith free useterritoryAdministrationRequest to guarantee the attribution of rights to the Qing dynastyUltimatumIt was sent.The great powers confessed that they would not be accepted unless they agreed, but Secretary of State Hay received the proposal as approved.

Open door policyWas accepted internationally,1890 eraRussian in the second halfSouthwardBeginsManchuria,KoreaStarted to advance to.Britain and America protest Russia,Russo-Japanese WarDevelop into.

World War IIn1915In JapanOhte ShigenobuThe administration isRepublic of ChinaAgainst "Request for 21 articles from China"AlliesBetweenGerman EmpireDecided to conclude a secret agreement on the interests held by.台頭する日本を脅威に感じたアメリカではIn the United States, which felt the rising Japan as a threat1924ToJapanese Immigration LawWas established.

1931May 9In JapanManchurian IncidentWoke upPuppet stateIsManchuriaWhen the United States was founded, the United States strongly condemned it with other countries.

Second World War

1937ToChinese incident(Sino-Japanese war) OutbreakFranklin RooseveltThe administration isSupporting the Republic of China led by Chiang Kai-shekTo do.アメリカが戦争状態にある他国を支援することを禁ずるProhibits the United States from supporting other countries in warNeutrality lawRelated billsIsolationismAlthough they had passed the parliament with the support of others, President Roosevelt did not admit that China was in a state of war because the two countries did not declare war during the Sino-Japanese War, and proceeded with support for Chiang Kai-shek.

The American newspaper was relatively neutral in reporting on relations with China compared to Britain,ProtestantMissionary,Pearl buckArticles by novelists such as are often in the United StatesAnti-Japanpublic opinionContributed to the arousal of.Japanese armyDuring the Nanjing bombing byPanay IncidentJapan apologized when this happened, but US-Japan relations deteriorated.Nanjing IncidentInJapanese armyThe atrocities allegedly committed bytimeThe magazine reported that it had a certain response in the United States.

1941 years,Great East Asian War(Pacific War) After the outbreak, the Republic of China officially declares war on Japan as an Allied Power.アメリカは首都をAmerica is the capitalChongqingAlthough it assisted China, which had moved to China, the Chiang Kai-shek government could not effectively resist the Japanese army, or the Japanese army was considered to be dominant.蒋介石はChiang Kai-shekXi'an incidentReluctantlySecond country co-productionThe Communist Party Army was incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army.New Fourth Army,Eighth ArmyWith the assistance of the US and the Soviet Union.

After World War II

National war

1945ToSecond World WarAfter the endChinese National PartyChinese Communist PartyAgainNational warWas restarted.Douglas MacArthurWas withdrawn by the Japanese army to Chiang Kai-shekTaiwanWas instructed to requisition, and a military administration was laid down in Taiwan.The Truman administration's Asian policy also attaches great importance to China's policy,Patrick HarleyAmbassador mediatedDouble Tenth AgreementBy establishing mediation of the Chinese Civil War, China tried to achieve "great power".1946ToGeorge MarshallAsked the Kuomintang and the Communist Party for a truce, but Chiang Kai-shek abandoned it, and plans to support the reconstruction of China's industrial and agricultural reforms also collapsed due to the civil war.The Kuomintang has steadily moved to Taiwan.In addition, when this Kuomintang moved to Taiwan,1947May 2In the Republic of ChinaXNUMX incidentIs causing.

After the National Revolutionary Army continued to lose in the Second Chinese Civil WarMao ZedongChairman of the Chinese Communist PartyLeadChinese PLAWon.President Mao Zedong1949May 10ToPeople's Republic of ChinaDeclared the founding of the country, including TaiwanMainland ChinaClaimed territorial territory.The defeated National Revolutionary Army moved to Taiwan andTaiwan National GovernmentSurvived.1950Truman issues Taiwan non-interference statement on January 1[1],laterKorean WarRefused to intervene in the Taiwan Strait until[2].

Korean War

1950May 6Broke outKorean WarThe United States and China clashed directly with each other.Soviet UnionReceived support fromDPR Korea(North Korea)South KoreaFollowing the start of the invasion of (South Korea), the United StatesUnited Nations Security CouncilConvened and blamed this.VetoSoviet Union withPermanent member of the Security CouncilThe seat of the People's Republic of China, notChinese National Party OfChiang Kai-shekPresidentLeadRepublic of China OfTaiwan National GovernmentBoycotted the board in protest of the occupancy.

The Republic of Korea, which was initially inferior,Douglas MacArthurUnited Nations ArmyBy commanderIncheon Landing OperationAfter that,U.S. ForcesRepublic of KoreaSince October 1950, South Korea has been trying to make a comeback.Lee Seung-jaePresidentof"Northward unificationAccording to the concept, it was the de facto border between North and South Korea before the start of the war.38-degree lineGo northKorean People's ArmyFollowing (North Korean Army), during October 1950, on the China-North Korea borderYalu RiverI approached to the vicinity. However, on the occasion of the UN Command's 38th parallel northward,Chinese PLABut"Chinese People's Volunteer Army"(Anti-Beauty Relief Korean War),Communist campA large-scale counterattack has begun.

PavilionThe Allied Forces of China and North Korea led by the commanderKiyokawaalongHuman tactics(Mountain penetration strategy) counterattacked and hit the UN forces from the side. America8th ArmyWas forced to retreat for a long time and suffered an unprecedented defeat in US military history.1951May 1ToSeoulWas lost.1951In March, China moved new troops near the border,Okinawa OfKadena Air Base OfUS Air ForceIs ready for battle, April 4th,Joint Chiefs of StaffTo Manchuria, which was a base for recruiting new troopsNuclear attackTo request.Truman9 presidentsMark 4The(English editionAlthough it was approved to move to, there were many dissenting opinions within the US military, and the atomic bomb was not actually dropped.

After that, the Korean War continued to be stuck,1953May 7ToKorean War Armistice AgreementIt came to the signature.

The Korean War is officially over (The end of the war) NotKorean unification problemOccupies an important position in Sino-US relations. In addition, the United States, which recognized the threat of China in the Korean War, changed its policy of non-intervention in the Taiwan Strait.First Taiwan Strait CrisisAfter1954May 12ToUS-China Mutual Defense TreatyWas tied.

America fled to TaiwanRepublic of ChinaIs considered the only legal Chinese government ("One china"), After that1979What is the Communist Party government in mainland China for up to 30 years?Diplomatic relationsDid not tie.

Vietnam War

New China with the Soviet Union1950からFirst Indochina WarIntervene inHo Chi MinhLanoVietnamWas providing support to.

1962In the summerMao Zedong TheNorth VietnamSupplied 9 rifles.

After the start of the "", China dispatched an air force, dispatched technical troops to repair roads and railroads destroyed by US airstrikes, and expelled South Vietnamese troops. Between 1965 and 1970, more than 32 Chinese soldiers fought the U.S. Army with the North Vietnamese Army.[Annotation 5]..ベトナム戦争で中国軍は1446名、アメリカ軍は中国軍と北ベトナムのXNUMX Chinese troops in the Vietnam War, US troops in China and North VietnamVetconIn the battle with the joint army, 58,159 people were killed in action.

Deterioration of relationship

White House TheRepublic of ChinaIn support ofMember of the United Nations of the People's Republic of ChinaJapan and other allies continued to be reluctant to establish diplomatic relations with China at the request of the US government.The United States also implemented restricted trade with the People's Republic of China and called on its allies to follow suit.

1964The People's Republic of China succeeded in the atomic bomb test for the first time (China's nuclear testreference).Democratic Party OfLindon johnsonThe president was also considering a preemptive attack on China to stop the nuclear test in the People's Republic of China.

The United States has not approved China since 1954, but the United States and the Chinese Communist Party are the firstGenevaStarting with the one I went toWarsawSo, 136 timesambassadorContinued informal class discussions.

Normalization of diplomatic relations

Reapproach

The United States and China were seeking to improve relations.1969 OfSino-Soviet border dispute(English editionAs it worsened, it became a particular concern for China.中国は西側と敵対していたが、指導層はアメリカとの関係を改善することはソ連の脅威に対してChina was hostile to the West, but leaders said improving relations with the United States against the Soviet threatEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euI came to think that it was useful in taking.Zhou EnlaiPrime MinisterTakes the brunt of this effort, but fails due to Mao Zedong's obstruction.

There was an opinion in the United States that excluding China from the world stage would have a greater negative impact.また、ベトナム・Also, VietnamCambodia-Laosな どSoutheast AsiaSome argued that strengthening ties with the United States, which has strong ties with other countries, would weaken the influence of the Soviet Union.泥沼化したMireVietnam WarThere is also a view that China should be used to collect the goods, and it is a huge China with a population of XNUMX billion.MarketWas thought to bring great business opportunities to the United States.

Democratic Party OfMichael mansfieldSenateHospital General AffairsWas one of the most interested Americans in China, and Mansfield called on China to hold talks.マンスフィールドはその案を国務長官とMansfield and the Secretary of StateRichard NixonI handed it to the president.

President NixonAsiaInterest in policy is high, with President NixonHenry KissingerNational Security Affairs Presidential AssistantBelieved that contact with China was worth it.ニクソン大統領には中国との関係改善はPresident Nixon wants to improve relations with China1972 United States Presidential ElectionThere was also an idea that it would be a good material for domestic public opinion toward.President Nixon was afraid that Democrats would visit China before him.

Negotiations between US and Chinese leadersPakistan,ルーマニアWas the brokerage point.

Since 1969US GovernmentGradually relaxed regulations that hinder trade and other bilaterals at the request of China.しかし、国交正常化の作業はHowever, the work of normalizing diplomatic relationsIndochina PeninsulaSuspended due to American actions. 1971年4月6日、若いアメリカ人卓球選手グレン・コーワンは日本のApril XNUMX, XNUMX, young American table tennis player Glenn Cowan is from JapanNagoyaAt the 31st World Table Tennis Championships held in Tokyo, I got on the wrong bus and was waved by a Chinese table tennis player.コーワンは中国の選手は友好的な服装で、3度の男子世界チャンピオンである中国人選手荘則棟から絹でCowan is a friendly outfit for Chinese athletes, silk from the three-time men's world champion Zhuang Zedong.HuangshanHe said he was given a portrait in the shape of.The act was pure and voluntary by two athletes, but China decided to use it as a diplomatic card.荘則棟は2年にZhuang Zedong was built in 2007University of Southern CaliforniaI talked about this at the US-China Research Institute.According to Chinese sources, the contact between Zhuang Zedong and Glen Cowan and the commemorative photo they took at Dacankao influenced Mao Zedong's decision-making.He didn't intend to invite American players to China, but he changed his mind.のちにLaterPing pong diplomacyAn invitation to China for the American table tennis team known as. On April 1971, 4, Americans made an official visit to China for the first time after the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 10.

In July 1971, Kissinger did not appear publicly for a day during his visit to Pakistan due to poor physical condition.キッシンジャーはある外交的な使命を帯びて北京を極秘訪問していたKissinger had a secret visit to Beijing on a diplomatic mission[3].. On July 1971, 7, President Nixon shockedly announced that he had received a request for a visit from China and accepted it.

This announcement shocked the world.アメリカでは最も強硬なThe hardest in AmericaAnti-communistOpposed to this decision.But public opinion accepted this, and President Nixon's approval rating soared as he had hoped.President Nixon gained confidence from anti-communists and said, "CompanionistThe fear of being called is gone.

The best foreign policy in ChinaLeftWas in the position ofSoviet UnionThere was a dissenting opinion from.この動きは軍首脳であるThis move is a military leaderLin BiaoIt is reported that it was guided by.やがて林彪はソ連への亡命の途上、国内の反対世論を封じるための謀殺として後々疑われる事となるLin Biao was later suspected of being murdered in an asylum to the Soviet Union to block domestic opposition.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euOver the skyMysterious crashDied this world.

The reaction of the international community was mixed.ソ連は米中和解に深い懸念を示し、新しい世界秩序はThe Soviet Union is deeply concerned about the US neutralization solution, and the new world orderRice sode tantContributed greatly to.ヨーロッパの同盟国の多くとWith many of the European alliesカナダHas already approved China and has expressed its willingness to welcome it.But the reaction in Asia was more complicated.日本は発表の内容を15分前まで知らされておらず、アメリカが日本よりも中国を重視することを怖れて非常に強い不快感を示し、日本の政界は対中政策を巡って大混乱に陥るJapan was not informed of the announcement until XNUMX minutes ago, and was very uncomfortable with fear that the United States would prioritize China over Japan, and Japanese politics was in turmoil over China's policy. Fall intoFirst Nixon ShockI was hit by.Soon Japan also approved China and resumed full-scale trade. South KoreaSouth VietnamIs a rice neutralization solutionCommunist countryI was worried that it might mean the discontinuation of support in the fight against.Throughout its work to normalize diplomatic relations, the United States has ensured that its alliances with these countries will not be compromised.

1972May 2からMay 2OverPresident Nixon visits China,Beijing,Hangzhou,ShanghaiAfter going around, the diplomatic policy was summarized on the 28th of the last day (Shanghai Communiqué)announced.Under such circumstances, the United States and China have vowed to further strengthen cooperation toward normalization of diplomatic relations.[4] The United States says Taiwan is part of ChinaOne chinaRecognizing that, the two countries are important to prevent the normalization of diplomatic relations.Taiwan issueAside from that, it was decided to carry out open trade and contact.

It is said that China's consent was obtained for the resumption of the North bombing by the U.S. military and the blockade of the sea to North Vietnam three months after Nixon's visit to China. "China told the United States that it didn't have to attack China," he said.[5]..以後、北ベトナムは中華人民共和国と対立するソ連との関係を強化し、北ベトナムと中華人民共和国との関係悪化は決定的になり、ベトナムは中国の同盟国であるSince then, North Vietnam has strengthened its relations with the Soviet Union, which is in opposition to the People's Republic of China, and the deterioration of relations between North Vietnam and the People's Republic of China has become decisive, and Vietnam is an ally of China.Cambodia OfKhmer RougeInvade the administrationChuetsu WarIs outbreak, and the United States and ChinaPro-Vietnam administrationnot,Democratic CampchiaApproved.また、米中はAlso, in the US and ChinaAfrica,Latin AmericaCooperate with Cuba[6][7],Land Institute OfMichael pillsburyThe military cooperation between the United States and China will be promoted by the advice of[8][9]..国交正常化の成果はThe result of normalizing diplomatic relationsSecurityThe impact on the economy was slow, and it took another 10 years for American products to enter the Chinese market.

US-China Liaison Office

1973In May, the United States and China joined forces to establish formal diplomatic relations.BeijingWashington DCEstablished in.1973から1978In the meantime, George HW Bush, has the full power of the officeMinisterWas appointed as.

Republican Party OfGerald FordThe president1975Visited China to reaffirm America's intention to normalize relations with China1977ToDemocratic Party OfJimmy CarterThe president reaffirmed his purpose.

1978May 12, The United States and China1979In 1 monthDiplomatic relationsAnnounced to establish.

From the normalization of diplomatic relations to the Tiananmen Square Incident

1978May 12As agreed by (Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States)1979May 1With AmericaRepublic of Chinaon behalfPeople's Republic of China外交I ended up having a relationship[10]. America isShanghai CommuniquéShown in "Taiwan is part of ChinaI reconfirmed China's position.China has confirmed that Americans will continue their commercial, cultural and other informal exchanges with the Taiwanese people.In order to guarantee such a practical informal relationship with Taiwan, the United States stated in domestic law thatTaiwan Relations Law』Established[11].

1979 Year of 1 MonthDeng XiaopingThe Deputy Prime Minister's visit to the United States began a high-level political exchange between the two countries, which continued until the spring of 1989.以後科学的・技術的・文化的交流や貿易に関する二国間Since then, bilateral relations on scientific, technical and cultural exchanges and tradeTreatyWill be concluded one after another[12].. Since early 1979, hundreds of joint research projects and cooperation plans have been launched based on agreements on scientific and technical cooperation, making it the largest bilateral program.

1979May 3In the United States and China,capitalToEmbassyWas officially installed. In 1979, many unresolved private issues were resolved and a trade agreement was signed. 1979年8月にアメリカのAmerican in August XNUMXWalter MondaleVice PresidentDeng XiaopingI visited China in return for the Deputy Prime Minister's visit to the United States.This visit led to an agreement in September 1980 on bilateral consular practices, scheduled services of maritime vessels and commercial aircraft, and textile issues.

As a result of high-level exchanges initiated in 1980, the topic of dialogue between the United States and China is global or regional strategy, politics, military, United Nations and other multilateral international organizations for arms management and international.drugIt also reached the problem.この時代はIn this eraMoscow OlympicsBoycotted ChinaLos Angeles OlympicsParticipate inSoviet invasion of AfghanistanAgainstMujahideenThe support of both the United States and China symbolized the honeymoon of the United States and China.[13].

But in 1981 China became the United StatesTaiwanDisagreeing with the provision of weapons to the two countries threatens bilateral relations. 1981年7月にIn July XNUMXAlexander HaigThe Secretary of State visited China to resolve China's doubts about the informal relationship between the United States and Taiwan, and announced on August 8, 1982, after eight months of dialogue.この声明の中でアメリカは台湾への武器供与を削減していく方針を打ち出し、中国側はIn this statement, the United States announced a policy to reduce the provision of weapons to Taiwan, and the Chinese sideTaiwan issueClarified the basic policy of peacefully resolving[14]..その間の1982年5月に米中連絡事務所所長を務めた経験を持つ知中派のIn the meantime, in May XNUMX, he was the director of the U.S.-China Liaison Office.George HW BushThe Vice President is visiting China.In addition, on July 7, prior to the statement, US President Ronald Reagan will not set a deadline for Taiwan's President Chiang Ching-kuo to provide weapons to Taiwan.Six AssurancesWas transmitted. 1983George SchultzWith the Secretary of StateCasper Wine BurgerAfter the Secretary of Defense's visit to China, export control to China, which had been in the same group classification as the Soviet Union and other communist blocs, was reviewed, and in 1984 China was upgraded to the same level as Japan.[15],UH-60 Black Hawk,C-130[16] Etc. have begun to be exported,Jaguar tank,NFV-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle,GrummanWith companyFC-1,J-8II,LockheedWith companyY-8CHas come to be jointly developed.

1980 eraThere were active mutual visits by the leaders of the United States and China.1984To americanReaganPresident and ChinaZhao hydrangeaPrime MinisterVisit each other1985In 7 monthLi XiannianHead of stateVisited the United States on a trip abroad.This was the first such visit by Chinese leaders. 1985年10月にアメリカのジョージ・H・W・ブッシュ副大統領は中国を訪問し、中国で4ヵ所目となるVice President George HW Bush of the United States visited China in October XNUMX, making it the fourth place in China.成都US Consulate was opened.

Exchanges between ministers from both countries took place from 1985 to 1989.1989In February, US President George HW Bush visited China to add glamor.

The XNUMXth Tiananmen IncidentPrior to the outbreak, cultural, artistic, and educational exchanges at the US and Chinese private levels were widespread.An official Chinese delegation visited the United States every month.Many of these exchanges continued even after the suppression of the Tiananmen Square Incident.

After the Tiananmen Square Incident (1990s)

1989Occurred on January 6The XNUMXth Tiananmen IncidentAll major countries including the United StatesHuman rights situation in the People's Republic of ChinaThe United States stopped high-level exchanges, embargoed on arms to China, andEconomic sanctionsWas imposed.翌1990年夏のヒューストン・サミットでThe following day at the Houston Summit in the summer of XNUMXG7Countries have issued a statement urging China to improve its political and economic situation, especially human rights.[17].

The Tiananmen Square Incident cast a dark cloud over US-China trade, and US investment in China dropped dramatically. 1989年6月5日及び20日、アメリカ政府はJune XNUMX and XNUMX, XNUMX, the U.S. GovernmentPolitical repressionThe company announced that it would freeze its planned trade and investment plans, and the following sanctions bills were enacted.

  • US Trade Development Agency (TDA)-June 1989-January 6Bill ClintonSuspended in China until lifted by.
  • Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) --Actual suspension from June 1989.
  • Development bank,International Monetary Fund --The United States does not support lending by the Asian Development Bank and the International Monetary Fund other than humanitarian assistance.
  • US Military List-With a few exceptions, we do not authorize arms exports from the US Military List.This regulation depends on the president's decision.
  • Weapons Imports-After the imposition of a ban on arms exports to China, arms imports from China will be banned. This measure will be governed by the government and will be implemented again on May 1994, 5.Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Control BureauCovers all items on the munitions import list.この危機的な時期、アメリカ海外サービスのキャリア職員J.ステープルトン・ロイは北京の特命全権大使に任命されたDuring this crisis, J. Stapleton Roy, a career employee of US Overseas Services, was appointed as Beijing's envoy.[Annotation 6].

Taiwan issue and nuclear attack remarks

1995"If the United States intervenes in Taiwan, China will destroy Los Angeles with a nuclear missile. The United States should be more worried about Los Angeles than Taipei," said China's Deputy Chief of Staff.Armed conflict in the Taiwan StraitChina has stated that it could make a nuclear attack on Los Angeles if the United States intervenes in[18].. Next day1996 Republic of China presidential electionIn ChinaTaiwan StraitInmissileHe practiced and threatened Taiwanese voters.アメリカは2つのAmerica has twoaircraft carrierMTFDispatchedThird Taiwan Strait CrisisWas in jeopardy.その後台湾海峡の緊張は緩和し、高レベル交流及びAfter that, the tension in the Taiwan Strait eased, and high-level exchanges andhuman rights-Nuclear non-proliferationSino-US relations have improved through discussions such as.

Relieve tension

1997ToPresident of the People's Republic of ChinaFor the first time since 1985Jiang peopleAgreed to implement the 1985 Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation[19]). 1998年6月にはアメリカのIn June XNUMX in the United StatesBill ClintonThe president visited China, visited various cities in China, gave speeches on radio programs, and made direct contact with the Chinese people to convey the ideals and values ​​of Americans.しかしクリントン大統領は中国の人権蹂躙について十分な注意を払っていないという批判もあったBut there were criticisms that President Clinton wasn't paying enough attention to China's human rights abuses.[20].

In May 1999YugoslaviaThe Chinese EmbassyCase of accidental bombing by NATO Air ForceWhen the outbreak occurred, relations between the two countries became tense again.The cause was allegedly incorrect, but some people in China believed it was intentional.しかし1999年の終わりまでに関係は快方に向かい始め、1999年10月に両国はBut by the end of XNUMX, relations began to improve, and in October XNUMX the two countriesBelgradeAgreed to provide compensation for damages to the Chinese embassy and humanitarian compensation for injured or dead victims.

2000 era

Hainan Island Incident

2001May 4, Reconnaissance aircraft EP-3E flying in southern China and Chinese fighter J-8Mid-air collisionWoke up. The EP-3 was severely damaged,Hainan IslandI was able to make an emergency landing.Pilot Wang Wei, who was aboard a Chinese fighter, went missing after the collision. It is widely believed that the EP-3 was espionage against the PLA before contact.After extensive negotiations, EP-3 pilots were allowed to leave China 2 days later by writing "two apology letters."However, the damaged American reconnaissance aircraft was not allowed to leave the country for three months.またこの「お詫びの手紙」については、在北京アメリカ大使が中国外相に宛てた書簡の中の「regret」「sorry」の多義性を利用して中国に都合のよいように宣伝したとする見方もあるThere is also a view that the US Ambassador to Beijing used the ambiguity of "regret" and "sorry" in the letter to the Chinese Foreign Minister to promote this "apology letter" in a way that is convenient for China. is there[21]..After the incident, relations between the two countries deteriorated, but slowly improved.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

2001May 6In ChinaNATOCritical toロシア,Central AsiaWith countriesSecurityorgan"Shanghai Cooperation Organization"(SCO)Western countriesCheck.2005The agency demanded that US troops withdraw from Central Asia.

After that, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization became an ally of the United States.PakistanConflict with the United States as well as India, a friendly country(I.e.Also joined as an observer.The member states of the Organization often conducted joint military exercises, including China-Russia joint military exercises, Russia-India joint military exercises in 2005, and six official member countries in 2007, and China-India joint military exercises were conducted.

In the United States2006Because Pakistan is promoting nuclear weapons by providing Chinese technologyIndiaUS-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement(Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement) Was signed, and Japan became a member of the free camp in November 2006.Taro AsoForeign Minister saidThe arc of freedom and prosperityIn August 2007, the policy was launched.Shinzo AbeThe Prime Minister visited India and confirmed cooperation in the security and defense fields of Japan and India.[22].

After the terrorist attacks in the United States

Sino-US relations2001May 9 OfAmerican terrorist attacksHas reached a major turning point.China is "Fight against terrorismI requested strong support.China agrees with UN Security Council resolution 1373,UnionSupporting the fight in Afghanistan,TalibanFunded US $ 1 million for post-destroyer reconstruction of Afghanistan.Immediately after the 5000/9 attacks, the United States and China began discussions on counter-terrorism measures.This third stage conversation took place in Beijing in February 11.

Attacks by terrorists have significantly changed the nature of the debate in the United States.The Blue Team's claim that China is America's most important threat is no longer convincing, and the most important for America is the war on terror with the Middle East, and tensions in East Asia had to be avoided.

The United States is the leader of ChinaEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAs the US military base began to be built in Japan, I was afraid that the war on terrorism by the United States would lead to an anti-Chinese movement.That concern has receded as the United States has launched an operation in Iraq.World Trade Center BuildingMany Chinese died in the rubble, and Chinese companies and individuals mourned the victims of the United States.US activities in Iraq and US-China cooperation have eased anti-American sentiment that was common in the mid-1990s.

Both the United States and Chinanorth koreabyNuclear development issuesWe also cooperated closely on regional issues such as.中国は北朝鮮のChina is North KoreaSix party meetingOpposed to withdrawal from, concerned about North Korea's nuclear development capabilities,Korean PeninsulaI want to denuclearize.また、北朝鮮がAlso, North KoreaInternational Atomic Energy AgencyHe agreed to refer the issue of refusing to inspect the United Nations Security Council to the UN Security Council.

Rekindling the Taiwan issue and Zhu Chenghu's remarks

Taiwan issueIs an unsolved issue, and the US policy toward Taiwan isFour no, one noIs emphasized.アメリカはAmerica isChen Shui-bianHe has accused the president of using rhetoric to suggest Taiwan independence.The Blue team, which is critical of China, also accused China of trying to create a favorable situation in Taiwan while the United States was at war in Iraq.

In 2005, China stated that if Taiwan officially declared independence, China would use force to prevent it.Anti-state division lawWas enacted in China.また、同Also, the same2005May 7IsZhu Chenghu"If the US government intervenes in an armed conflict in the Taiwan Strait, it will not refuse a nuclear attack," said the Maj. Gen.Press conferenceSaid in[23].. The remarks are as follows.

We (China)nuclear weapons OfFirst strikeWe should focus on reducing the population other than China and preserving our own people, and after this nuclear war, we will liquidate the humiliating history of more than XNUMX years and will rule the earth forever in the future.

The total world population has already exceeded the capacity of global resources and the ecological environment, and in order to solve this, a large number of people should be extinguished by means such as war, plague or famine, and human beings should continue to survive. is there.

The Chinese government is making every effort to develop nuclear weapons, and within a decade it will be possible to equip them with enough nuclear weapons to destroy more than half of the planet's population.

China isXi'anAll cities east of the east are prepared to be scorched.The United States must also be prepared to destroy hundreds of cities.

--Zhu Chenghu Remarks, July 2005, 7[24].

In response to Maj. Gen. Zhu Chenghu's remarksAmerican National Security Council OfShawn McCormackA spokesman accused Zhu Chenghu of saying "I am extremely irresponsible and do not represent the position of the Chinese government. I am very regrettable" on July 7.US House of RepresentativesHas passed a resolution calling for the withdrawal of remarks and the dismissal of Maj. Gen. Zhu Chenghu.中国政府はのちに公式見解ではないと発表したが、これについての執行長官は朱成虎少将の発言はThe Chinese government later announced that it was not an official opinion, but the executive secretary said that Maj. Gen. Zhu Chenghu saidAmericaJapanThe Chinese government said it was testing the reaction of both the United States and Japan.[23].

Also the same2005ToPro-ChineseIt is assumedRobert Zoellick Deputy Secretary of State for the United StatesInaugurated.同年9月21日に「今後アメリカは中国を“責任あるOn September XNUMX, the same year, "The United States will be responsible for China in the future.Share of interest"(Responsible stakeholder)" (Zoellick's remark), urging self-restraint and responsible action as a great power with a harmonious attitude.[25].

Hu JintaoThe President of the People's Republic of China (General Secretary) visited the United States in April 2006. Clark Land, who served as Ambassador to China from 4 to 2001, spoke at the University of Southern California's US-China Institute on the current state of US-China relations. In 2008Ma YingjiuWas elected President of Taiwan.Ma is the representative of the Kuomintang and is calling for a reapproach to the continent.

Obama administration

Issues in the election campaign

War and recession were issues in the 2008 United States presidential election.But,John McCainBarack ObamaBoth candidates also talked about their policy toward China from various angles.Both candidates agreed to continue to cooperate with China on major issues, but their trade policies were different.Candidate Obama has expressed concern that China has set its currency value low so that its exporters can benefit.McCain argued that free trade would have a significant and significant impact on China.しかし、マケイン候補はアメリカは中国と利害は共有しているかもしれないが、価値観は共有していないと指摘したHowever, McCain pointed out that the United States may share interests with China, but not its values.[Annotation 7].

Thomas ChristensenDeputy Secretary of State for East Asia and the Pacific talked about "Choice of direction for China policy: Challenges for the next administration", that the relationship between the two countries has made great progress in recent years, and the United States has told China to solve the problem. Insisted that we must continue to act positively, and many of the problems in US-China relationsMyanmar-スーダンIt is suggested that it is also affecting third countries such as.

Birth of a "pro-Chinese" government

2009May 1Seems to be pro-Chinese in the United StatesDemocratic Party OfBarack ObamaAs the candidate became president, cooperation and friendly relations between the two countries were expected to become closer.2008May 11In ChinaHu JintaoPresident Obama and President Obama talked over the phone to celebrate the victory of the presidential election.[Annotation 8]..中国側もオバマ候補の勝利に肯定的な反応を示し、特にオバマ候補のThe Chinese side also responded positively to Obama's victory, especially Obama's.Climate changeHonored a positive attitude towards the problem[Annotation 9].

US President Barack Obama in a speech on the US-China Strategic Economic DialogueMenciusCited the teachings of the United States and China to promote mutual understanding.オバマ大統領は、同年11月15日~18日にはアジア歴訪日程の半分を費やして初めて訪中してPresident Obama visited China for the first time from November XNUMXth to XNUMXth of the same year, spending half of his visit to Asia.Hu JintaoTalked with the Chief (General Secretary) and stated in a joint statement that the United States and China would build and strengthen strategic mutual trust.[Annotation 10],in AmericaG2(Chimerica) Is used to mean the two great powers[26], The approach between the United States and China was directed.

In addition, President Obama held talks, etc.Human rights issues in China,Tibet,Uighur(East Turkestan),Inner MongoliaInminorityRepression andGenocideHe refrained from criticizing such things, and expected the Chinese side to restrain themselves.On the other hand, China did not change the oppression and repression of ethnic minorities, but also added military threats to neighboring countries due to the Nansha issue.GoogleActivists fighting incidents and suppression of speech in ChinaLiu XiaoboToNobel Peace PrizeHe repeated diplomacy to challenge the international community, such as interfering with the award.

On the other hand, the US side also decided to sell weapons to Taiwan, andThe Dalai Lama XIVHe showed that he was changing direction due to the realization of a meeting with Obama.

From "engagement" policy to "deterrence" policy

2011May 1Of American paperWashington PostIs a major figure in American politicsHenry KissingerA former Secretary of State said, "The United States and China must avoid the Cold War," and an article was published that warned that the United States and China were entering the Cold War.キッシンジャー元国務長官は米中が冷戦状態に入った場合、「核拡散や環境、エネルギー、気候変動など、地球規模で解決が必要な問題について、国際的に(米中の)どちらに付くかの選択を迫ることになり、各地で摩擦が発生する」と述べたFormer Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said that if the United States and China enter the Cold War, "Which one will be internationally (US-China) on issues that need to be resolved on a global scale, such as proliferation, environment, energy, and climate change?" You will be forced to make a choice, and friction will occur in various places. "[27].

201111In a speech at the Australian House of Representatives visited, US President Barack Obama announced that he would shift US global strategy to "deterrence against China."[28]..It made clear internally and externally that the United States had switched from the traditional "engagement" policy to "deterrence" against the expanding China.Richard NixonFor the first time in about 40 years since the president's visit to China, Sino-US relations became a historic speech that meant that the era of confrontation had begun again.[28].

2011May 11,US Department of DefenseHas embarked on the creation of a special department called "" (air and sea combat) and the construction of a new strategy for China's arms race.この構想には中国以外の国は対象に入っていないとアメリカ側は事実上認めており、米政府高官は「この新戦略はアメリカの対中軍事態勢を東西冷戦スタイルへと変える重大な転換点となる」と述べたThe U.S. side has virtually admitted that the initiative does not cover countries other than China, and senior U.S. government officials said, "This new strategy is a major turning point in transforming the U.S. military situation against China into the Cold War style. Will be. "[29].

2011May 11From 13thHawaiiHeld atAsia-Pacific Economic CooperationAt the (APEC) Summit, the United States sent TPP to Japan (APEC)Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement) Requested participation and announced that Japan would enter into talks. TPPについては、これを「」とも解釈する論者も多く、中国も警戒したMany commentators interpret the TPP as "", and China was wary of it.[30]..中国国際関係学院の楊伯江教授は、日本の交渉参加は「アメリカ重視の対外戦略のシンボル」と発言しているProfessor Yang Hakujie of the University of International Relations of China has said that Japan's participation in negotiations is "a symbol of America-focused foreign strategy."[30]..The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China has ostensibly commented that China is open to economic integration that promotes development through trade liberalization.

Three days after the APEC summit2011On November 11th, President ObamaAustraliaAnnounced a plan to station the U.S. Marine Corps in the north, and from 2012, the U.S. Army will be stationed in Darwin, etc. for half a year, and will conduct joint training and exercises with the Australian Army, aiming for the final stationing of 2500 people.Sea lane) Promoted the deployment of the U.S. military with a view to securing it, and restrained China.[31]..オーストラリアはアメリカが東アジア有事として想定していた台湾海峡や朝鮮半島などから距離があり、これまで拠点としての重要度は低かったが、中国から直接の攻撃を受けにくいこと、また南シナ海、インド洋へのアクセスにおいて戦略的な位置付けが高まったとされるAustralia is far from the Taiwan Strait and the Korean Peninsula, which the United States assumed to be an East Asian emergency, so it was not important as a base until now, but it is not easily attacked directly by China, and the South China Sea and Indian Ocean. It is said that the strategic position in access to[31]..これに対して中国は中国共産党機関紙・人民日報系の英字紙グローバル・タイムズを通じて「オーストラリアは中国をバカにしてはならない。中国の安全保障を弱体化させているのに、それと切り離して経済協力を進めることはできない。越えてはならない一線がある」と批判したOn the other hand, China said through the Chinese Communist Party newspaper, People's Daily's English-language newspaper Global Times, "Australia should not make a fool of China. Although it is weakening China's security, economic cooperation is separated from it. There is a line that must not be crossed. "[32]. Also,IndonesiaMarti Nataregawa, Foreign Minister of the United States, pointed out the danger of US troops stationed in Australia as creating a backlash from China.[33].

In addition, the annual report of the US Congress Advisory Body "US-China Economic Security Review Committee" was published on November 11th, when China moved to East Asia.EmergencyAt the time ofSurprise attackHe pointed out that the Chinese military has a strategy to reduce the strength of the U.S. military by preemptive strikes and control maritime interests to the East China Sea, including around Japan.[34]..また中国軍は、指揮系統をコンピューターに依存するアメリカ軍の弱点を突く形でサイバー攻撃を仕掛ける作戦や、南シナ海や東シナ海での紛争では対艦弾道ミサイルや巡航ミサイルによって、防衛In addition, the Chinese army defends with anti-ship ballistic missiles and cruise missiles in operations that launch cyber attacks by exploiting the weaknesses of the US military, which relies on computers for its command system, and in conflicts in the South China Sea and East China Sea.FrontAs a standard, connect Kyushu-Okinawa-Taiwan-PhilippinesFirst archipelago lineSet[Annotation 11]He also pointed out that there is an operation to prevent the intervention of other countries including the US military.[34]..第一列島線はもともと1982年にThe first island chain was originally in XNUMXDeng XiaopingIn response to the intention ofChinese PLANavy CommanderLiu Huaqing(From 1989 to 1997CPC Central Military CommissionThe concept was launched by the Vice President), and by 2010, inside the first island chain (in the sea)Sea controlSecure and2020untilSecond island chainSecure internal command of the sea,2040By the time, the construction of an aircraft carrier had prevented the U.S. Navy from monopolizing the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and had a navy on par with the U.S. Navy.[35].

At the Japan-China summit meeting on December 2011, 12, the Chinese side is expected to be reluctant to cut down the Chinese siege.[36]In fact, the establishment of a high-level office-level maritime consultation between Japan and China and a maritime search and rescue agreement (SAR agreement) Agreed to conclude[37]..なお、12月17日(発表は19日)には北朝鮮のIn addition, on December XNUMXth (announced on the XNUMXth), North KoreaKim Jong IlNeighboring countries were nervous after the death of the clerk.

2012May 1, US President Barack Obama announces new defense strategy "Maintaining US Global Leadership and 21st Century Defense Priorities" to Strengthen Military Presence in the Asia-Pacific Region[38].. The new strategic document names China and Iran,Cyber ​​attackIn a speech, President Obama said, "After World War II and the Vietnam War," he pointed out that he was countering the United States by asymmetrical means such as the development of missiles and missiles. We cannot afford to fail to leave the military unprepared for the future. We will allow the US military to respond flexibly and flexibly to any emergency. "SecurityShowed determination to lead[38]..これは、第二次世界大戦以来の「二正面作戦」を放棄してアジア太平洋地域での戦略的関与を最優先するものであり、「中国の膨張を抑止する」というアメリカの強い国家意志の現れであったThis abandoned the "two-front war" since World War II and prioritized strategic involvement in the Asia-Pacific region, and the strong national will of the United States to "deter China's expansion." Was a manifestation[39][40]..これに対し、中国政府系メディアは警戒感を示したがOn the other hand, the Chinese government media showed a sense of caution,[41]This means the substantial abolition of the 1972 US-China Joint Statement (Shanghai Communiqué), in which the US and China do not seek hegemony from each other in the Asia-Pacific region.US-China Cold WarMeaned the beginning of the era of[39].. On the other handPacific Rim Joint Exercise(Rimpack) allowed China to participate, and President Obama on climate change issuesParis AgreementChinaHangzhouSimultaneous ratification[42] Cooperation between the United States and China continued.

Trump administration

Post-election movement

2016 United States Presidential ElectionIn the United States, which won and replaced the Obama administrationDonald TrumpThe president questioned the imbalance in US-China trade during the election, and initiallyOne chinaAlthough it suggested a policy review, China's post-presidential appointmentXi JinpingHead of state(General secretary), He stated that he would respect the "One China" policy.[43]..これには米中関係への影響を懸念したI was concerned about the impact on Sino-US relationsJared kushnerSenior Advisor to the President[44]Rex TillersonSecretary of State allegedly persuaded President Trump[45]..中国から称賛Praise from China[46] Was doneChinese New YearIt is said that Tillerson also proposed a congratulatory message to President Trump.[47]..ただし、トランプは出馬当初や選挙中から貿易問題を取り上げながらも中国に好意的な発言も行っておりHowever, Trump has made positive statements to China while addressing trade issues from the beginning of his run and during the elections.[48][49]Even after winning the presidential election, Trump said in a statement that he thanked China for the congratulatory call and said, "The two countries want to build the strongest relationship in the future."[50]..過去に天安門事件を正当化したかのような発言をテレビ討論会で追及された際に中国政府は「暴動」を押さえ込んだという表現を使ったことでBy using the expression that the Chinese government suppressed the "riot" when the TV debate pursued statements that seemed to justify the Tiananmen Square incident in the past.[51]Was a leader in the Tiananmen caseWangtan[52],Wei Kyosei[53] ,UighurWoo Al Khaishi[54] He was protested by prominent Chinese democracy activists such as "It's like a leader of the Chinese Communist Party," "an insult to those who oppose the oppression by the Chinese Communist Party," and "an enemy of American values."また、トランプ大統領の顧問で親中派He is also an adviser to President Trump and a pro-Chinese.[55][56] Known forPresidential Strategy Policy ForumChair[57] Steve Schwartzmann suggested that Trump could ease criticism of China[58]..中国側もトランプの大統領就任後はその愛娘であるThe Chinese side is also his beloved daughter after Trump took office.Ivanka TrumpInviting his grandson to the embassy in the United States during the Chinese New Year, he seemed to try to soften Trump.[56].

2017 year 2 month 10 dayShinzo AbePrime Minister"Yesterday, I had a very warm and good conversation with President Xi of China on various issues. I think we can do well in the future. It will be very beneficial to Japan as well." I think it will bring very good results to Japan, the United States, China and the region as a whole. "[59].

With Secretary of State Tillerson, who visited China on February 2017, 2Wang YiAt the meeting with the Foreign Minister, they agreed to stick to the "One China" policy.[60]At the joint press conference after the meeting, the United States and China shared the recognition that the tension on the Korean Peninsula was very high and "the situation has reached a fairly dangerous level."[60][61][62]"I have decided to cooperate with China," he said.[63][64].. 19日には、習近平総書記とIn the XNUMXth day, and 習近 TairaSo secretaryGreat Hall of the PeopleHad a meeting at[65][66]..At this time in Xi Jinping regime it has been proposed to the United States from the Obama regime "new superpower relationship" (without collision and combat, and mutual respect,Win winSecretary of State Tillerson virtually agreed with the principle of cooperating in) and surprised many observers.[66][67][68][69].. 28日、訪米した中国の外交担当Chinese diplomacy officer who visited the United States on the XNUMXthState Committee OfYang JiechiWashingtonSecretary of State Tillerson met and agreed that regular dialogue between senior officials was important.[70]..また、楊とティラーソンはその後に行われた米中首脳会談の最終調整も行ったYang and Tillerson also made final adjustments to the subsequent US-China summit.[71].

After the US-China summit meeting

2017May 4 OfMar A LagoIn the US-China summit, the United States of playing cards president and 習近 TairaSo secretary of the Chinese economy and foreign and security and law US-China Strategic Economic Dialogue in up to four areas, "US-China comprehensive dialogue" of executive cyber security and socio-cultural Agreed to dissolve developmentally[72]Consensus on formulating a "100-day plan" to correct imbalances in US-China trade[73]..米中は北朝鮮問題で連携することで一致しThe United States and China agree to cooperate on the North Korean issue[74], General Secretary Xi was held at the same time as the US-China summit meeting(I.e. OfAssadAllegedly showed an understanding of the use of force against the administration[75]President Trump praised China as "great" when China abstained in a UN Security Council resolution condemning Syria[76]..After the talks, President Trump called China a "currency manipulator grand champion" during the election.[77] On the first day of his inaugurationCurrency manipulation countriesWithdrawal of the promise to be specified immediately[78][79], Concession to China in trade negotiations if cooperation is obtained on North Korea issue[80] He also said that China would take advantage of it.[81]..中国に対する厳しい貿易政策を推し進めるとされたIt was said to push forward a strict trade policy with ChinaNational Trade CouncilIt was said that concerns about intensifying trade friction had receded since it was abolished and reorganized.[82]..大統領就任前に中国を刺激した台湾のTaiwan's inspiration to China before taking officeTsai EnglishShows the intention to not respond to the re-talks from the good personal relationship with the telephone consultations 習近 TairaSo secretary of the President[83][84]Some criticize for delaying arms sales to Taiwan.[85]The Trump Administration's First Sale of Arms to Taiwan Does Not Include Large Arms[86], It has been worried about for some understanding of the Trump government of China and Taiwan issues 習近 TairaSo secretary since it was introduced by mistake the White House as "President of the Republic of China"[87].May 4At a press conference, he described relations with Russia as the worst in history, while saying that relations with China are improving.[88][89].May 5Concerns have been raised by the U.S. Congress that "freedom of navigation" has ceased since the election of President Trump in 2016.[90], Of the same operation that has been continued by the Obama administration from the U.S. militarySouth China SeaThe U.S. Department of Defense has refused this three times when requested to do so.[91]..同年5月24日になってトランプ政権は初めて同作戦を実施したと報じられた際にも米国防総省はオバマ政権と違って公表しなかったThe Pentagon did not announce it, unlike the Obama administration, when it was reported that the Trump administration had carried out the operation for the first time on May XNUMX of the same year.[92][93]..習総書記とトランプ大統領は災害時の捜索救難活動の米中合同演習の強化も合意しGeneral Secretary Xi and President Trump have also agreed to strengthen joint US-China exercises in search and rescue operations in the event of a disaster.[94], Conducted in November 2017[95].

2017May 5, The Trump administrationWilbur RossSecretary of CommerceStephen ManutinTreasury Secretary,ChineseWang YangState CouncilAnnounced 100 items as the first step of the "10-day plan" agreed in the US-China comprehensive economic dialogue co-chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister[96], Listed 習近 TairaSo secretary is one of them in national policy(English editionAlso decided to dispatch a delegation to[97][98], The U.S. delegation that attended is China's economic zone conceptOne belt one roadExpressed cooperation with[99]..トランプ自らも一帯一路への協力で米国はオープンであると述べてるTrump himself states that the United States is open with the cooperation of Belt and Road[100]..トランプ大統領の上級顧問で元Former Senior Advisor to President TrumpCentral Intelligence Agency(CIA) Secretary(English editionPredecessor to US non-participation in AIIBBarack ObamaCriticizing the administration's "strategic failure," the Trump administration said it would "much warmer" across China's Belt and Road Initiative.[101]..トランプ政権になってから北京のアメリカ大使館などで米国企業と中国国有企業を集めた一帯一路での米中協力をテーマとした会合が行われるようになったSince the administration of Trump, meetings have been held at the US Embassy in Beijing, etc. on the theme of US-China cooperation in the Belt and Road Initiative, which brings together US companies and Chinese state-owned companies.[102].

2017May 6, "China, Russia,IndiaIs an unfair agreement that the United States will pay billions of dollars while contributing nothing.''[103] As the United States was a symbol of US-China cooperation during the Obama administrationParis AgreementAnnounced to withdraw from.This has caused a backlash in the United States as well.State of Washington-New York State-CaliforniaAddresses Paris Agreement Goals Independent of Trump AdministrationUS Climate AllianceAnd formedMassachusettsOther 7 states are also members[104]Led the launchCalifornia GovernorJerry BrownVisited shortly afterChugokuCooperate with China for taking leadership in climate change on behalf of the United States[105][106][107] Formed a partnership with China for clean energy technology[108]Also announced California's participation in the Belt and Road Initiative[109][110][111]..また、6日の北京でのAlso in Beijing on the XNUMXth(English editionAttend[112] To leave China immediately after President Trump announced that he would leave the Paris AgreementUnited States energySecretaryRick PerryWelcomes China's leadership in combating climate change[113][114] However, he said that the United States is leading the field of clean energy technology, etc.Zhang GoryeoSino-US cooperation on clean energy agreed at a meeting with Vice Premier of the State Council[115] However, China's hospitality was unusual for one local government.Xi JinpingHead of state(General secretary), The difference in correspondence with the Governor of Brown, who had a press conference, was noticed in the US media.[116].

2017May 6,United Nations Security CouncilUnanimously passed a resolution to strengthen sanctions against North Korea for the first time in the Trump administration[117]..決議はトランプ政権下で初めて米中が協力したものとされThe resolution is said to be the first cooperation between the United States and China under the Trump administration.[118][119]Got Russian approval[120]..トランプは度重なる北朝鮮のミサイル発射を「中国に無礼だ」と批判しTrump criticizes repeated North Korean missile launches as "rude to China"[121], North Korea rebelled against the resolution that "the United States and China made up in the back room without permission"[122]..同年8月5日にも米中は石炭や鉄鉱石などを全面禁輸する制裁強化決議を協議し、ロシアの賛成も得て安保理で全会一致で可決されたOn August XNUMX, the same year, the United States and China discussed a resolution to strengthen sanctions to completely embargo coal and iron ore, and the Security Council unanimously passed it with the approval of Russia.[123].Nicky HaleyUN ambassador"I want to thank China for its important contributions," and President Trump, who complained that "China does nothing with just his mouth," said, "China and Russia voted with us. Against North Korea. Is the biggest sanction ever. "[124], Also thanked Churo[125].

2017May 6With US Secretary of State TillersonJames MathisSecretary of Defense,ChineseYang JiechiWith the State CouncilorFang FenghuiChinese PLAChief of StaffThe first US-China diplomatic security dialogue was held, co-chaired byHEATfight with(I.e.Chinese government support for[126].

2017May 7, "This guy (金正恩) Will not do anything else?" "Japan and South Korea will lose patience and China will end this pointless thing."[127]On the 6th, saying "Never give up cooperation" while pointing out insufficient efforts of China[128], In the US-China summit meeting of July 7, "but it may be longer than you want with me, to finally resolve" grateful to the North Korea sanctions 習近 TairaSo secretary said[129].. 21日には北朝鮮でのIn North Korea on the XNUMXstOtto worm beerAnnounced a ban on tourism to North Korea by Americans and a review of travel by the US State Department under the detention of Americans[130][131]Informed Chinese travel agency that has been touring North Korea for Americans[132].

On July 2017, 7, it was an international issue due to the response of the Chinese government.Liu XiaoboTrump President immediately after the death of was made statements to rave Xi Jinping to ignore this[133].. 7月19日、第1回米中包括経済対話が行われ、貿易不均衡是正の具体策まで合意できず記者会見を中止するも、期限を迎えた100日計画に代わる「1年計画」の策定で一致したOn July XNUMX, the XNUMXst US-China Comprehensive Economic Dialogue was held, and although the press conference was canceled due to the inability to agree on concrete measures to correct trade imbalances, the "XNUMX year plan" will replace the XNUMX-day plan that has reached its deadline. Consensus in formulation[134].

2017 year 9 month 3 dayNorth Korean hydrogen bomb testRegarding the US-China telephone talks held on the 6th, President Trump said, "Mr. Xi 100% agreed with me."[135]On the 12th, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution to strengthen sanctions prohibiting the quantity restrictions on crude oil exports, the import and export of natural gas and textiles, and the renewal of new work permits for North Korean workers.[136], The United States of Hailey Ambassador to the United Nations expressed its appreciation to China and "This resolution was not impossible to without strong relationship was built between Trump president and 習近 TairaSo secretary"[137]..同時期に香港での中国国営企業Chinese state-owned enterprise in Hong Kong at the same time(Chinese versionFormer United States Chief Strategist, one of Trump's advisors who attended the forums of CLSA Group, a subsidiary of CLSASenior Advisor to the President OfStephen Bannon"There is no leader in the world that President Trump respects more than General Secretary Xi."[138]"I hope that the North Korean problem will find a solution between the United States and China."[139] To speak with, is a confidant of Xi Jinping王岐山ZhongnanhaiWe also had a 90-minute secret talk[140].. 18日の米中電話協議ではトランプ大統領と習総書記は北朝鮮への圧力の最大化で一致しPresident Trump and General Secretary Xi agree to maximize pressure on North Korea at US-China telephone talks on the XNUMXth[141]At the UN General Assembly on the 19th, he thanked China and Russia for supporting the sanctions while touching on the issues of eastern Ukraine and the South China Sea, and addressed the need to further isolate North Korea.[142]..また、トランプ大統領は北朝鮮と取引のある企業・個人に資産凍結などの制裁を課しIn addition, President Trump imposes sanctions such as asset freezes on companies and individuals who do business with North Korea.[143], Overseas dealing with North KoreaFinancial institutionWhen the presidential decree to exclude the United States from the United States was issued, "overseasbankAre forced to choose the United States or the North Korean rogue regime."People's Bank of ChinaPraised its bank for instructing its banks to immediately suspend transactions with North Korea[144].

2017May 9With US Secretary of State TillersonLiu YandongThe first US-China socio-cultural dialogue was held, co-chaired by the Vice Premier of the State Council.HXNUMXNXNUMX influenzaWe agreed on measures and cooperation such as expanding the acceptance of Chinese students from the United States.[145].. July 9 of the same year2017 North Korea crisisSecretary of State Tillerson noted that he was the first in the Trump administration to admit underwater contact between the United States and North Korea, saying, "I'm asking if I'm willing to talk. There are channels that I can communicate with." Was done[146]Immediately after, President Trump denied that "dialogue and negotiations are a waste of time. The Secretary should not waste energy."[147][148]There is also a view that it considered China, which has sought a solution through dialogue.[149].. At the same time, the originally planned visit to China by Aide Ivanka Trump and her husband, Senior Advisor to President Jared Kushner, was canceled and the capitalワ シ ン ト ン DCMade inAnniversary of foundingI met with Chinese Deputy Prime Minister Liu Yandong, who was attending the commemorative ceremony of the couple and visiting the United States.[150][151].. Ivanka Trump's withdrawal from China worried that informal relations with China would be a headwind for the administrationHerbert McMasterNational Security Affairs Presidential AssistantJohn Francis KellyWhite House Chief of StaffIs alleged to have prioritized President Trump's official visit to China in November of the same year.[152].

2017May 10, Was denied a port call to Hong Kong in April 2016 due to a conflict over the South China Sea issueNuclear carrierRonald ReaganWas allowed to call at Hong Kong for the first time in three years and restrained North Korea[153].. During the port callSeventh FleetWith the commanderChinese PLAExecutive talks were also coordinated[153].. After that, the aircraft carrier Reagan was released by the US military.Strategic weaponsHeading to the Korean Peninsula[154]"I think China is very supportive," President Trump said on the 11th regarding the response to North Korea.[155].

2017May 10,Jeff SessionsAttorney General, Elaine DukeHomeland Security SecretaryWith a substituteGuo VoiceChinese Ministry of Public SecurityThe first US-China law enforcement cybersecurity dialogue was held, chaired by the director, and discussed the repatriation of illegal immigrants and suspected corruption and the crackdown on cybercrime.[156][157].

August 2017, 10,FOXIn an interview with President Trump, "President Xi works for China, I work for the United States. China has a very supportive and special relationship with us. At party conventions he was not in successive leaders. To be honest, I want to keep an eye on him quietly until then. I hope he will get it, and I think he deserves it. He is a good man. " Welcomed[158][159][160].. 25thChinese Communist Party XNUMXth National CongressIf after unanimously in 1 it has been closing Trump to discuss North Korea and trade issues blessed 習近 TairaSo secretary in a telephone conversation[161], Twitter also said, "We celebrated the extraordinary prosperity."[162].. In an interview with FOX again shortly thereafter, Trump praised President Xi as "he is a very good man. Some would call him the'King of China'with his mighty power."[162][163]"Russia is in the way of us, but China is helping us," he said.[164].May 11"President Xi is a friend who has a wonderful relationship," he said at a joint press conference between Japan and the United States during his visit to Asia.[165], On Twitter, " South KoreaI'm looking forward to going to China after the parliamentary speech and meeting with President Xi, who has won a great political victory. "[166].. 2017May 11In a speech at the National Assembly of South Korea, "Don't lick us, don't try. There are many governments in history that stupidly tried the determination of the United States and died."[167]"North Korea is a hell that people don't want to live in, it's not the paradise on earth drawn by your (Kim Jong-un) grandfather."[168] Asked China and Russia by name to isolate North Korea[169].. On the same day, in line with President Trump's official visit to ChinaBoeing-GE-Honeywell-Goldman SachsOf large companiesCEOA delegation composed of business people visited China[170][171]US Secretary of Commerce Ross and China, who led the delegationWang YangA $ 90 billion contract was signed at the Great Hall of the People in the presence of the Vice Premier of the State Council[172].. Initially, more than 100 companies wanted to join the mission, but 29 companies were finally selected.[173].. On the other handQualcommTendency not to join the delegation except[174] There isITIn a companyApple OfTim Cook,Microsoft OfBill GatesAt the same time, other managers visited China one after another, apart from the movement of the U.S. government, and attracted attention.[175].. "China is not responsible for the trade deficit with China on the 9th, because of the past administration that could not prevent the expansion of trade imbalances."[176] Trump announced that a super-large business talk was signed in the presence of the leaders of the United States and China.[177], Consensus with President Xi in cooperation with Belt and Road[178], Some of the $ 2500 billion deals closedSilk Road FundAnd GE's joint investment platform[179] There were also things related to Belt and Road[180].. Consensus on increased pressure on North Korea[181] "Sino-US relations are of utmost importance. We would like to cooperate not only in solving problems between the two countries but also in solving global problems."[182][183].. When I visited China, my granddaughter ArabellaChinese poetryWas shown to Xi and Mrs. Peng on the screen at the dinner party.[184].. He only touches on human rights issues, "continuing to advocate reform of individual rights and the rule of law."[178], Chinese National PaperRing and ball newsWelcomes this[185]Human rights activists in ChinaHuka"It's a shame, because it's completely Chinese," he said.[185].. On the 11thEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu"The trade deficit is not the fault of President Xi. It is the responsibility of our former representative." "President Xi is a very strong and wise man, I love him.Mao ZedongThe most powerful Chinese leader ever since, some have described it as Mao Zedong or better. "[186]"China will increase pressure on North Korea"[187] I told reporters.May 11Trump, who returned from a visit to Asia, elicited cooperation after confirming that China's President Xi and North Korea were a threat and that time to resolve problems was limited.[188][189]"The era when the United States is preyed on is over," he said, welcoming the closing of huge business talks between US and Chinese companies to bring employment to the United States.[190], Each country agrees to maximize pressure on North Korea[191]Discusses military options with US and South Korean executives[192] He issued a statement emphasizing the outcome.Also,ShopliftingArrested in China atUniversity of California, Los Angeles OfbasketballPresident Trump, who had returned to Japan and requested the release of the players, thanked President Xi.[193]"I'm very gracious. I should have left the players in prison," he said because his father didn't thank President Trump.[194].May 11President Trump is an American college studentOtto worm beer"North Korea is not only threatening the world with nuclear weapons, but is continuing to support international terrorism." "It should have been redesignated many years ago." For the first time in a yearTerrorism-supporting nationRedesignated the company and expressed its intention of additional sanctions[195].. Originally it should have been announced immediately after returning from Asia, but the delay is supposed to be due to the fact that China dispatched a special envoy[196].

2017May 12, Secretary of State Tillerson said that he would secure a nuclear weapon in anticipation of an emergency on the Korean Peninsula.refugeesMeasures38-degree lineFor the first time, it announced that it was discussing concrete measures with China, such as the withdrawal of the U.S. military beyond[197][198][199].

2017May 12The Trump administration's first national security strategy announced inRealism"Peace through power," he said, calling China a "revisionist nation" and "competitor" that challenges the United States and the international order alongside Russia, while "aiming to cooperate with both countries on the premise of protecting the national interests of the United States."[200][201][202],(I.e.And like North KoreaRogue nationDistinguished from[203].

2017May 12, US-China talks[204] ByoilA resolution to strengthen sanctions against North Korea, which included a 9% reduction in the export of refined products and the repatriation of North Korean workers within 24 months, was unanimously approved by the UN Security Council with the approval of the presidency Japan and Russia.[205]For the first time, it was stated that if there is a mandatory inspection and capture of ships that may violate sanctions, or if there is a new nuclear test or missile launch, the oil supply to North Korea will be further restricted.[204].

2018XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,カナダ OfVancouverCall of Secretary of State Tillerson at[206] With the hope that the Foreign Ministers' Meeting will be held with the participation of the United Nations troop dispatching countries, including Japan and South Korea, and the North-South dialogue for the Pyeongchang Olympics will progress to a denuclearization dialogue. Chairman's statement containing a policy to continue pressure on North Korea until[207][208]Demands Sanctions Against North Korea as "Having Important Roles and Special Responsibilities" with Russia and China NamedSea-stopping actionAlso strengthened the government and examined unique sanctions beyond the UN Security Council[207][209][210]..この会合に対しては中露だけでなくNot only China and Russia for this meeting[211][212], North Korea also repelled as "new war spark"[213]..また、この会合に先立つ夕食会でマティス国防長官は情勢次第で外相会合から国防相会合に発展するとして「アメリカには北朝鮮との戦争計画がある」と言明In addition, at the dinner party prior to this meeting, Secretary of Defense Mattis stated that "the United States has a war plan with North Korea", saying that it will develop from a foreign ministers'meeting to a defense ministers' meeting depending on the situation.[214][215] And agreed with the participating countries and related countries of the United Nations Army in military aspects[216].. 19日、マティス国防長官は「アメリカの国家安全保障の優先課題はテロリズムではなく、大国間の競争」として中国とロシアを競争相手を位置づける新たな国家防衛戦略を発表したOn the XNUMXth, Secretary of Defense Mattis announced a new national defense strategy that positions China and Russia as competitors as "America's national security priority is not terrorism, but competition between great powers."[217].. 31日にトランプ大統領は初のPresident Trump is the first on the XNUMXstGeneral textbook speechOver 5 minutes, which is unusual for North Korea[218] Despite blaming over, China and Russia only mentioned one word as "a competitor to challenge us."[219]..同年3月3日には中国で波紋を呼んでいた習主席の任期撤廃案について「中国は偉大で、習主席は偉大な紳士だ。素晴らしい。我々もいつか終身大統領を試してみようか」と冗談交じりに称賛しOn March XNUMXrd of the same year, he joked about the proposal to abolish the term of office of President Xi, who was causing ripples in China, saying, "China is great, President Xi is a great gentleman. Great. Let's try the president for life someday." Praise the mix[220][221],White House spokesman OfSarah SandersAlso avoided commentary saying "China decides"[222].

On March 2018, 3, President Trump said, "Because China has greatly helped with sanctions," following North Korea's willingness to talk with the United States toward denuclearization.[223].. Korean special envoy who visited North Korea on the 9thChung Yi-Yu"Kim Jong-un told the South Korean representative not to freeze, but to denuclearize. North Korea will restrain the missile test during this period. It is a big step forward. Sanctions will continue until agreement is reached. Plans for talks! "[224]"China will continue to help," confirming that it will maintain pressure and sanctions until complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearization, in a series of telephone talks with Japanese Prime Minister Abe and Chinese President Xi.[225], Spokesperson Sanders also said that the US-North Korea summit meeting "is premised on concrete actions for denuclearization."[226]In response to a message from General Secretary Xi, who met with Chairman Kim Jong Un, who visited China on his first trip to China after taking office as Supreme Leader on the 25th, President Trump said, "Kim Jong Un will make the right choice for the North Korean people and humanity. Now is a good time. We are looking forward to our meeting. President Xi, who made the China-North Korea summit a great success, said that Kim Jong Un is looking forward to seeing me. Sanctions and pressure will continue to be maintained no matter what! "[227]..また、習近平はトランプにアメリカ・中国・北朝鮮・韓国の4カ国による平和協定を含む「新たな安全保障の枠組み」をアメリカに提案したとされIn addition, Xi Jinping is the proposed "framework for a new security" including a peace agreement by the United States, China, North Korea and South Korea of ​​the four countries to the United States Trump[228],2018 North-South Summit MeetingSigned by the US and ChinaKorean War Armistice AgreementWhen South Korea and North Korea agreed to make a peace agreement, "The Korean War is over. The United States should be proud. I will not forget the great help of my best friend, China's President Xi. Without him. , The solution was far away. "[229]"I'm a world-class leader, Xi said.pokerPlayer of[230].

On March 2018, 3, Trump said, "I respect President Xi and think China is a friend."[231] "The trade deficit with China is the largest trade deficit that no country has ever experienced," he added.[231] For 7 monthsIntellectual property rights issue in ChinaBased on a survey ofSuper 301 ArticleImposed tariffs on Chinese productsUnited States Trade RepresentativeSign a memorandum instructing (USTR)[232], USTR on April 4rdPersonal computerSmartphone,ClothingWhile excluding consumer goods with large import values ​​such asIndustrial robot,rifle,bomb[233][234],Medical equipment,Electric car,semiconductorAnnounced identification of 1300 items (equivalent to $ 500 billion) of Chinese products such as[235][236], China on the next 4thsoy-Automobile·Part ofaircraft-beefTrump said, "There is no US-China trade war. The stupid and incompetent US governments have fought and have already lost" in retaliation for the plan to impose the same 160% tariff on 25 US products. State[237][238], Secretary of Commerce Ross and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin,Peter NavarroDirector, Trade and Manufacturing Policy Bureau[239],Larry KudlowNational Economic CouncilChairman[240] The stock market, which fell due to denying the possibility of a trade war, temporarily picked up.[241][242]..しかし、5日に株価への影響も容認However, the impact on stock prices is also tolerated on the XNUMXth[243] Then, the USTR was instructed to consider the pros and cons of the $ 301 billion retaliatory tariff under Section 1000 of the Super XNUMX against China's retaliation, and concerns about trade friction reignited.[244] However, on the 8th, Trump said that the trade barrier would be lifted with mutual tax with China and an agreement would be reached on the intellectual property issue. "China's President Xi and I are always friends no matter what happens due to trade friction. "[245]On the 10th, Trump will be President XiBoao Forum for AsiaPraised the statement of reduction of automobile tariffs and promotion of imports.[246]..また、同時に中国による鉄鋼の過剰生産を問題視し、「日本の安倍首相や他の偉大な友人たちは『アメリカをうまく出し抜いてきた』とほくそ笑んでいる。そういった時代は終わりだ」と述べAt the same time, he questioned China's overproduction of steel, saying, "Japan's Prime Minister Abe and other great friends are laughing at'we've outsmarted America'. That era is over."[247][248]As an import restriction for security reasons1982 Of(I.e.Steel since crude oil productionaluminumImport restrictionsUS Trade Expansion ActIncluding China based on Article 231European Union[249],メキシコ,カナダ,Russia[250],India[251],Japan[252] Invoked restrictions on steel imports to countries around the world[253].

On May 2018, 5, the U.S. delegation and China's delegation, including Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer, Commerce Secretary Ross, Kudlow National Economic Council Chairman, and Navarro Trade and Manufacturing Policy Bureau DirectorLiu CraneDeputy Prime MinisterHeld trade talks to avoid US-China trade conflicts in Beijing[254]..作業部会の設立など一定の合意はあったものの、一部の問題で対立したとされるAlthough there was some agreement such as the establishment of a working group, it is said that there was a conflict on some issues.[255][256].. 17日からワシントンDCで第2回の通商協議が行われて中国の対米貿易黒字削減で合意したとする米中共同声明が発表され、劉副首相は「貿易戦争回避で一致した」と述べてマヌ―チン財務長官も「貿易戦争を留保する」と表明しDeputy Prime Minister Liu said, "We agreed to avoid a trade war," in a joint US-China statement saying that China's trade surplus with the United States was reduced after the second trade talks were held in Washington, DC from the XNUMXth. Treasury Secretary Manuchin also stated that he would "reserve the trade war."[257][258]"It's a fair trade with China, for the first time barriers and tariffs will go down," Trump said.[259]..また、トランプ大統領は習主席への個人的な好意Also, President Trump has a personal favor with President Xi.[260] Because ofZTEAnnounced that it has agreed to ease sanctions[261].

Visited the United States on June 2018, 6Jin YingzheAfter meeting with President Trump withdrew the cancellationUS-North Korea Summit Meeting"The Chinese President Xi has provided various support in this matter and has made a lot of achievements," he said.[262]"Korea should do it, and Japan should do it. To be honest, I think China will help," he denied the US funding to support North Korea after denuclearization.[263][264].. 6月12日、トランプは史上初の米朝首脳会談後の記者会見で中国と習主席に謝意を表明して「私の友人であり、素晴らしい人物、偉大な指導者」と称えOn June XNUMX, Trump thanked China and President Xi at a press conference after the first-ever US-North Korea summit and praised him as "my friend, great person, great leader."[265]Says US-North Korea denuclearization agreement beneficial to China[266]China also supported the decision to cancel the US-ROK joint military exercise as it was in line with China's roadmap.[267]..また、アメリカのトランプ大統領はAlso, President Trump of the United StatesKorean War Armistice AgreementWhen making a peace treaty, he said, "It would be great if China and South Korea were added even if there were legal problems."[268].

On June 2018, 6, President Trump said, "Friendship with President Xi and relations with China are very important, but long-standing unfair trade with the United States cannot be neglected," from the original 16 items.tv setAnnounced that tariffs will be levied on 1102 Chinese products from July 820 while reducing to 7 items excluding[269]China also said it would retaliate against about $ 4 billion in US products, 500 items, while removing the aircraft from its April list.[270].

On June 2018, 6, Secretary of Commerce Ross was made in China and Japan.GermanyMade/ベルギーMade/スウェーデンAnnounced the first exclusion of steel import restrictions for some manufactured items[271].

On July 2018, 7, the United States imposed an additional $ 6 billion tariff on 818 items imported from China.同日、中国も同規模の追加関税措置を発表して報復合戦となったOn the same day, China also announced additional tariff measures of the same scale, resulting in a retaliatory battle.[272]..また、7月10日には、中国に対する2,000億ドル規模の追加措置の検討に入ったことを発表したIn addition, on July XNUMX, it announced that it had begun to consider additional measures of XNUMX billion dollars for China.[273].. Detail is,US-China trade warSee section.

October 2018, 10, the United States on the grounds of preferential treatment to ChinaUniversal Postal UnionAnnounced withdrawal from[274], China rebelled against this[275].

2019May 4, In the US and Chinatrade frictionThe State Department is responsible for the medium- to long-term diplomatic strategy of the United States in response to the intensification ofPolicy Planning Headquarters Of(English editionDirector of Policy Planning"In the Cold War era, our battle was like a battle between Western families, but the United States will be the first in history.White(Caucasian race, Caucasian)文明is notChinese civilizationWe will prepare for a great confrontation with the United States and China. "Civilization clashAnnounced that it will be positioned in[276][277][278][279].

2020On January 1, the US-China Economic and Trade Agreement was signed between the US and China, and the US-China trade war was suspended.[280].

Spread of COVID-19 infection

China in 2019WuhanOccurs inPandemicCaused2019 new coronavirus infection(COVID-19) in relation to, playing cards initially praised China is leading powerful and Xi Jinping Jintao as is working closely with China in COVID-19 measures[281], The virus was intentionally neglected as "it disappears naturally"[282]..However, as it gradually becomes popular in the United States, China andwhoIncreasing criticism of (WHO), "Chinese virus" "Kanfuru" (ChineseKung fuinfluenzaIt came to be described as a coined word that combined[283].. On April 2020, 4, President Trump criticized WHO for being "China-centric" and making inappropriate recommendations to the world.[284]..また、5月6日にはAlso, on May XNUMXthAttack on Pearl Harbor,American terrorist attacksHe pointed out that the situation where the spread of infection became serious in the United States was "the worst attack that the United States experienced" and that "it should have been suppressed at the place where it occurred, but it did not happen". Implicitly criticized China[285].

In addition, on May 5, he stated his disappointment with China's response and at this time.Xi JinpingHe said he didn't want to talk with the President, saying, "We can take many steps. We can even break the relationship completely."BreakAlso suggested the possibility of[286].. On May 5, it criticized WHO as a "Chinese puppet" and admitted that it is considering cutting or censoring contributions from the US to WHO.[287].

He also criticized China's response to the new corona, and dared to use the term "Wuhan virus" to say, "China's concealment of the virus has spread the infection to the world, killing more than 10 people in the United States. I complained[288]..In connection with this, he criticized WHO as "being dominated by China" and "not responding to the demands of American organizational reform."年間4億5千万ドル規模とされるWHOに対する米国の拠出金を他の保健衛生関連の国際組織に振り向けると表明、WHOとの「関係を断絶する」と発表したAnnounced that it would direct US contributions to WHO, which is estimated to be $ XNUMX million a year, to other international health and hygiene organizations, and announced that it would "break the relationship" with WHO.[288].

After the press conference,Chinese PLASigned a presidential proclamation banning graduate students from the United States from entering the United States[288].

On August 8, the same year, the United States responded to the new coronavirus.Alex OtherDispatched Secretary of Health and Welfare to Taiwan.同月10日、台湾を訪問しているアザー長官とWith Secretary Ather visiting Taiwan on the XNUMXth of the same monthTsai EnglishThe president held a meeting[289]..At the same time, there was an exchange of asset freezes in both the United States and China over the introduction of the National Security Law (described later), and both sides were involved.

Movements related to the introduction of the National Security Law

5 month 29 dayWhite HouseAt a press conference in ChinaNational People's Congress Hong KongRegarding the adoption of the "decision" to introduce the National Security Law in Hong Kong, "China promised to Hong Kong.One country two systemWas changed to "one country, one system". " He said he would impose sanctions on Chinese and Hong Kong officials involved in the "crushing of Hong Kong's freedom," and said he would begin steps to review the incentives the United States has given to Hong Kong.対象については関税や査証(ビザ)発給など「ごく一部を除き全面的なものになる」としているRegarding the target, it says that "it will be full except for a small part" such as tariffs and visa issuance.[288]. Also,State DepartmentThe travel recommendation to Hong Kong will be the same as that to China, and the statement that "the risk of being monitored will increase" during the stay will be specified.[288].

On August 2020, 8, the United States tops the Hong Kong governmentHayashi Chung MoonAnnounced that a total of 11 Chinese officials, including the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, will freeze assets in the United States.同月10日、中国は対抗措置としてOn the XNUMXth of the same month, China took countermeasuresMarco Rubio,Ted CruiseSanctions have been imposed on 11 Americans, including both senators.中国の趙立堅報道官は「中国は、香港に関連する問題でひどい振る舞いをした者に制裁を科すと決めた」とコメントChina's spokesman Zhao Lijian commented, "China has decided to impose sanctions on those who behave badly on issues related to Hong Kong."[290].

Biden administration

Even under the Biden administration, which was launched in January 2021, relations between the United States and China are steadily deteriorating. In March 1BidenThe president defined Sino-US relations as "the struggle between democracy and tyranny in the 21st century."[291].. Same monthXinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionSanctions have been imposed on autonomous region officials who appear to be involved in the crackdown on human rights issues with the EU. The EU has imposed sanctions on China since the Tiananmen Square Incident.Demands the Chinese government to allow the liberation of detained Uighurs and other field surveys by the United Nations[292].. Biden administration in China on April 4Super computerAnnounced that it will take sanctions to effectively ban the export of American products for being involved in military diversion of seven companies and national research groups that develop[293].


Issues between the United States and China

Taiwan issue

In Sino-US relationsTaiwan issueIs a big barrier.Although China has never effectively controlled Taiwan, it has often threatened to use force to annex, claiming that it is China's 23rd province.アメリカはAmerica isTaiwan StraitMilitaryBalance of powerIn the name of keepingTaiwanWeapons have been provided to China many times, and for that reason, unlike China.PluralismI have a great deal of sympathy for Taiwan, which has fostered democracy.冷戦期には台湾のTaiwan during the Cold War自由DemocracyPlan to changeAnti-communityIt was used as a fort.Cold WarOver 3 periodsTaiwan Strait CrisisTaiwan emergencyBecame a serious concern in neighboring countries.The US approach to China has brought about a change in the balance of political and military power in the region, and this possibility has amplified concerns of Japan, which has historically been an ally of Taiwan and the Republic of China since the move to Taipei.

TaiwanEven within the regionTaiwaneseWith heightened consciousnessTaiwan independence movementRekindledDemocratic Progressive PartyWas also formed.1988For 8 years fromHead minister OfLee Teng-huiIs in power,20008 years from the Democratic PartyChen Shui-bianServed as president,Chutai relationshipIs getting more and more serious.This softening of the situation in TaiwanKMT OfMa YingjiuYou have to wait until the administration is born.

US Government OfTaiwanThe official view on policy is6 guaranteesBased onTaiwan Relations LawIt is summarized in.アメリカ政府はThe US governmentCross-strait problemBy dialogue between both sides平和I consistently want to solve it.The U.S. government is the Chinese government ’sOne chinaApproved, and continues to interact with Taiwan in informal business relations.仲介組織としてアメリカ側はAs an intermediary organization, the American sideAmerican Institute in TaiwanInstall[294], Taiwan side has installed[295]..また、アメリカ政府もAlso, the US governmentRepublic of ChinaGovernmentAPEC-WTO-Asian Development Bankな どInternational organizationI strongly support the activities in.

There is a basic consensus in Taiwan to maintain the status quo, but independence theorists such as Lee Teng-hui must take immediate action and declare independence as China strengthens its economic and military power in the long run. He has expressed his belief that he must.If Taiwan declares independence and China intervenes by force, the United States will intervene under the Taiwan Relations Act, but if such a declaration of independence is made, the United States will be in trouble.When Taiwan once tried to take action from maintaining the status quo to independence during the Chen Shui-bian administration, the United States told Taiwan.Four no, one noTaiwan accepted this, asking it to refrain from following the policy.

Economic problems

Trade relations between the United States and China were restored between 1972 and 1973.アメリカはこれまでに中国に対し巨額のThe United States has so far made a huge amount of money against ChinaDirect investmentHas developed a wide range of projects such as manufacturing, hotels, eating out, and petrochemicals.アメリカ企業は中国市場に参入するために2万以上ものMore than XNUMX American companies to enter the Chinese marketJoint ventureAnd agreed to establish.More than 100 American multinationals are active in China, some of which have multiple investments.Cumulative US investment in China amounts to US $ 480 billion. In 2006, the US trade deficit with China reached US $ 3500 billion, which is the largest trade deficit in US bilateral trade.The total amount of US-China trade increased from US $ 1992 billion in 330 to US $ 2004 billion in 2300. (Bunton). The following are possible causes for the United States to fall into the red in trade with China.

  • US economic strength: final assembly work in manufacturing in other Asian countriesNew industrial economyShifted to China.China is increasingly becoming the final stage of a long process of adding value.According to US trade data, the value added in China is overestimated in the value of products sent to the final process site.
  • Demand for US labor-intensive products exceeds supply from domestic production: China oftenState-owned enterpriseIn return for entering the market, imposing high tariffs on foreign goods and services, requiring special permits when importing goods, applying inconsistent laws and regulations, for the purpose of protecting It imposes uncertain restrictions on trade activities, such as requiring foreign companies to disclose technology.中国のChineseWorld Trade OrganizationJoining in means that these issues must be resolved.
  • United States dollarCompare withCNYIs underestimated[296].

Are listed.

In September 2002, the United States and China held a joint economic committee meeting in Washington to strengthen relations on terrorist finances and fund-cleaning measures, anticipate foreign direct investment in financial services in mainland China, and to develop US macroeconomics. We talked about regional dependence.The continued strong growth of the Chinese economy has served as an important driving force for regional economic development, and China has reiterated its strategy of market restructuring and global economic openness.

In September 2002, the two countries agreed to hold biennial meetings from 9 to hold regular high-level dialogue on economic issues and other concerns, five times so far, most recently in 2006. It was held in December.In the opening presentation by the delegations of both countries, in both countriesEconomic nationalismWas stated to be rising[297].

The United States and China have also created it for high-level discussions on solving international political issues.

Human rights / religious issues

In 2003, the United States showed some positive signs that year, proclaiming that although China was eager to make promises to the United States and others about human rights, there was still a serious setback.The Chinese government acknowledges the importance of human rights protection in principle and claims that it is taking step-by-step measures to bring China's human rights into line with international standards.これらの中には1997年10月のSome of these are from October XNUMXInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsTosignature(Approve2001), 1998International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsIncludes signature (not ratified). In 2002, China agreed to release a large number of prisoners detained for political prisoners and religious reasons, and to cooperate with UN torture, arbitrary detention, and religious experts.However, human rights groups around the world claim that those promises are virtually meaningless and that more and more people have been detained on similar charges since then.These groups maintain the view that China is still in the process of transforming to establish a basic system and that in the future the human rights and freedoms of all Chinese people will be protected.US Department of StateHas published an annual report on human rights in the world, including the human rights situation in China.[298].. 2008年、アメリカ国務省は中国政府の人権に関する報告について多くの批判がありながら、「最も深刻なIn XNUMX, the U.S. State Department said, "The most serious," despite many criticisms of the Chinese government's report on human rights.Human rights violationsRemoved China from the list of "nations that are doing". The 2008 report was submitted on March 3.

To counter the criticism by the United States, the Chinese government has also been involved in China's human rights every year since 1998.White paperPublishes and reveals the details of development in the area. The 2008 report was submitted two days after the US State Department.

Since October 2005, 10, the Chinese government hasDemocracyHe has also published a white paper on the progress of. In November 2007, the Chinese government published a white paper describing the role of the Communist Party and other political parties.

Confidentiality of Chinese military spending

China's military spending has been mentioned as a threat by many Americans like the Blue Team.Chinese PLAMilitary tobudgetHas been increasing at an accelerating rate in recent years.Independent US analysts are convinced that China is hiding actual military spending.According to the Chinese government, in 2007 China spent US $ 450 billion on defense.Meanwhile, US military spending in 2008 was US $ 6230 billion, with more than US $ 1230 billion spent in collaboration with all other countries in the world.However, US experts estimate that China's military spending is between about US $ 850 billion and US $ 1250 billion.China spent $ 2007 million a day on defense in 1, according to people in the government.In contrast, the United States spent US $ 1 billion per day.

Concerns over China's military spending are due to US concerns that China is attempting a military challenge against the United States or its neighbors.China is developing a naval base near the South China Sea and is converting the PLA's resources to navy, air force and missile development.However, it is also true that US military spending is still higher than China's as a percentage of GDP.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ actuallyChugokuWhat drives national affairsChinese Communist PartyAnd the highest leader of the Communist PartyCentral Political Bureau Standing CommitteeHas a structure that seizes power, the real power isGeneral Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist PartyWas holding,President of the People's Republic of ChinaThe authority of (President of the State) was ceremonial and honorable, and the source of their power was the general secretary of the ruling party, the Communist Party.
  2. ^ All of the U.S. and Qing traders gained from the U.S. and Qing trades were rare, and the shipowners were able to obtain unexpected profits, so the U.S. and Qing nations began full-scale trade.米清貿易によりBy US Qing tradeClear country The金属-Panax ginseng-fur, Americatea-cotton-silk-lacquerware-China-FurnitureGotThe Qing dynasty has come to prioritize the production of products for the United States.
  3. ^ The bill has been in effect for over 60 years.
  4. ^ In the US military, the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion is "China Relief Expedition" (en) Known as.
  5. ^ In 1967, 17 troops were deployed.
  6. ^ In 2007, he spoke at the University of Southern California's US-China Institute about the state of US-China relations during this period.
  7. ^ The documentaries "Election '08" and "the Challenge of China" produced by the University of Southern California Institute for American and Chinese Studies were covered with an election focus (you can see the part about Obama's and McCain's policies toward China on YouTube. it can).
  8. ^ During the meeting, the two agreed that the development of Sino-US relations would extend not only to the concerns of both countries but also to the concerns of the world.President Hu Jintao and US President-elect Barack Obama Discuss over Telephone --Hunan Government
  9. ^ Pew Research Center and American Asian Society,Brookings Institution,US TreasuryMany agencies, including China, are working together to discuss climate variability with their corresponding departments in China.
  10. ^ China has expressed concern that the US "buy-American" clause discriminates against overseas manufacturers, including China.
  11. ^ Military Power of the People's Republic of China 2007 p.16.
    Besides, Takarajimasha "Self-Defense Forces vs. Chinese Army" (ISBN-4 7966 4802-X-) Page 55 states that the Kuril Islands are the starting point and the islands of Slavesi and Java are reached.

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  251. ^ “India: Invoking Rice Import Restrictions to Implement Retaliation Tariffs”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2018, 6). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20180622/k00/00m/020/168000c 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  252. ^ "US Steel Import Restrictions, Japan" Extremely Regrettable "Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 4). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO28478540T20C18A3EAF000/ 2018th of February 3Browse. 
  253. ^ "US steel import restrictions are enforced, targeting Japan, EU, etc. grace". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 4). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO28476380T20C18A3000000/ 2018th of February 3Browse. 
  254. ^ “Trump's top economic advisers are embarking on a trip that could make or break the US-China trade fight”. Business insider(July 2018, 5). http://www.businessinsider.com/trump-china-trade-war-trip-mnuchin-ross-navarro-lighthizer-2018-5 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  255. ^ “US-China trade talks to avoid trade conflicts do not fill big conflicts”. CNN(July 2018, 5). https://www.cnn.co.jp/business/35118693.html 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  256. ^ “Agreed to launch work mechanism and maintain close contact Central America Economic and Trade Talks”. People's network(July 2018, 5). http://j.people.com.cn/n3/2018/0505/c94476-9456834.html 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  257. ^ "China's Purchase from US Expands" Significantly" and Trade War Averted. Bloomberg(July 2018, 5). https://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/articles/2018-05-20/P9018V6K50XS01 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  258. ^ “US Treasury Secretary “Sanction Tariffs Pending” China Expands Imports”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 5). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO30745910R20C18A5MM8000/ 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  259. ^ "President Trump agrees and announces China's bulk purchase of rice produce No details given". Reuters(July 2018, 5). https://jp.reuters.com/article/usa-trade-china-trump-idJPKCN1IM1K4 2018th of February 5Browse. 
  260. ^ "President Trump," Personal Courtesy "to President Xi-Review of ZTE Sanctions". Bloomberg(July 2018, 5). https://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/articles/2018-05-27/P9ES8T6S972T01 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  261. ^ "President Trump agrees to ease sanctions on China's ZTE Management renewal, huge fine payment terms". Fuji Sankei Business i(July 2018, 5). https://www.sankeibiz.jp/macro/news/180528/mcb1805280500009-n1.htm 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  262. ^ ““We talked about the end of the Korean War” Trump's remarks”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 6). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO31303490S8A600C1NNE000/ 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  263. ^ "Mr. Trump "North Korean economic support in CJK". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 6). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO31302380S8A600C1NNE000/ 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  264. ^ "Mr. Trump "Economic support to North Korea, Korea, Japan and China should do"". JoongAng Daily News(July 2018, 6). http://japanese.joins.com/article/940/241940.html 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  265. ^ “[Breaking News] Trump Presidential Conference “Great Discussion”. FNN(July 2018, 6). https://www.fnn.jp/posts/00394140CX 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  266. ^ “Agreement on denuclearization in US-North Korea talks, beneficial to China = President Trump”. Reuters(July 2018, 6). https://jp.reuters.com/article/northkorea-usa-trump-china-idJPKBN1J81SA 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  267. ^ "Cancellation of US-Korea military exercises, showing that China's proposal is practical = Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China". Reuters(July 2018, 6). https://jp.reuters.com/article/northkorea-usa-china-idJPKBN1J90UM 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  268. ^ "Full text of US Presidential Press Conference after US-North Korea Summit Meeting <Part XNUMX>". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 6). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO31865260W8A610C1I00000/ 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  269. ^ “XNUMX% sanction tariff will be applied to US and Chinese products”. TBS(July 2018, 6). http://news.tbs.co.jp/newseye/tbs_newseye3397692.html 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  270. ^ “China Revenues Against the US In July, 500% Additional Tariff on $25 Billion”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 6). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO31865150W8A610C1000000/ 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  271. ^ “Restrictions on imports of steel such as those made in China, some rice excluded”.. (January 2018, 6). https://www.nna.jp/news/show/1778945 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  272. ^ "US sanctions tariffs on China $ 340 billion for semiconductors, robots, etc.”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2018, 7). 2018th of February 7Browse.
  273. ^ "US tariff added to China, 6031 items, 9% to 22 trillion yen after September China "necessary counterattack"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2018, 7). 2018th of February 7Browse.
  274. ^ "US criticizes price gap with China to leave the Universal Postal Union". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2018, 10). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO36618280Y8A011C1FF2000/ 2019th of February 4Browse. 
  275. ^ "Don't make China the" reason "= US postal union withdrawal statement". Newsletter(July 2018, 10). https://www.jiji.com/jc/article?k=2018101801048 2019th of February 4Browse. 
  276. ^ "Racial prejudice remarks by senior U.S. officials over "US-China conflict"”(May 2019, 5). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  277. ^ ""There is no conflict of civilizations" President Xi over the US-China trade war”(May 2019, 5). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  278. ^ "CHINA BLASTS'RACIST' US STATEMENT CALLING IT FIRST'GREAT POWER COMPETITOR THAT IS NOT CAUCASIAN'”(May 2019, 5). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  279. ^ "Because China isn't'Caucasian,' the US is planning for a'clash of civilizations.' That could be dangerous.”(May 2019, 5). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  280. ^ “Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the People's Republic of China”. United States Trade Representative(July 2020, 12). https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2020/january/economic-and-trade-agreement-between-government-united-states-and-government-peoples-republic-china 2020th of February 1Browse. 
  281. ^ "The United States is working "closely" with China in responding to the virus-Mr. Trump”(Japanese). Bloomberg (September 2020, 2). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  282. ^ "Mr. Trump admits that Corona's threat is "disregarded"”(Japanese). AFPBB (September 2020, 9). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  283. ^ "Is Mr. Trump's criticism of China genuine?”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2020, 10). 2020th of February 12Browse.
  284. ^ "WHO responds to the Chinese-centered, new Corona response by "Failure" = Mr. Trump”. Reuters. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  285. ^ "Mr. Trump, new corona "worse than Pearl Harbor attack" ... "surprise attack" impression: International: News: Yomiuri Shimbun Online". www.yomiuri.co.jp. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  286. ^ "Mr. Trump suggests “heartfelt disappointment” in China's response to corona“Reuters” May 2020, 5.2020th of February 5Browse.
  287. ^ "WHO criticizes "Chinese puppet" Trump”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  288. ^ a b c d e INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2020, 5). “Trump reviews Hong Kong incentives WHO and “discontinuation””(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  289. ^ "US Secretary of Health and Welfare Other meets with Taiwanese President Cai, the highest visit since diplomatic relations”. AFP (July 2020, 8). 2020th of February 8Browse.
  290. ^ "China sanctions 11 U.S. senators and others retaliates against U.S. measures over Hong Kong”. AFP (July 2020, 8). 2020th of February 8Browse.
  291. ^ “First meeting after the inauguration of President Biden“ The struggle between democracy and tyranny ””. Japan Broadcasting Corporation(July 2021, 3). https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210326/k10012936801000.html 2021th of February 3Browse. 
  292. ^ “Europe and the United States sanctions Uighur human rights issues China opposes Japan's response” (Japanese). NHK. (March 2021, 3) Retrieved March 24, 2021
  293. ^ "US Biden Administration Announces Sanctions to Chinese Supercomputer Development Companies" (Japanese). NHK. (March 2021, 4) Retrieved March 9, 2021
  294. ^ American Institute in Taiwan
  295. ^ Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the US
  296. ^ RMB Trends-Yahoo! News
  297. ^ US Department of the Treasury --US-China Strategic Economic Dialogue
  298. ^ US Department of State> Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor> Releases

Related literature

By Japanese

  • Hiroyuki Akita (2008) "Dark flow US, China and Japan外交Three Kingdoms』Nikkei Publishing Co., Ltd.
  • Motofumi Asai (2000) "How to see China 21st century OfJapan-China relationsThinking about Sino-US relations ”Kobunken
  • (2006) "With ChinaEast Asia OfSecurity』Meitoku Publishing Co., Ltd.
  • Amago Kei (2003) "Life-size China" Keiso Shobo
  • Satoshi Amako (2006) "Is the" giant dragon "that becomes a major power in China, Asia, and Japan a threat?" Chikuma Shobo
  • Toshiaki Arai (2002) "Transforming China's Diplomacy and Economy-focused Global Strategy" Japan-China Publishing
  • XNUMX flag head truth [Supervision] (2000) "pollSeeJapan-US relationship Yomiuri-Gallup Joint Survey 22 years Security issues shake the foundation ”Yomiuri Shimbun
  • Samurai igarashi [Edit] (2005) "The Pacific OceanOf the world国際 関係』Sairyusha
  • Takeshi Igarashi [ed.] (2006) "American Diplomacy and the World of the 21st Century Cold WarBased on the historical background and regional diversity ”Showa-do
  • Hidenori Ijiri (2000) "American View of China" Bungeishunju
  • (1998) "Japan-US stand"Trilateral allianceAge US-China Cold WarLower Asian Collective Security System ”Exhibition Transfer
  • Tsuyoshi Ito (2002) "allianceRecognition and reality DetantJapan-US-China Triangle of the Period ”Yushindo Kobunsha
  • Akira Iriye (2002) "Image of Sino-US Relations" Heibonsha
  • Kazuro Umezu,Kouji Nakatsu [Edit] (2007) "Northeast asiaCrisis and New Growth Strategy ”Akiyo Shobo
  • (1998) "US-China Economic Friction International Expansion of Chinese Economy" Keiso Shobo
  • Tatsumi Okabe [Edit] (2001) "International Environment around China" Iwanami Shoten
  • Tatsumi Okabe,Seiichiro Takagi,Yoshinari Kokubu [Edit] (1999) "Aiming for Japan-US-China Security Cooperation" Keiso Shobo
  • Mitsuyuki Kagami(1999) "China World 21st Century World Politics 3" Chikuma Shobo
  • Seiichi Kanise [Supervision] (2008) "Illustration You can understand China's global strategy with this one book! 』青春出版社』\ Seishun Publishing Co., Ltd.
  • Hideki Kan [Edit] (2004) "Korean PeninsulaFrom crisis to peacebuilding ”Shakai Hyoronsha
  • Ryosei Kokubun [ed.] (1997) "Scenario for Japan-America-China Cooperation" TBS-Brittanica
  • Ryosei Kokubun [ed.] (1999) "ModernAsiaRebirth from Crisis ”Keio University Press
  • Tomoyuki Kojima (1997) "Whereabouts of China This country decides the world" Jiji Press
  • Tomoyuki Kojima,Isami Takeda [Edit] (2002) "Security in East Asia" South Window Company
  • Yoshihisa Furumori (2007) "China challenging Japan What is the" crisis that is right now "" PHP Institute
  • Takahiko Soejima (1999) "American Great Lie" Kodansha
  • Kiyoshi Takai (2002) "ChinaNews reportHow to read "Iwanami Shoten
  • Kiyoshi Takai,Akira Fujino,Kazuo Yukawa [Edit] (2008) "50 Chapters to Know Modern China" Akashi Shoten
  • Seiichiro Takagi [Edit] (2007) "US-China Relations Post-Cold War Structure and Development" Japan Institute of International Affairs
  • Kenji Takita (1996) "The Road to the Pacific State America, Its Historical Formation Process" Yushindo Kobunsha
  • Kenji Takita [ed.] (2005) "Globalization and the Reality of Asia" Chuo University Press
  • Akihiko Tanaka (2000) "Word Politics GlobalizationJapanese Diplomacy in Chikuma Shobo
  • Sakai Tanaka (2002) "US-China theory Japan that knows nothing" Kobunsha
  • Hideo Tamura (2008) "Economic" Japan-US-China "Relationship International Political Economy"Introduction" Sankei Shimbun Publications
  • N. Nakajima, Yoshihisa Komori (2006) "US-China New War Runaway China, Containing America" ​​Business-sha
  • Terumasa Nakanishi"The era of the approaching Cold War between Japan and China"PHP Institute, February 2012.ISBN 978-4-569-80700-3.
  • Katsunori Nakamura [Edit] (1997) "Japan and Taiwan as a Fateful Community National Strategy in the Post-Cold War Era" Exhibition Transferred
  • Japan Association for International Political Science [Edit] (1998) "History of Sino-US Relations" Japan International Political Society
  • (2000) "The Age of US-China Conflict" Nihon Hyoronsha
  • Kazuyuki Hamada (1999) "" Without Japan "Game MillenniumempireAmerican Ambition "PHP Institute
  • Kazuyuki Hamada (2000) "The Great Powers of Japan, China and the United States, Their Amazing" Parasitic "Techniques" Shodensha
  • Yoichi Funabashi (2006) "Alliance Drifting" Iwanami Shoten
  • (2004) "President of TaiwanRetsuden: The Back History of Sino-US Relations ”Chuokoron-Shinsha
  • Defense Research InstituteSecurity Study Group [ed.] (1999) "Future Security Environment World Trends / Issues in Japan GlobalizationRegionalizationRead the compound tide of Aki Shobo
  • (1998) "Where is China going? America or China?" General Law Publishing
  • (2002) "PostwarInternational politicsHistory 4 ”Tsue Shobo Shinsha
  • (2006) "America taking China Abandoned Japan Americans like Chinese more than Japanese" Kobunsha
  • (1997) "Historical Development of Sino-US Relations XNUMX-XNUMX" Kenbun Publishing
  • Yoshinobu Yamamoto [Edit] (2005) "Asia-Pacific Security and America" ​​Sairyusha
  • Akio Watanabe [Edit] (2005) "Asia-Pacific Solidarity Concept" NTT Publishing

Translation / foreign books

  • Kazuko Mori, [Translation] (2001) "Nixon visits ChinaConfidential Meeting Record ”The University of Nagoya Press
  • Eckholm, Erik. "Clinton Urged to Meet Top China Dissident." New York Times 20 June 1998: A3. Historical New York Times. Proquest. DuBois Library, UMASS Amherst. 10 Apr. 2006.
  • Lilley, James R .; [Translation] (2006) "Recollection of former US Ambassador to China 1916-1991" Soshisha
  • (2000) "Phantom New Order and the Conflict of the US-China Alliance during World War II" Sairyusha
  • Mann, James; Suzuki main tax [Translation] (1999) "US-China Torrent" Kyodo News,
  • Sadako Ogata;Yoshihide Soeya [Translation] (1992) "Postwar Japan-China-US-China Relations" University of Tokyo Press
  • (2007) "A book that understands" China now "What has happened in China in the last 100 years and what will happen in the future" Mikasa Shobo
  • Song, Yuwu [Ed.] (2006) Encyclopedia of Chinese-American Relations, McFarland

外部 リンク

US site
China site
Other

Related item

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinet Biden Jr.(English:Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ([ˈbdən] BY-dən),1942May 11 –) IsThe United States of America Of政治家,Lawyer.. 46th generation of the countryPresident[1](In office: January 2021, 1 –).Abbreviated nameIt is,Joe Biden(Joe Biden; pronunciation: [dʒoʊ ˈbaɪdən] ( Audio file)[Annotation 1].New Castle CountyCongressman,DelawareElectionU.S. Senate,Barack Obama47th generation in the administrationVice PresidentHas served as.2020 United States Presidential Election(2020May 11Implementation)Democratic PartyRun as presidential candidate and win[3]Inaugurated as President on January 2021, 1[4][5].John F. KennedySecond person sinceCatholicIs the president of[6]..The age at the time of inauguration is 78 years old[7], The oldest president in the history of the United States[8].

Biography

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayPennsylvaniaScrantonBorn inDelawareNew Castle CountyI grew up in.アイルランドsystemCatholic OfMiddle classBorn in a family[6]..When I was a kidStutteringHe said he overcame it with his own vocal practice of reading Irish poetry in front of the mirror.In high school and collegeAmerican footballCrazy about[6].

After studying at the University of DelawareSyracuse UniversityDoctor of JusticeGet the issue[9]..After going to law school1969ToLawyerAnd,1970In delaware(English editionElected as a member of the Diet[6].1972In January, he was elected to the Delaware Senator at the age of 1, becoming the fifth youngest Senator in American history.[10].. In June of the same yearChristmasI lost my wife and daughter who went shopping in a car accident[10].. Current wife in 1977JillRemarried[6].

Served as a senator for six consecutive terms, working on diplomacy, criminal justice, drug issues, etc.(English editionChairman ofSenate Foreign Relations CommitteeServed as chairman of[6][10]..Established cross-partisan trust as a coordinated politician who values ​​policy realization[6].

As a senator1991 OfGulf WarAgainstEastern EuropeToNATOExpansion and the 1990sYugoslavia conflictSupported the intervention in.2002 OfIraq warI supported the approval resolution, but2007Opposed to the increase in US troops.He also chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee from 1987 to 1995, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention and civil liberties.Biden led efforts towards the enactment of the Violence Crime Control Act and the Violence Act against WomenRobert BorkClarence Thomas OfChief of the Supreme CourtSupervised the nomination to.

2008 United States Presidential ElectionBarack ObamaHe resigned as a senator after being elected vice president. He was the fourth longest-serving senator[11]..Obama and Biden2012 United States Presidential ElectionWas re-elected in Japan and served for two terms and eight years.Biden as Vice PresidentLehman shockOversaw infrastructure spending in 2009 to counter the recession.Of his parliamentRepublican PartyNegotiations with the Obama administration include the 2010 Tax Relief Act, which resolved the tax impasse, the 2011 Budget Management Act, which resolved the debt-ceiling crisis, and the 2012 US Taxpayer Relief Act, which addressed the imminent fiscal cliff. Helped to pass.Foreign policy includes the United States andRussian FederationBetweenNew STARTLeading efforts towards the conclusion of the treaty,Military intervention in LibyaUntil the withdrawal of the U.S. military in 2011(I.e.Has jurisdiction over US policy on.Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentLater, Biden led the "Gun Violence Task Force", which was established to address the causes of gun violence in the United States.[12].

2015To the eldest sonBeau BidenTheBrain tumorDied in disappointment2016 United States Presidential ElectionSeeed off[10].2017In 1 monthObamaPresident to BidenPresidential Medal of FreedomWas awarded[13].

2019May 4Announced its candidacy for the 2020 United States presidential election.2020Radical leftist candidates at the primary elections and caucuses that began in February in each stateBernie SandersDefeat them and win[10]Of the 6 deputies needed to secure party nominations in JuneThreshold(ThresholdSatisfied. Biden on August 2020, 82020 United States Presidential ElectionAs Vice Presidential CandidateKamala HarrisAnnounced Senator[14].

May 11Presidential election was held inMay 11ToABC,AP communication,CNN,FOX News,NBC,New York Times,ReutersMajor media such as incumbentDonald TrumpReported that he defeated and secured victory[15].. Electoral votes were held in each state on December 12, but no breach of pledge vote occurred, ensuring a majority of 14 electors to win.[16],2021May 1からMay 1House of RepresentativesJoint meetingThe voting result was approved in[17].May 1At noonInaugurationInaugurated as the 46th president[18].John F. KennedySinceCatholicThe president of[6], And the 78-year-old president who will be the oldest in history when he takes office.[8].

Career before becoming president

Boy / student days

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayPennsylvaniaScrantonHe was born to his father, Joseph Robinette Biden Sr., and his mother, Catherine Eugenia Finnegan, as the eldest of four siblings.[19][20]..His father, Joseph Biden Sr., was in his twenties.ヨ ッ ト-hunting-AutomobileHe lived a very wealthy life, such as being absorbed in his hobbies.But by the time his eldest son, Joe, was born, he failed in several businesses and had to live with Joe's maternal grandparents, the Finnegans, for several years. I was living a difficult life[21].

Then, in the economic downturn of the 1950s, my father, Joseph Sr., couldn't get enough jobs to make a living.[22]When I was 10 years oldDelaware(English editionAfter moving to, my father was workingAir conditioninguseboilerThere is a cleaning companyDelawareNew Castle County OfWilmingtonMoving to[21]After that, I will spend time here until I graduate from high school.Wilmington was the place where Biden later first opened as a lawyer and is still home to the present day.By the way, before and after thisfluteBecause he lovedfleet flutin joeIt was said that it had the nickname.Then Joseph Sr.Secondhand car OfsalesmanThe Biden family will lead a stable life as a middle-class family.[21][22][23].

Biden is a Catholic private school in Claymont(English editionEnroll in1961I spent time at this school until my graduation.While in schoolfootballHe is enthusiastic about baseball, especially in football, belonging to a high school football team,Half back(Running backA kind of. ) AndWide receiverHe played an active part in the position of, and played a part in growing the team that had been defeated for many years into a strong team until achieving undefeated season in the final grade.[21][24]..Political activities were also held at the Wilmington Theater.RacismOpposeSitting inWe actively worked on it, such as participating in activities.Although he was a mediocre and unobtrusive student in terms of schoolwork[20], Biden was a student who demonstrated leadership[25].

After graduating from Archmere Academy in 1961NewarkIt is inUniversity of DelawareGo on toHistorypoliticsMajored in.Initially as enthusiastic about football as he was at Archmere Academy, he is a team at the University of Delaware.Delaware Fighting Blue HensBelonging to, initially playing as a halfback in a freshman team[24]..But when he was in his third year of college, he was on the college national team to spend some time with his girlfriend outside Delaware.Defensive backI had to give up my plan to play as[24][26]..In this way, I was enthusiastic about sports and dating with friends and lovers.[21]Because[Additional description required]In his majors in history and politics, his academic performance was not very good.Bachelor's degreeTo get[20],1965Although he graduated in Japan, he graduated with a poor grade of 688th out of 506 students.But his friends were rather surprised by Biden's cramming talent.[27].

after thatSyracuse University OfLaw schoolGo on to school.In the first year of school (1), it was discovered in 1965 that the article was plagiarized over five pages from an article in a legal review magazine (15 pages in total), and the subject "Legal Method (Legal Method)" was reported as a plagiarism case from the school. Although the "legal method)" credit was revoked, it was not subject to expulsion and Byden earned the credit in 5 the following year.[28]..Biden denies the case as malicious, saying it was "caused inadvertently by not knowing the exact rules for quoting."1968ToDoctor of JusticeGet the issue[29], The next day after completion1969DelawareBar associationJoin[29], In WilmingtonLawyerOpened as.

While attending law school1966To he is the first wifeNeilia HunterMeet and get married.Two men and one woman with Neria (Joseph Robinet Biden III (nickname: Beau),Robert Hunter Biden, Naomi Biden).

Vietnam WarBiden is in college1963While attending law school1968Until the boyhoodasthma5 times because of his medical historyConscriptionI was in grace.For this reason he was not in the Vietnam War[30][31].

Since childhoodStutteringIt took me until my early twenties to overcome it.I continued to read poetry in front of the mirror.Also close relativesAlcoholismI became a prohibitionist because I was suffering from it.

Senator elected, accident of losing ex-wife / daughter

Shortly after the start of lawyer activity,1970BidenNew Castle County(English editionHe ran as a Democratic candidate in the 4th ward of the election and won the election.[32].

Then in the 1972 Senate electionDemocratic PartyRun from.I was incumbent at this timeRepublican Party Of(English editionCongressman was one of the prominent members, but Boggs was thinking of retiring from politics.However, over the successor to Boggs within the Republican Party, Delaware's congressman Pierre S. DuPont IV (later Governor of Delaware) and Wilmington.MayorHarry G. Haskell, Jr. was in conflict, causing division within the Republican camp.As a breakthrough,Richard NixonPresidentAsked Boggs to run for another term and promised full support from the Republicans, which Boggs accepted.However, in the end Biden defeated Boggs to win.He was the fifth federal senator to win the election since its founding.

However, immediately after being elected to the Senate,1972May 12Wife Neria takes three children to Delaware to shop for Christmas(English editionI was driving to Neria, but I was drivingStation WagonBut at the intersectiontrailerNeria and Naomi, who was still young, died after being hit bybaudRobertSurvived but was seriously injured[33]..Police records at the time are no longer available, but newspaper reports at the time reveal that the trailer driver is not negligent.[34][Annotation 2].

From Young Senator to Veteran Senator

Biden once tried to decline the parliamentary position because of the care and care of his sons, but at that time the Democratic SenateHospital General AffairsMetMichael mansfieldPersuaded to refrain from declining, decided to take office as a member of the Diet,1973May 1Was sworn in as a senator from his son's room[34][36].1973From January, he went to the hospital as usual and started his activities as a member of the Diet.Biden was thirty at the time, and the senator at the age of thirty was the fifth youngest in American history.Usually when you become a member of the DietWashington DCHe spent an hour and a half each way commuting by train to his home in the suburbs of Wilmington and Washington, DC, for his sons, with many lawmakers living in.

1974BidentimeMagazine200 Faces for the FutureHe was selected as one of the members of the parliament, expanding his field of activity both inside and outside the parliament and increasing his name recognition.Also in private life1977He married his second wife, Jill Tracy Jacobs, and had a daughter (Ashley).1978Defeats James H. Baxter Jr. to re-election[37],1984Defeats John M. Barris in the election to win three elections[38] We will continue to join the ranks of veteran lawmakers.

1974He explained that his political position was liberal on civil rights, freedom, senior citizen issues and medical care, but conservative on abortion and military conscription.[39].

1970 eraIn the middle, there were many opponents of white Delaware voters.Bus commuting to eliminate discriminationI opposed it.Became one of the major opponents of the Democratic Senate[40]..Legal like Southern State(English editionHe was in favor of using the bus to correct the situation, but opposed the use of the bus to correct the de facto segregation resulting from racial patterns of neighboring residents such as Delaware.[41]..In 2019 at a debate on the Democratic candidate nomination battleKamala HarrisPursued from[42][Annotation 3].

The first 10 years of being a senatorArms controlWas often involved in[44][45].1979To the Democratic PartyJimmy CarterPresident and Soviet UnionLeonid BrezhnevSigned between the Prime MinistersSALTIIBiden was in the Soviet Union after he was not ratified by the U.S. CongressAndrei GromuikoTalked with the Foreign Minister and called for amendments to address US concerns and Senate Foreign Relations Committee objections[46].

RepublicanRonald ReaganThe presidentStrategic defense conceptforJUMPSBiden called for strict adherence to the treaty when he insisted on a rough interpretation of[44] . AlsoapartheidProceedSouth AfricaSecretary of State at a Senate hearing about the Reagan administration's supportGeorge SchultzAttracted attention by blaming[47].

In 1981(English edition Of(English editionInaugurated. 1984(English editionCooperated as a leader of the Democratic Party of Japan.Later, the law became stricter, and Biden confessed that passing it in 2019 was a big mistake.[48][49]..His supporters praise him for modifying some of the worst parts of the law, which he credits as his greatest legislative achievement.[50]..This law(English edition[51][52] And make it the most important legislature he has been involved in(English editionIs included[53][54].

1987For the first time as the Senate Judiciary ChairmanStanding CommitteeInaugurated as chairman of.

1988 presidential primary election and brain surgery

1987May 6Next year(English editionAnnounced to run for.[55]..His personality(English editionFamiliarity as the Senate Judiciary Chairman overBaby boomerIt was regarded as a promising candidate because of its appeal to.If you are elected presidentJohn F. KennedyWas the second youngest president after[47][56][57].

Although it was a leading candidate until the first quarter of 1987[56][57]In NovemberBritish Labor PartyParty leaderNeil KinnockThe suspicion of plagiarism of the content of the speech was raised, and the suspicion of plagiarism of the treatise during school days was also raised.[28].

1988At the age of 2 in February, Biden suffered from neck pain and was in an ambulance.(English editionWas transported to.Cerebral aneurysmSurgery on the brain due to rupture[58][59]..During recoveryPulmonary embolismSuffering from serious complications[59]..In May of the same year, he underwent surgery for a second cerebral aneurysm.[59][60]Returned to the Senate 7 months after admission[61][62].

As Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

After recovering from his illness, Biden was once again active as a senator.1991 OfGulf WarVoted against[63]..In the same position as 55 out of 45 Democratic senators,(English editionOpposed that the United States bears almost all the burden in[64].

In 1991Croatia conflictInSerbianHearing the atrocities ofYugoslavia conflictInterested in[44].Bosnia and Herzegovina ConflictWhen the outbreak breaks out, the weapon embargo is liftedBosnian MuslimsTo provide and train weapons, support them with NATO airstrikes, and investigate war crimes.(English editionBiden was the first to insist on the policy.[44][65].. HoweverGeorge HW BushAdministration tooBill ClintonThe administration was also reluctant to implement this policy, fearing the Balkans would get tangled.[44][63].1993Biden in AprilRepublic of SerbiaPresidentThrobodan MilosevicIn a tense three-hour meeting, he told Milosevic, "I am you.War criminalI think that.Should be tried. "[66].1992Wrote an amendment to urge the Bush administration to provide weapons to Bosnians.1994It was changed to a slightly softer expression that the Clinton administration liked, but a year laterBob Doll,Joe LiebermanSigned a stronger proposal sponsored by[66]..Biden states that it was "the most proud moment of public life" about influencing policy on the Balkans in the mid-1990s.[63].

1997ToSenate Foreign Relations CommitteeBecame the lead member of the Minority Party, and became chairman of the committee between 2001-2003 and 2007-2009, when the Democratic Party dominated the Senate.[65]..His stance on diplomacy(English editionBased on[44][63]..He had a thick pipe with the Republicans and sometimes opposed Democratic policies.[63][65].

1999,Kosovo WarFederal Republic of YugoslaviaAgainstNATO airstrikesSupported[44]..Biden is a RepublicanJohn McCainIn collaboration with President Clinton, using all necessary forces, including ground troops, in KosovoAlbaniansCalled to block Yugoslavia's policy against Milosevic and confront Milosevic[63][67].

Terrorist attacksLater in 2001Operation AfghanSupported[68].. In 2002, Biden became the Senate Diplomatic Committee Chairman.Saddam HusseinIs the greatest threat to national security and there is no choice but to eliminate it. "[69], May 10th of the same year(English editionAgreeed with[63]..Immediately after this, in November 2002Mid-term electionAs the Democratic Party fell into the minority party, he left the post of diplomatic chairman on January 2003, 1, when a new parliament was convened, and returned to the top member of the minority party.Also,2004He was eager to run for the presidential election, but eventually gave up.

after that,2006After the Democratic Party returned to the majority in the November midterm elections2007May 1He has been the chairman of the diplomatic committee for the second time.At the same time, he chairs a subcommittee on crime and narcotics that is linked to the Judiciary Committee.In particular, at the Foreign Affairs Committee, he made positive statements as a leader of the committee and as foreign transportation.Also, at the Senate plenary session, in connection with the Iraqi policy that was showing a deadlock,2007May 9ToRepublican Party OfSam brownbackTogether with the Senator, he passed a non-binding "Iraq Division Resolution" 75:23.

As of 2008, he has been elected six times in a row and has been in office for 6 years, and has become a major Democratic Party of the Senate who is neither pushed nor pushed.By the way, he is the longest-serving senator in the history of his hometown of Delaware.But with so many consecutive wins and long tenures, he is a senior senator in Delaware (in the United States). Senior Senator It is called.Of the two senators in each state, the one who has been elected consecutively and has a longer term will be the senior senator. ) Was in 2, which can be said to be quite late.This is Republican Senator William Victor Ross Jr., two years senior to Biden.William Victor Roth Jr.), But in the 1971 elections since his first visit in 2000, Democratic Governor Thomas Richard Carper (Thomas Richard CarperThis is because he maintained his seat for about 30 years until he lost to) and retired.

Second presidential election challenge, to vice president

2008 will be his second presidential election2008 United States Presidential ElectionChallenge, butBarack ObamaWith candidatesHillary ClintonThe top two candidates were in a position to push the others out, and withdrew on January 2.However, on August 1, Obama, who confirmed the nomination of the presidential candidate, announced his intention to nominate the vice presidential candidate, and after accepting this, on August 3,ColoradoDenverHeld atDemocratic National ConventionSo, along with Obama, he was officially nominated as the Democratic Party's vice presidential candidate.

The most promising candidate for Obama's vice president was Hillary Clinton, Obama's biggest opponent.The sentiment between Obama and Clinton's supporters has deteriorated during the fierce primary, and Obama-Clinton's "Dream Ticket" was expected for internal reconciliation.Therefore, there were some surprises about the choice of Biden.It is said that the reason for this selection was that the following points were evaluated.

  • Being strong against whites (especially white workers) and Catholics, who are the voters who are said to be weak in Obama.
  • He is a heavyweight Democratic centrist and has little political and ideological bias.At that time, Clinton was considered to be more liberal by the Democratic Party as well as Obama, and there was concern that the tickets between liberals would overwhelm the middle class, who hold the key to the election.
  • Biden, who has a wealth of diplomatic experience as the Senate Diplomatic Chairman and is recognized as "foreign traffic" by the public, successfully complements Obama's weaknesses, especially in compensating for the lack of diplomatic experience that was pointed out regarding Obama. The point that you can[70].
  • Biden, who was a heavyweight of the Senate Democratic Party, can be expected to have an influence on parliamentary measures.[71].
  • The union also has a thick pipe as an Irish Catholic[70]
  • Being from the middle class.

But the RepublicanJohn McCainThe candidate isSarah PalinWas compared with the fact that he was selected as a vice presidential candidate, and it seemed to be a modest choice.In addition, Biden pointed out the lack of experience of Obama in the primary, which was criticized by the Republican Party after accepting the nomination.

In the election campaign, Biden criticized McCain violently while Obama suppressed his offensive remarks.In the opinion poll after the debate on the Vice Presidential candidate with Palin, the majority of the respondents answered that "the debate was Biden's victory", but in terms of favorability, many were in favor of Palin.

2008May 11In the vote counting of the presidential election held (local time), Democratic Party Barack Obama was elected the 44th President of the United States, and he himself was confirmed to be the 47th Vice President.

By the way, Biden also ran for the Senator election, which was voted on the same day as the presidential election, assuming a defeat in the presidential election.In this election, 65% of the votes (25 votes) of the entire constituency were obtained, and the Republican Party, which was an opponent,(English editionHe was elected to the Senate for the seventh time by making a big difference.Moreover2009May 1In the 111th Congress, which opened inMay 1He remained in the Senate position until he resigned on the same day.He resigned from his post as chairman of the Senate diplomacy committee on January 1, triggered by the convocation of a new parliament.My last job as a diplomatic chairman was in the second week of January.(I.e.-アフガニスタン-PakistanIt was a visit to the three countries and a summit meeting.Biden's seat was given to Ted Kaufman, who had been his advisor for many years, and the post of diplomatic chairman2004 United States Presidential ElectionWas a Democratic presidential candidate inJohn Forbes KellyIt was taken over by the Senator.

Vice President

2009May 1With Barack Obama's inauguration as the 44th President of the United States, he officially became the 47th Vice President of the United States.CapitolAttending Obama's inauguration at (Capitol Hill) with his wife, Jill, who became a second lady, prior to Obama,John Paul StevensFederal Supreme CourtHe took an oath of office in the presence of a judge.First Vice President from Delaware[72]Became the first Roman Catholic Vice President[73][74].

In addition, he has promoted the appointment of his own staff, with Ron Klein, a veteran Democratic Party lawyer, as the chief of staff and the director of public relations.timeAppointed Jay Kearney, Washington, DC bureau chief.

Biden is his predecessorDick CheneyHowever, unlike the conventional Vice President, policy making and practice, etc.George W. BushWhile he was involved in a fairly deep part of the president's administration, he said, "I myself (CheneyVice President(Like) I will not be deeply involved in the president's policy decisions. "On the other hand, he said, "When President Obama makes a serious decision, he will give advice and advice in all of them."

According to members of the Obama administration, Vice President Biden's role in the administration was to dare to disagree and try to force others to defend his position.[75]..White House Chief of Staff(English editionBidenCollective thinkingIt is evaluated that it prevented falling into[75]..Biden's spokesman also said, "Biden isSituation roomPlayed the villain of[75]..President Obama also said, "The best thing about Joe is that when everyone gets together, he forces everyone to think, keep his position, and look at things from every angle. That's very important to me. "[76]

President Obama, who declared that he would end his role in Iraq by August 2010, appointed Biden as responsible for Iraq in June 8, and Biden should visit Iraq once every two months thereafter. Nari[77]Became a government dignitary to convey the message of the U.S. government to the Iraqi government[76].. Biden visited Iraq eight times until 2012, but Biden's involvement in Iraq diminished when US troops withdrew from Iraq in 8.[78][79].

September 2010, 62010 FIFA World CupSouth AfricaEngland vs AmericaI watched the game, and then visited Egypt and Kenya.[80].

When the Democratic Party was defeated in the November 2010 midterm elections, Biden's role in connecting with Republicans in a long parliamentary life became more important.[81][82]. New Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyIt was Biden who led the passage of the Senate[81][82].. Also in decemberBush tax cutsSummarized a compromise with the Republican Party, including an extension of[82][83].

2011 yearsNATO OfLibyan military interventionSupported[84].ロシアIn favor of having a closer economic relationship with RussiaWTOSupported membership[85]..Biden was carried out on May 2011, 5, according to some reportsBin Laden killing operationWas against[78][86].

Due to the declining approval rating of the Obama administration, there were voices saying that the vice presidential candidate should be replaced by Hillary Clinton instead of Biden in the November 2012 presidential election.[87]Obama continued to be re-elected with Biden as Vice Presidential candidate.

2012 Year of 12 MonthSandy Hook Elementary School Shooting IncidentBecame the head of a special team established in response to consider tightening gun control[88].. Republican Party on the 31stMitch McConnellConcluded an agreement with the Senate General Affairs to avoid the "fiscal cliff"[89].

2014Toロシア Crimean annexationThe Obama administration will forceウクライナIn support of the government, it supported Ukraine and sanctioned the Russian economy.Biden also in December 2015Ukrainian parliamentMade a speech in support of Ukraine[90]..Biden is also a South American leader and has visited South America 16 times during his tenure as Vice President.[91].

2016In 8 monthEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euVisit toAlexander VucicCondolences to civilian casualties from bombing during the Kosovo War in a meeting with the President[92]..In Kosovo, his late son contributed to the development of Kosovo judges and prosecutors.Beau BidenIn honor of his achievements, a highway named after Bo was built and his father Joe Biden attended the ceremony.[93][94][95].

2016 United States Presidential ElectionObama was not able to run due to a limited term, so Biden was asked to run, and Draft'sCAPWas also formed[96].. As of September 2015, 9, he said he had not decided whether to run or not.[97] Announced that he would not run on October 10st of the same year[98].Democratic primaryThen, with President Obama, he did not initially express support for any of the candidates,Hillary ClintonAnnounced support for the candidate on June 2016, 6, after confirming the nomination[99].

2017May 1In praise of his service as Vice President,Presidential Medal of FreedomWas awarded by President Obama.Biden, who had not been informed of the award in advance, wept and gave an improvised speech for 20 minutes.[100][101].

Biden is in the SenateChair approvalVice President who did not, and the longest Vice President[102].

Winning in the third presidential election challenge

Background of running

2017May 6Political Action Committee (PAC) "Potential of the United States (American Possibilities) ”Was announced.2020 United States Presidential ElectionIt was reported that he may be considering running for[103].

2019May 4Officially announced that it will run for the 2020 United States presidential election[104].

In the statement in the video, about the reason for running2017ToVirginiaCharlottesvilleGot up inFar right"The president of the United States said by this word, noting that Trump did not blame the far right for" there were wonderful people on either side "about the death of a woman in a clash between the group and its opponents. Treated those who spread hatred and those who bravely confronted it ethically equally. "" The core values ​​of this country, our democracy, everything that makes America America is at risk. "When history looks back over the last four years, I think there are only anomalies left. But if Mr. Trump stays in the White House for eight years, he will be the essence of America and ours. It will change the nature forever and radically. You can't just look at it silently. "[105].

Party presidential nomination battle

Biden's performance in the Democratic candidate debate on June 2019, 6 was criticized, but a survey of candidates conducted by CNN on Democratic and pro-Democratic registered voters in August found that Take the lead with 27 percent support[106]..However, just before the primary election and caucuses2020May 1Left-wing candidate in CNN pollBernie SandersWas overtaken by the approval rating[107].

May 2, The first match of Democratic nomination candidate selectionIowaCaucus is held.In the announcement of the provisional results the next day, the centristsPete ButtigiegBecame the leader, Biden sank to 4th[108][109]..Next February 2thNew HampshireIn the primaries, Sanders took the lead and Biden was fifth.[110].. Sanders also won the third round of the Nevada Caucus on February 3, and Biden was in second place but far behind.[111]..On the 29th of the same month, it was thought that if he could not win, he would be defeated.South carolinaWon the first victory in the fourth race in the primary election[112].

Super TuesdayButtigieg on March 3st, just before the event, and on the following 1ndAmy KlobucharAnnounced that they would withdraw from the primary election campaign, and both expressed their support for Biden.As a result, the Democratic centrists were united under Biden to confront the leftist Sanders.[113][114]..He defeated Sanders in 3 states at the primary election and caucuses (Super Tuesday) held in 3 states on March 14, making him the top candidate for the number of delegates.[115]..With the victory of Super Tuesday, the approval rating also increased, overtaking Sanders to regain the top approval rating.[116].. On June 3Michael bloombergWithdrew and expressed support for Biden[117]On October 3stElizabeth WarrenWithdrew, but she didn't say who she would support[118].

May 3There were primaries and caucuses in 6 states, including Michigan, and winning in 4 states gave them even more dominance.[119].. Biden won a big victory in the primaries of three states, including Florida on March 3, and further separated Sanders to win the nomination.It can be confirmed that the liberal layer, which should have been the bedrock layer of Sanders, tends to vote for Biden away from Sanders.[120].

May 3Announced withdrawal toTulsi GabbardAlso expressed support for Biden[121]..Sanders, the last remaining opponent, also announced withdrawal on April 4.[122]Announced support for Biden on April 4[123]..This ensured Biden's nomination.In response to the candidate being decidedMay 4To the former presidentBarack ObamaExpressed support for Biden[124],May 4Received a statement of support from Warren who did not reveal his attitude[125],May 4Last candidateHillary ClintonEstablished a party-raising system in response to a statement of support from[126].

May 5ToPennsylvaniaBlack manGeorge Floyd Case of being assaulted and killed by a white police officerRacist protest movement started in the wake ofBlack Lives MatterExpressed solidarity with (BLM). While clearly stating that he does not support violence by taking advantage of demonstrations, saying that "riots, looting, and arson are not protests. They are illegal acts." He criticized Trump's attitude of not denying his armed supporters as spurring the clash.[127].

May 8, A non-white woman who is half black and half IndianKamala HarrisAnnounced that he was selected as the Vice Presidential candidate[128].. It is considered to be a selection of people in consideration of the rise of the BLM movement.[129][130].

March 8Democratic National ConventionHe was officially nominated as a party presidential candidate, and gave a speech to accept the nomination on the 20th, saying, "I am proud to accept the prestigious US presidential candidate nomination." "If we unite, we can overcome the dark season of the United States. He emphasized that he emphasizes science, protects the lives and lives of the people, cooperates with allies, does not become intimate with dictators, and emphasizes the dignity and harmony of all.He also criticized Trump, saying, "This president takes no responsibility, does not try to take the lead, blames others for everything, makes friends with the dictator, and continues to inflame hatred and division."[131][132].

Presidential election final

During the presidential election, Biden was in the Trump administrationNew coronavirus"The fact is that Donald Trump has failed to protect the United States and is terrorizing the United States," he criticized.[127]He also denied the Trump administration's claim that "the worst of Corona has passed."As a result, the Trump camp held a large-scale rally and participants rarely wore masks, while the Biden camp held a drive-in style rally to drive in cars and asked participants to wear masks. Corona correspondence was seen[133].

Commitment to federal minimum wage of $ 15 per hour, investment of $ 2 trillion in green energy, federal budget of $ 4000 billion to promote purchase of American products,Obama careExpansion, criminal justice reform to correct racial discrimination (but opposed to police budget cuts claimed by the left), abolition of tax cuts for wealthy people and companies by the Trump administration, abolition of immigration control measures by the Trump administration, Trump administration WithdrewParis AgreementReturn to, abolishing Trump's diplomatic singularismNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganizationStrengthen relations with allies such as (NATO)ChugokuDiplomacy to counter the situation, exemption from repayment of student loans, free university, and provision of pre-elementary school learning opportunities to all citizens[134]..In addition, he appealed for the mandatory wearing of masks in the US unit and the new corona measures to increase the inspection ability and expand the inspection by supporting the local government with funds and human resources, and received evaluation from infectious disease experts.[135].

Candidates at the time as the cause of the Democratic Party's defeat in the last electionHillary ClintonThere was an analysis that he didn't get enough votes for the left because he disregarded the left too much, so the promise was considerably closer to the left.[136]..But for that reason, in the presidential election, Trump said, "BidenFar leftPuppet that was hijacked by[136],社会主義者of"Trojan horse""[137] It became a material to be attacked relentlessly.

May 9At the first presidential election debate, Trump often interrupted Biden's time, so from the next time onwards, one of the candidates will take measures to cut off the other party's microphone for a certain period of time. became[138].

May 10ToTennesseeNashvilleAt the second presidential election debate held in Japan, there were no irregular remarks, unlike the previous one, and measures against the new coronavirus andnorth koreaEach other argued and criticized various policy issues such as issues, racial discrimination and climate change countermeasures.[139]..On the issue of racism, Trump said, "No one has contributed to black as much as I do, except for former President Lincoln." "I'm the most non-discriminatory person in this room." "One of the most racist presidents in modern history is here," Viden criticized.[140].

May 11ToMain election of presidential electionIs implemented,May 11Biden was the main media in the morningClose battle state OfLast belt3 states (Pennsylvania,ミ シ ガ ン 州,Wisconsin), And it was reported that the election was confirmed because the number of elections who were sure to win reached the majority.In response, Biden declared victory that night and said, "I swear to be the president who unites rather than divides.State divided into red and blueInstead, to the president who sees the united state (the United States), to the president who strives with all his might to win the trust of all the people. "[141].May 11The winners of all 50 states were found, and Biden was the ground of the Rust Belt Sanshu and the Republican Party.ArizonaGeorgiaBut it's expected to win and win 306 electors (232 for Trump), media reports said.[142].

Incumbent presidentPlaying cardsDid not admit defeat and instructed ministries and agencies not to cooperate in the transition to power.(English editionHowever, concerns spread to the ruling and opposition parties that delays in procedures would adversely affect national security.May 11To(English editionApproves the transition procedure.Biden is now able to receive government funding and access to confidential information to prepare for a transition[143].

With 2020 states nationwide on December 12, 14District of ColumbiaElectoral Voting Was Held[16]..No elector voted for breach of pledge[144], President-elect confirmed with a majority of 306 electors[16].

In response to this result, Biden made another speech, expressing his recognition that the democratic system had withstood despite various attempts to overturn Trump's election results, saying, "The flames of democracy were long ago in this country. It was lit. It turned out that neither pandemic nor abuse of power could extinguish this flame. "" Democracy has won the fight for the soul of the United States. "And "it's time to turn the pages (from the Trump era) and get united and healed."[145]"Through this election campaign, I said I would be president of all Americans. I will work as hard for those who voted for me as well as for those who did not vote for me."[146] Said.

September 2020, 12PfizerBiontechDeveloped byCOVID-19 vaccine(Tozinameran) Received public vaccination[147].

From January 2021, 1 in both the House and SenateJoint meetingWas scheduled to be officially finalized, but the election results will not be accepted immediately after the start of parliament.Trump supporters turn into mobs and break into Congress and occupy CongressThere has occurred[148]..In response to the riot, Biden "has been exposed to unprecedented attacks on our democracy." "We rushed into the Capitol, broke windows, occupied offices and the US Senate, and were legally elected. Threatens the safety of lawmakers? This is not a protest, it's a rebellion. "[149].

Parliament was suspended due to the turmoil, but it resumed on the night of the 6th after the National Guard was mobilized to eliminate the invading Trump supporters, and the result of the electoral vote was approved and officially Biden on the early morning of the 7th. Was decided to win[150].

Preparing for the new Biden administration

After the final report of the presidential electionNew Biden administrationNominations for ministers are being made in sequence.Secretary of StateUnder the Obama administrationDeputy Secretary of StateServed asAntony Blinken[151],Secretary of DefenseFormer black army generalLloyd Austin[152],Treasury SecretaryToFederal Reserve Board(FRB) Former ChairJanet Yellen[153],Secretary of the InteriorIndigenous peopleNew mexicoCongressmanDeb Haaland[154],Attorney GeneralIs a liberal federal high judge who once failed to be the Supreme Court justice by the Obama administration in opposition to the Senate Republicans.Merrick Garland[155],Secretary of LaborToBoston Mayor(English edition[156],Secretary of TransportationToHomosexualityPerson (ゲ イ) Before professingSouth bendA young mayor who fought for a primary electionPete Buttigieg[157],Homeland Security SecretaryFormer Deputy Secretary of State for Hispanics(English edition[158],Health and Welfare SecretaryIs a Hispanic Attorney General of California(English edition[159],Secretary of AgricultureAlso served as Secretary of Agriculture in the Obama administrationTom Vilsack[160],Secretary of State InformationFormer CIA Deputy Secretary(English edition[161],Trade representativeToTaiwanOf the House of Representatives Revenue Committee Legal AdvisorCatherine Thai[162] Was unofficially decided.However, the appointment of these ministerial posts requires the consent of the Senate.[163].

White House Chief of StaffWas Biden's Chief of Staff during his time as Vice PresidentRon Klain[164], Responsible for comprehensive coordination of diplomacy and securityNational Security OfficerWas Biden's National Security Adviser during his time as Vice President.Jake SullivanWas nominated[158]..Was Secretary of State of the Obama administrationJohn Forbes KellyIs the President's Special Envoy for Climate Change[165] Was nominated for.A black woman who served as National Security Adviser and UN Ambassador during the Obama administration.Susan RiceBecomes the head of the domestic policy team[166]..Senate approval is not required for these personnel[163][166].

Biden said, "(The new administration) wants to be something that symbolizes the United States," and it is considered that the personnel are considered to ensure diversity such as gender and race.[158]..If the above personnel are approved by the Senate, Harland will be the first indigenous minister.[154]Buttigiegge is the first minister to publish homosexuality[167] Becomes

In addition, 2020 immediately after the confirmationMay 11In the new administrationNew coronavirusLead the measuresNew Coronavirus Advisory CommitteeAnnounced that it was founded.Consists of 13 experts, including epidemiologists, immunologists, and biological weapons defense experts[168].

2021May 1 OfGeorgiaWhether the Senate election final vote (2 seats) will allow the Democratic Party to take the initiative in both the House and Senate, or become a "twisted parliament"May 1It was attracting attention as an election for the future of the new Biden administration that was launched from[169]..Both President-elect Biden and incumbent President Donald Trump entered Georgia and delivered support speeches for their party candidates.Biden on the 4th of the previous dayAtlanta"(The New Year) got off to a terrible start," saying the Trump administration's slow distribution of the new coronavirus vaccine was "the president spends more time whining and complaining than dealing with the problem." "Tomorrow could be a new day for Atlanta, Georgia, and the United States," he said, saying that Democratic candidates would work to achieve a $ 2000 cash benefit for the public.[170]..After the ballot countingMay 1Both seats are Democratic candidates ((English edition(English edition) Was reported.The Democratic Party has gained a majority in the Senate, including a casting vote by the next Vice President Kamala Harris.The Democratic Party took control of the White House and both the House and Senate2009Since then[171].

On January 1, President Trump, who announced his absence from the presidential inauguration ceremony, welcomed his absence by saying, "He is a shame of the nation. It is good not to come."on the other hand,Mike Pence"It's an honor (if you attend)," he said of the Vice President.It will be the first time in 1869 years since 152 that the former president will not attend the inauguration of the new president.[172].."Impeachment is a parliamentary decision," he said, adding that "the impeachment is a parliamentary decision." It wasn't right. "[173].

The day before the inauguration of the presidentMay 1In a speech at the National Guard headquarters in the name of his late eldest son, Bo, in New Castle, Delaware, he said, "I'm sorry that Bo isn't here. I was able to introduce my son as president." Wipe[174].

President of the United States

With Kamala Harris in front of the Washington Parliament on January 2021, 1Presidential and Vice Presidential Inauguration CeremonyInaugurated as the 46th president[18]..After the oath, "I put all my heart into bringing America together and rebuilding it." "We once again learned that democracy is valuable. Democracy is fragile, and everyone. At this time, democracy has overcome. "" Let's write together an American story of hope, not fear, unity, not division, light, not darkness. "[18].

15 during the same dayPresidential decree[Annotation 4]Sign.Paris Agreement on Climate Change ControlReturn to, revoking construction approval for "Keystone XL Pipeline" to carry crude oil from Canada to the Midwestern United States,ア ラ ス カ 州NortheastArctic National Wildlife RefugeSuspension of leasing activities for oil and gas development in Japan, fuel efficiency standards for automobiles,methaneIndicated a shift to an environment-oriented policy, such as instructions for reviewing emission regulations[18].. However(English edition,ア ラ ス カ 州 OfMike DunleavyGovernorThere are criticisms from[18]. AlsoWHOCancellation of withdrawal from[176], Mandatory wearing masks and ensuring social distance in the federal government building,メキシコIncludes an order to lift the state of emergency, which was the basis for directing federal funding to the construction of the border wall with[18]..The following day, January 1, a total of 21 presidential orders aimed at accelerating vaccine supply in order to curb the spread of the new coronavirus infection.[Annotation 5]Signed[177].

By January 1nd, the White HouseThe Oval OfficeRemodeled in EnglandWinston ChurchillBust of the prime minister[Annotation 6]Was removed from the office and replaced by a Hispanic civil rights leader(English edition,Martin Luther KingPastor, younger brother of President Kennedy and Attorney GeneralRobert Kennedy, Civil rights activistRosa Parks,Franklin RooseveltPresident's wifeEleanor RooseveltBust was placed[178]..Also, the most prominent place above the fireplace was a portrait of Franklin Roosevelt's 32nd President (in the Trump era).George WashingtonPortrait of the first president).On both sidesThomas JeffersonConflict between the third president and then president JeffersonAlexander HamiltonPortraits of the Treasury Secretary were lined up. "The disagreement within the republic is a symbol of importance to democracy," explains the Biden administration.On the other side, with the first president of George Washington,Abraham LincolnPortraits of the 16th president were displayed in pairs[179].

Prioritize American products in government procurement on January 1(English editionExecutive order to strengthen the operation of[180] Signed[181].. On the 27th, he signed a series of executive orders on climate change measures, such as banning new drilling of oil and natural gas on public land and doubling offshore wind power generation by 2030. "Today is the White House's Climate Change Day," he said, adding that the United States "must lead" the global response to the climate change crisis.[182].. On January 1, he signed two executive orders aimed at expanding public health insurance coverage to "repair the damage caused by the former Trump administration."He also instructed federal agencies to review policies such as stricter eligibility for Medicaid (public health insurance for low-income earners) implemented under the Trump administration.[183].

On March 3, it signed and passed a $ 11 trillion new coronavirus additional economic measures bill.Regarding cash benefits, which are the pillar of additional measures, the White House estimates that approximately 1 million households will be eligible for benefits.[184].

On March 3, the promised 20 million vaccinations within 100 days were achieved in about 1 days.[185].

The first formal press conference since taking office on March 3, defining US-China relations as "the struggle between democracy and tyranny in the 26st century."China's ambition to become the world's largest power has stated that it will not do so as long as it is the president.The number of children trying to enter the United States from Mexico at the southern border has increased, and the Biden administration has changed the policy of the former Trump administration on the problem of being kept in the authorities' facility, and only children who are not accompanied by parents etc. can enter the country In response to the suspicion that it was because he began to admit, he explained that he would hurry to take measures such as securing facilities for temporary stays, and said, "I will not apologize for stopping the Trump administration's too inhumane policy." Stated[186]..He also denied at a press conference the rumor that he was planning to quit in the first term from his age, and showed his willingness to run in 1.[186].

On March 3, it announced a $ 31 trillion infrastructure plan under the name of "US Employment Plan."Biden says that if the plan goes through, it will create 2 million jobs.[187]..He also proposed raising the federal corporate tax, which the former Trump administration had reduced from 35% to 21%, to 28% as one of its financial resources. It is said that it will withdraw the tax cuts implemented by the Trump administration in 2017 for preferential treatment for wealthy people and large corporations, but the corporate tax increase is strongly opposed by opposition Republicans and corporate lobbyists in Washington, and 25 from moderate Democrats There is also a compromise that we can support if we raise it to%.[188].

On April 4th, it announced the first gun control policy aimed at controlling homemade guns called "ghost guns" that have no serial number and are difficult to track.It has indicated that it will also issue additional regulatory policies.The federal parliament is discussing a bill to tighten identification when buying guns, but the opposition Republican Party is against it, and the ruling Democratic Party is also cautious.From anti-regulatory opponentsUnconstitutionProceedings may be filed as[189].

On April 4, a statement was issued following a conviction in a trial of a former police officer charged with murder for killing George Floyd, saying, "Mr. Floyd will not return, but this verdict is It could be a big step forward in the fight for justice in the United States. "" We have to stop here for real reform and work harder to prevent a tragedy like this one from happening again. Don't forget Floyd's last word, "I can't breathe." It's time for a big change, "he said, calling for the need for racial discrimination and police reform.[190].

March 4Policy speech at the joint session of the Senate and SenateWas done.He took over the administration during the new corona crisis, but declared that "America has begun to move again" as it is getting out of the crisis in 100 days.Also in ChinaXi JinpingIs redefined as "tyrannical" and "they believe that democracy cannot compete with tyrannicalism in the 21st century" and reconcile domestically to win the competition with China. He emphasized the need for economic policies that would lead to the revival of the middle class.He called on the people to overcome divisions and unite in order to show the superiority of democracy. "What made this countryWall streetIt's not the middle class, "he said, showing his support for low- and middle-income workers.In addition to the $ 2 trillion infrastructure plan announced earlier, it has shown additional economic measures totaling $ 1.8 trillion centered on childcare and educational support, such as free child education.He said that the tax increase for the wealthy should be the main source of revenue, and demanded budgetary measures from Congress.[191].

Policy staff (Cabinet of the United States)

Statue

  • ReligionRoman Catholic..The entire family is Roman Catholic and is located in the Brandywine district of Grenville, Delaware.(English edition OfMassAttend regularly. As of 2021, Catholics who became president of the United States were inaugurated in 1961.John F. KennedyAnd Biden are the only two[193].
  • He professes not to drink alcohol at all.This is to his close relativesAlcoholismIs because it is widespread.By the way, I fought the presidential electionDonald TrumpIs known for not drinking alcohol at all for the same reason.
  • On the other hand, I love sweets, especially ice cream.[194]..By the way, his favorite type of ice cream is ice cream with chocolate chips.
  • When I was a kidStutteringHe was bullied by being nicknamed the slang "dash," which refers to saying only incomprehensible words.According to her sister, Biden read poetry into the mirror every day and worked hard to correct her pronunciation in order to cure stuttering.In an interview with Atlantic, he admits that he still has symptoms of stuttering as an adult.[195].
  • Every yearMay 12In memory of his first wife, Neria, and his eldest daughter, Naomi, who died in the car accident mentioned above, he does not do any work.
  • It is sometimes called a "survivor" because of its turbulent career as mentioned above.
  • In taking office as Vice Presidentsecret ServiceIs assigned a code name (a common name used by guards for wireless communication during guard missions), and the code name is "Celtic".this is,"CelticIt is a word that means "of Biden"Descendants of Irish immigrantsIt is based on the origin of.
  • Philadelphia PhilliesIs a fan of the Democratic Party of JapanJimmy RollinsHanded me a special uniform[196].
  • 2010May 3When President Obama signed the Health Insurance Reform Act, which paves the way for a universal health insurance system, he hugged Obama and was so happy that he didn't think "This is a big fucking deal!" Said. "FuckIs a very vulgar word in English, and the people involved were forced to put out the fire.[197].
  • 2 animalsGerman shepherd-Champ and MajorI have.After the 2008 presidential election, Champ was promised to choose a dog with his wife, Jill.Major in 2018DelawareTaken over by the Biden family through the animal protection group of[198]..These two dogs also entered the White House.Former President Trump was the first president in 2 years to have no pets, soFirst petThe tradition of "" has been revived.A spokesman for President Jill Biden told CNN TV that "Champ was enjoying a new bed by the fireplace and the majors liked running around the South Lawn."[199].
  • Since the days of the Senate and Vice PresidentAmtrakIt is said that he has traveled between his hometown and Washington about 8000 times.Therefore, it was nicknamed "Amtrak Joe". At the presidential inauguration ceremony on January 2021, 1, a plan to move from Wilmington, Delaware to the capital Washington using Amtrak was being considered, but it was canceled due to the attack on the Capitol.[200].

Relationship with Japan

Family / origin

Relatives

BidenEngland-France-Irish descentBorn as the eldest son of four siblings born to the blood-sucking real estate agent Joseph Biden Sr. and his Irish wife Catherine Eugene "Jean" Biden (formerly Finnegan), with two younger brothers and a younger sister. There is one.He also has two sons and one daughter with his first wife, Neria, and one daughter with his second wife, Jill.His close relatives are:

  • Joseph Robinet Biden Sr.: Father (1915-2002).
  • Kathleen Eugenia “Gene” Finnegan: Mother (1918-2010)[215]).
  • James Brian Byden: Brother.
  • Francis W. Biden: Brother.
  • Valerie Byden Owens: Sister.
  • Neilia Hunter: First wife. Bereavement in a traffic accident in 1972.
  • Joseph Robinette “Beau” Biden III: Eldest son (1969-2015).DelawareAttorney GeneralServed.Died of a brain tumor[216]..Democrat.
  • Robert Hunter Biden: Second son (1970-).LovingOffice Older Biden & BlairLLPCo-founder andAmtrakVice-chairman of the Management Committee of.
  • Naomi Christina Biden: The eldest daughter (1971-1972).As mentioned above, he died in a car accident with Neria.
  • Jill Tracy Jacobs Biden: Second wife.Second lady(2009-2017)
  • Ashley Blazer Biden: Second daughter (1981-).CurrentlySocial workerWork as.

ancestor

Biden's paternal Biden family was the generation of his grandfather William Biden.1822ToThe United Kingdom-England-SussexFrom AmericaMarylandIs a house that immigrated to[217][218]..The family name "Biden" came to be seen in England13st centuryAnd this surname isOld frenchIt seems to be derived from Buton, which means Button.11st century OfNorman ConquestIt is thought that the family name has entered England since then.[219].

Biden's maternal Finnegan family was in the days of his mother's great-grandfather OwenアイルランドIt is a house that immigrated to the United States from[219]..Also for my mother Catherine's maternal grandfather(English editionParliamentarian(English editionThere is.His father Edward Brewitt (Edward Blewitt) Is1851At that timeThe United KingdomWas under ruleアイルランド-Mayo-(English editionIreland from the United States to escape famine and povertyニ ュ ー ヨ ー クWas an Irish immigrant who emigrated to[220].

Irish blood is also flowing from my father's genealogy[219], Genealogist(English editionAccording to Biden, "about five-eighths of Irish blood" is inherited.[220].

That's why Ireland got excited after Biden won the presidential election.Irish Prime MinisterMicheál MartinIs one of the first leaders to congratulate Biden, ignoring Trump, who does not admit defeat, after Biden's belief was reported.[220]..According to Prime Minister Martin, he is "the Irish-American president since John F. Kennedy."[220]..Biden himself was a Vice President2016I visited Ballina, Ireland for the first time, and deepened exchanges with relatives who remained there.The family of Irish Joe Brewitt, whose father is Biden's "my cousin"White HouseHe has a relative relationship with Biden, such as being invited to.According to him, Biden has promised to visit his hometown of Ireland again.[221].

Policy stance / main activities

Basic position

Democratic PartyWithinCentristWhen he was a senator, he was more liberal than 51 percent of Democrats.Of liberal supportersAmericans for Democratic Action(American's for Demo Classic Action) awarded a liberal score of 80 percent, while a conservative group American Conservative Union Was awarded a maintenance score of 13 percent.

外交

In the field of diplomacy, which he is most good at, he makes various remarks and policy proposals, and also shows one side of the activist, such as visiting each country.

Basic stance

He is a follower of international liberalism (liberal internationalism) and is reflected in his foreign policy stance.In the Senate, he is a Republican leader who also advocates liberal internationalism.Jesse HelmsHe often voted with both senators (Helms is the deceased), which often violated the policy of his party, the Democratic Party.

After the presidential election2020May 11"The United States is back," "not only by power, but also as an example and leading the world." "Leading rather than turning away from the world. Opposing hostile nations and keeping allies away. Of our values. I will stand up for this, "he said, breaking away from Trump's American first principle and returning to the leadership of the international community.Rule of law-Democracy-human rights such asDiplomacyAnd showed a policy of emphasizing allies[222].

First big stage

What made Biden so famous1979ToSecond strategic weapons restriction negotiationThis is a series of activities related to (SALT II). SALT II1979Toオーストリア OfViennaIn the United StatesJimmy CarterWith the presidentUSSR OfLeonid BrezhnevIt was signed between the general secretaries and only waited for the approval and ratification of the federal parliament.However, in the original draft, it was a difficult situation to get approval for more than two-thirds of the number of members required for ratification, and the Senate executives had difficulty responding, and although it was expected that approval could be obtained by adding an amendment. The addition of the amendment required the approval of the partner country, the Soviet Union.So the executive department was one of the second young senators at the time, just for the sake of it.MoscowTo Biden, who was supposed to go to, the Soviet Union at that timeAndrei GromuikoHe entrusted him with the important task of negotiating with the Foreign Minister and obtaining consent to add amendments.At that time, Gromyko took the nickname of "Mr. Niet" ("Niet" means "NO" in Russian) because of his strong bargaining stance.DiplomatThis mission was a heavy burden for the young member of the Diet, Biden.But in the end, he succeeded in getting Gromyko of "Mr. Niet" to approve the addition of the amendment.After all, SALT II started at the end of the same yearSoviet invasion of AfghanistanRejected ratification by Congress due to1985Despite the expiration date, without the invasion of Afghanistan, approval by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which was the biggest challenge, was certain.In other words, it was such a "big Venus".This success was subsequently booked in various fields such as bargaining.[223] But it is taken up.

Kosovo problem

Biden is especially on the Balkan PeninsulaKosovoActively tackled the issue of conflict in Japan, which attracted international attention in the 1990s.Bill ClintonHe is known for his efforts to influence the president's policies.While he repeatedly visits conflict areasKosovo ConflictAt the timeユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ アBeing presidentSerbianWas also a representative of the forcesThrobodan MilosevicHe struggled to resolve the dispute, such as holding a confidential meeting at midnight and trying to resolve the situation.

The decision to directly intervene in the NATO army in the Kosovo WarBosnia and Herzegovina ConflictThe experience at is involved.Around 5, during the Bosnian-Herzegovina conflict that occurred about five years before the Kosovo conflict, it became difficult to overcome the situation through negotiations.MuslimsLedEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euLifting the arms embargo on the government and investigating war crimes,NATO armyWill appeal to the government for active intervention, mainly the implementation of air strikes by the government.The recommendation at this time isClintonPresident in 1999Kosovo crisisWas executed at the timeOperation Allied ForceIt was an important opportunity to allow armed sanctions and interventions against systematic human rights violations against Albanian residents, mainly by Serbian forces.He also expressed his willingness to defend the US direct attack on Serbia during the Kosovo crisis, empowering President Clinton to use "every necessary force" against Serbia in collaboration with Republicans who support it. The "McCain-Biden-Kosovo Resolution" was passed.Biden himself wrote in his autobiography published for the presidential campaign that his activities were "the most proud achievements in foreign policy."

Policy toward the Middle East

The relationship between Biden and Iraq1991ToGulf WarIt was the first time that he opposed the use of force against Iraq in Japan.

2003Started fromIraq warInGeorge W. BushWhen the administration announced that it would use force, it showed its willingness to accept it, and voted in favor of the aforementioned "Resolution to allow the use of force against Iraq."However, the Bush administration aimedSaddam HusseinHe expressed opposition to the exclusion of the dictatorship.It also allows the Bush administration to act unilaterally and "preemptive strikes for self-defense."Bush doctrineIs also criticized.In this way, while criticizing the Bush administration, at firstIraq warBiden was positive about the start of the war, but when the situation in Iraq became swamped after that, he turned to the opposite.2007He also opposed the government's initial bill to increase the number of US troops in Iraq.

Biden has long advocated the so-called "Iraq 3 division plan" as a means of collecting the Iraq war and the confusion and civil war that accompany it.This plan is for Iraq respectivelyShiite-Sunni-KurdishDivided into areas of, consisting of these three areasFederal stateIt is a thing to do.The above-mentioned "Iraq division resolution" is the one that officially proposed this proposal as a counter-measure to the above-mentioned US military increase bill.In proposing this resolution, he is the same Iraqi divisionist as Biden.Republican Party OfSam brownbackThe senator also expressed his support and was named as a co-sponsor.This resolution is2007May 9In the Senate, it was approved by a majority of 75 to 23.

After the birth of the Obama administration aiming to withdraw troops from Iraq, President Obama said, "Joe, you're going to Iraq (Joe, you do Iraq) ”, And Vice President Biden will be in charge of the Iraq issue.[224]..Since then, Biden has visited Iraq eight times by 2012 and was involved in the Iraqi issue until the U.S. military withdrew from Iraq in 8.[78][79].

Leftist candidate at the debate on the presidential candidate nomination battle on January 2020, 1Bernie Sanders"Biden agreed with the 2002 Iraq War approval resolution," he criticized.In response, Biden said, "It was a mistake to trust that they (then Bush Republican government) said they would not enter the war." "They said they would just send inspectors. In fact, the world He has decided to send an inspector and still has entered the war, "he explained, explaining that he had worked on the return of the army as Vice President of President Obama, and other on the stage about his subsequent actions. He said he was ready to compare with the candidate[225].

Former Secretary of DefenseRobert GatesCriticized Biden in his memoirs, "for the past 40 years, he has been wrong on almost all major diplomatic and national security issues."He points out that he opposed the Gulf War based on the UN resolution, the response to the Iraq war, the intensification of terrorism with the withdrawal of Iraq in 2011, and the opposition to the increase in Afghanistan as "mistakes" of Byden.[226].

Kori Sheikh, a foreign policy expert at the Institute for Public Policy, said Biden's diplomacy was better than Trump's diplomacy, but "lacked a consistent philosophy of when and how to use military power." And continuing to advocate the wrong foreign policy should not be overlooked. "[226].

Israeli Prime Minister after the presidential election in November 2020Benjamin NetanyahuBiden promised to "firmly support Israel's security and the future of Jews as a democracy," but Biden is opposed to the Trump administration's review of Israeli shoulder diplomacy and Israel's opposition.Iran nuclear agreementThere is uncertainty about future US-Israel relations as he is eager to return to[227][228].

On January 2021, 1, Chargé d'Affaires Mills announced that the new Biden administration supported the "two-state coexistence" of Israel and Palestine, revived the Palestinian humanitarian aid significantly reduced by the former Trump administration, and closed the diplomatic mission. Also revealed that it will resume.Clarified the stance of changing the Middle East policy of the former Trump administration, where extreme pro-Israeli diplomacy was prominent, and strengthening involvement with the Palestinian side.[229].

Regarding the Iran nuclear agreement, which the former Trump administration left in 2018, he said he would return if Iran complies with the nuclear agreement, and the French presidentEmmanuel MacronOffers to act as an intermediary[230]..However, since the Trump administration imposed economic sanctions such as the embargo on Iran's crude oil after the agreement was withdrawn, Iran has repeatedly deviated from the agreement, such as exceeding the upper limit of uranium enrichment, so Secretary of State Blinken is currently in the situation. Iran said, "In many ways it hasn't followed the rules and (return) is a long way to go."Even if Iran decides to comply with the agreement, it is expected that it will take time to evaluate (performance of obligations), and it is cautious about returning early.[231].

On February 2021, 2, the U.S. military carried out an air strike on Syria's "pro-Iranian militia", the first military operation under the Biden administration.[232]..According to U.S. officialsLloyd AustinPresident Biden allegedly decided with the advice of the Secretary of Defense[233].

On April 4, he announced that he would withdraw the Afghan troops by September, stating that "it is time to end the longest war in US history."He also touched on China, saying, "We should support (improve) the competitiveness of the United States to deal with fierce competition," and expressed his intention to shift the focus of security from the war on terrorism to China.[234].

Effective control of Gaza Strip in Palestine in early MayIslamic fundamentalism組織HamasIn the event of an armed conflict between Israel and Israel, while supporting Israel's right to self-defense[235], Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Authority Chairman Abbas talked over the phone to work to ease tensions, and on May 5, a ceasefire agreement was reached through Egyptian mediation.Biden said that Netanyahu had agreed to a ceasefire with Hamas, an Islamic fundamentalist organization that effectively controls Gaza Strip, praised the decision to end the conflict and expressed his intention to urgently provide humanitarian assistance to Gaza.[236]..But former president Trump and others said, "(In the days when Trump was president) those who were against Israel knew that they would be immediately rewarded if they attacked Israel because the United States was determined to be with Israel." Biden's weakness and lack of support for Israel are causing new attacks on our allies. "[237].

Policy toward Europe

Biden had a series of telephone talks with European leaders on November 11 after the presidential election was confirmed, telling reporters that "the United States is back. Returning to the (diplomatic) game." "[238].Germany OfAngela MerkelTo the prime ministerNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)European UnionWe will strive to strengthen US-Europe relations through the (EU). "Emmanuel MacronThe president is the development of Africa,(I.e.situation,(I.e.He said he had discussed cooperation on nuclear issues, etc.[238].

The Trump administration took a position to downplay its allies with "America First", but it was the European countries that suffered the most.European countries have requested an increase in defense spending from European countries, withdrew voluntarily from northeastern Syria in 2019 without notifying European countries, and decided to reduce US troops stationed in Germany in 2020. It was intensifying its opposition to the United States.US-Europe relations continue to deteriorate under the Trump administration,North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) fell into a state of disagreement until it was described as "brain dead" (French President Emmanuel Macron), and there was a widespread sense of security crisis that it would give Russia and China a chance to take advantage of it.[239].

For that reason, European countries have high expectations for Byden, who won the 2020 presidential election with an emphasis on alliances.[239].. NATOJens StoltenbergThe Secretary-General lifted Biden as "I know he is a strong supporter of the alliance."[240].

In Europe, which values ​​multilateralism, Trump has withdrawn.Paris AgreementAnd Iran nuclear agreement,whoThere are also strong voices requesting a return to the United States such as (WHO).Ursula von der LyenThe European Commission emphasized that "Europe and the United States have supported the international order of liberalism based on rules," and expressed his willingness to cooperate with the Biden administration on various policy issues such as corona and environmental issues.In the trade field as well, it is expected that the friction between the United States and Europe, which has intensified under the Trump administration, will be resolved, but there are also views that Biden is wary of strengthening protectionism by giving priority to domestic economic recovery.[240].

Biden is in the UKBoris JohnsonIn a telephone conversation with the Prime Minister, he expressed opposition to reinstate border security between Ireland and Northern Ireland over Brexit.He argued that the Northern Ireland peace agreement should be respected and the border between Northern and Northern Ireland should be kept open rather than closed.It also warned that a trade agreement with the United States would not be realized if border security was reinstated.[241][242]..The peace agreement was at that timeBill ClintonBiden had mentioned this issue even before he was elected president, as it was realized with the help of the president and other American politicians, and on Twitter in September 2020, "Peace in Northern Ireland. The Good Friday agreement brought about cannot be sacrificed for Brexit. "[242]..Biden once criticized Johnson as a "clone" of Trump "physically and mentally".[243].

Although it is a member of NATOトルコBiden is likely to be in a difficult position.Turkish PresidentRecep Tayyip ErdoganIs said to have had a relatively close relationship with Trump due to poor relations with the EU.2019In December Biden criticized Erdogan by name, calling him a "dictator."[239].

British Prime Minister Johnson on January 2021, 1 after taking office[243], French President Emmanuel Macron on January 1th[244], German Chancellor Merkel on January 1[245], NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg on January 1th[246] They held their first telephone summit meetings with each other, emphasizing NATO and the EU, and informing them that they would cooperate with Europe on common security issues and environmental issues such as Russia, China, Iran and Afghanistan. On February 2, the former Trump administration announced that it had frozen plans to reduce about 4 of the 3 US troops in Germany, which were decided on the grounds of "US first."The reduction plan is perceived by the German people as Trump's retaliation against Chancellor Angela Merkel, and it is also the first large-scale reduction plan for the U.S. military stationed in an ally, and there are concerns about its impact on security. Ta[247].

In a telephone conversation with British Prime Minister Johnson on March 3, China-led economic zone "One belt one roadIn response to this, he expressed the idea that democracies need to cooperate to promote development support in developing countries.[248].

April 4, Queen of EnglandElizabeth IIPrince consortDuke of EdinburghPhilip"His Highness is t