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🌏 | Southeastern US, gasoline shortage worsens 6th day after the largest pipeline shutdown


Southeastern U.S. Gasoline Shortage Severe Six Days After Stopping Largest Pipeline

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Gasoline prices have also risen, with unleaded gasoline prices averaging over $ 1 per gallon, the highest since October 3, according to the American Automobile Association (AAA).

[Reuters] – Manipulation of Colonial Pipeline, the largest US pipeline after a large-scale cyberattack ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Lead-free(Muenka) causes chronic poisoning when accumulated in the bodyleadDo not use.Lead-free(Is it round free?),Deleading(Datsuenka),Lead-freeAlso called (Hienka).

Example of lead use

Lead has a low melting point and is easy to process.RomeIt has been used from the times to the present.Lead compounds have good color development.PigmentUsed asgasolineWas used as a modifier for.

Use as metal

Lead as a metal is soft and easy to process, soRoman EmpireIn timesWineIt is used as a mug to drink[1], For household water distribution in Japanwater pipeAsShowaUntilLead pipeIt was often used as.It is easy to process and has a large specific gravity, so it is still most often used as a fishing weight.Also lowMelting pointSo it's easy to melt and make a metal sphere of the desired size, in the 1500smatchlockUsed as a bullet forshotgunIt is used as a bullet for.TinWithalloyIsSolderIs an indispensable material for electrical and electronic parts because it has a low melting point and good adhesion to other metals (so-called).SolderingUses).Lead batteryIt is still used in large quantities as a material for.

Use as a lead compound

Lead carbonate has been around since ancient timeswhiteAs a pigment (lead white)White powderHas been used in.Japan alsoEdo PeriodからMeiji EraHowever, it became cheap and mass-produced, but due to its toxicity, white lead was no longer used after the Meiji era.Trilead tetroxide The"Red"As a pigment ofLead chromateWas used as a yellow pigment.Tetraethyl lead Thegasoline OfOctane numberIt was an indispensable material in the past as an antiknock agent to improve (→Leaded gasoline).Of the originalCrystal glassIs the lead glass itself and contains more than 24% lead oxide.CRTLead is also used for the glass on the back side of the.

Lead toxicity

Lead is not very strong as an acute poison (as a soluble salt), but even small doses can cause chronic poisoning if accumulated in the body (→Lead poisoning)[Note 1]..Lead accumulated in the body inhibits the action of various enzymes, but in particular, it inhibits the action of synthetic enzymes, causing symptoms such as anemia, colic and neuropathy.Famous Kabuki actors of the Meiji era5 generationNakamura UtaemonWas a Kabuki actor who acted while being affected by lead poisoning caused by white powder.It should be noted that metallic lead itself is stable and does not dissolve from glass, and it is extremely unlikely that these substances will directly harm the human body.On the contrary, leaded gasoline is colored to call attention because it is easily absorbed into the body when it takes the form of an organic compound.

Situation of lead-free

In the past, it has been deleaded from substances with obvious toxicity, and white powder was deleaded at the end of the Meiji era.Gasoline is also in Japan1987Achieved complete lead-free[3](Except for aviation).Lead pipes used for water pipes until the early Showa period have been replaced one after another (lead elution in water pipes is small, and this does not cause poisoning).Currently the most advanced in environmental issues in industryEU OfWEEE Directive, Especially "Directive to restrict the use of specified hazardous substances" (RoHS Directive) AndELV directiveLead according tocadmiumWe are switching to products that reduce the use of[4].

Gasoline lead-free

4 ethyl leadTetraalkyl lead, typified by, improves the combustion state of gasoline in the engine.Antiknock agentAs of gasolineOctane numberIt was an indispensable material for improvement.That is, the higher the octane number of gasoline, the more lead compounds (toxic) were mixed, and it was colored red to call attention.The degree of coloration was adjusted by the lead content, with regular gasoline having a light red color and high-octane gasoline having a deep red color.

The reason for the lead-free measures in Japan is1970In Shinjuku-ku, TokyoUshigome Yanagicho"What happened at the intersectionUshigome Yanagimachi lead poisoning caseInitially, the cause was exhaust gas.[Note 2]..After that, Ministry of International Trade and Industry (currentlyMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry), And regular gasoline1975Achieved lead-free[3], High octane gasoline1987Achieved complete lead-free[3]..Currently, gasoline for automobiles is colored orange.

Improvement of the engine is also indispensable for making gasoline unleaded, and automobile manufacturers have developed engines with unleaded gasoline specifications and repaired old type engines.Lead is used to purify exhaust gascatalystThe lead-free gasoline was significant in addition to eliminating the health hazards caused by lead, because it poisons the gasoline and reduces its performance.In developing countries, some countries still use leaded gasoline, which is an environmental problem.[Note 3].

Lead-free according to the Food Sanitation Law

Regarding products used in ordinary households, there are varieties that are self-regulated by industry groups in accordance with the Food Sanitation Law, and the use of lead compounds is restricted to the regulated value or less in that field.As for tableware, plastic tableware has been made lead-free in accordance with the Food Sanitation Law.The Japan Toy Association has set the ST mark and applied it to toys that are safe for infants to eat.Considering that printed matter often wraps food, the Printing Ink Industry Association prepares a negative list (NL) for raw materials that should not be used for such inks and self-regulates them.In the 1980s, the above industries regulated in accordance with the Food Sanitation Law, but the field of traditional crafts, which did not take this aspect into consideration until now, has begun to become lead-free.[Note 4].

However, the lead-free operation of such an industrial test site is an actual theoretical logic, and it is not always realistic in terms of durability and vividness for a venerable kiln to use lead-free glaze.For example, for the glaze that develops red color, iron is sufficient for lead glaze.Even if it is a lead-free glaze, red glaze using gold as a coloring agent has been developed in Kutani.However, it also leads to the inability to purchase from regions other than Kutani, the difference in color, and above all, the denial of traditional culture itself.It is important to consider that many of these negative aspects are difficult to resolve compared to other use cases.[Original research?]

Lead-free to comply with EU regulations, etc.

EU(European Union) IsIndustrial wasteVarious advanced environmental measures are being implemented as measures against processing problems.Since the EU is an important export destination for Japanese manufacturers, we are conducting world-leading research to clear regulations.RoHS DirectiveIt is,2006Lead and electrical products sold in the EU after Julymercury-cadmium-Hexavalent chromiumThe amount of heavy metals and specific chemical substances used is limited, and lead-free soldering has been achieved as a typical technology for clearing this regulation (→Lead-free solder).

After that, following the RoHS Directive in each country, JapanJ-MOSS(However, it is not a usage regulation, only a usage label is required)Chugoku OfElectronic Information Product Production Contamination Prevention Control LawThere are more and more cases of original laws and regulations.Of these, regarding the Electronic Information Product Production Contamination Prevention Control Law, there is no provision for exclusion items when there is no appropriate alternative means permitted by the RoHS Directive, that is, the high level that was not covered by the RoHS Directive.Melting pointLead-containing solder and lead in electronic ceramic parts are also subject to regulation, and manufacturers are busy dealing with them.

またELV directiveSince July 2003, will reduce the amount of lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium used to 7ppm or less of the weight of automobiles and the amount of cadmium used to 1000ppm or less as a measure against waste of scrapped automobiles (to this lead). Does not include the battery).Regarding lead in this regulation, the technical points are to make the above solder lead-free and paint-free, and lead-based pigments that had been used in large quantities in automobile paints until then1998The adoption of lead-free types began in sequence from2007At the time of, it is almost switched[Note 5].

Fields with little progress in lead-free

As for fishing weights, some manufacturers have begun to sell products that use iron or tungsten instead of lead.However, iron and tungsten have a higher melting point than lead, and because they are hard, they are difficult to process and tend to be expensive as a result (especially tungsten is expensive as a material itself), and the soft characteristics of lead such as plate weights and kamitsubushiomori. At present, it is not completely lead-free because the types that make use of it are used in various types of fishing.

Shotgun bullets have been pointed out by environmental groups and will not be used for waterfowl (USA), and a hunting zone will be established that prohibits the use of lead bullets (Japan).Clay shootingSome countries have regulated lead ammunition, such as switching to soft iron ammunition (Nordic countries), but there is no movement to switch over.Currently as lead-free ammunitioncopper, Soft iron (soft steel),tungstenIn the case of bullets, the flight distance and power will change depending on the specific gravity of the material of the bullet itself, and the number of barrels and the high risk of ricochet will also be affected by the hardness of the material. Therefore, because it has a very heavy specific gravity, it has excellent flight distance and power, and because of its unique softness, it has low aggression to the barrel and the risk of ricochet.[Note 6]Complete switching of lead, which has advantages, is not an easy task.It is physically difficult to cover the ammunition with a relatively soft copper coating, and it is extremely difficult to produce lead-free ammunition that meets all the requirements, especially for hunting shots with small grains. It is also an issue.In recent years, in order to drastically solve the drawbacks of conventional lead-free ammunition, the specific gravity and hardness are similar to lead.BismuthShotguns have emerged, but they have not yet become a replacement for lead in terms of price.

ClimbingOf supplieslanthanum,Portable stoveInsidekeroseneSome use liquid fuels such as lead O-rings, which are still used as joints for such equipment.Lead is easily deformed to exhibit strong airtightness, and it is difficult to damage the members of the joint.Since these devices adopt a structure that continuously vaporizes liquid fuel with the heat of their own flame, high pressure is applied to the joint. At the same time, it is assumed that extremely high heat will be applied, so the replacement of materials such as water pipes and equipment that uses liquefied gas has not progressed much.

For professionals (for professionals)PaintColoring, opacity, light resistance, robustness,Physicality, Lead and cadmium compound pigments are used with priority given to many extremely important performances such as materiality, drying characteristics, coloring power, and drawing feeling.Some companies in China are less aware of environmental issues, and lead compounds may be used in fields that have already been lead-free in Europe, the United States and Japan.As an example, it has been reported that leaded pigments were detected in paints for toys for infants (Chinese product safety issuesSee).Similarly, the paint industry as a whole is already lead-free, despite the fact that it is already lead-free.Chrome yellowAs well,White leadIs also left.Besides leadmercury,cadmium,cobalt, Hexavalentク ロ ムThere are still a lot of pigments containing, and we are not in a situation where we can say that we are highly aware of environmental issues.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ About lead toxicity[2]
  2. ^ However, as a result of investigations in the process of unleading gasoline, it has been found that there is almost no direct actual harm caused by using leaded gasoline in automobiles.
  3. ^ Description of Nissan Leaded Gasoline[5]
  4. ^ Lead-free Kutani ware[6]
  5. ^ About paints for automobiles[7]
  6. ^ Furthermore, there is a low risk of injury such as broken teeth even if you bite into the meat of your prey and chew it while eating.


  1. ^ Shinji Funayama 2003.
  2. ^ "Lead | Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health". Aichi (September 2010, 3). 2007th of February 12Browse.
  3. ^ a b c Fuel oil quality regulation and response process, Cosmo Oil (PDF)
  4. ^ Noriyuki Wakisaka 2006.
  5. ^ "About leaded gasoline specifications". Punch material collection (in the "Cedric / Gloria 230 Handbook" site). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  6. ^ "Completely lead-free Kutani ware painting products (development of lead-free opaque paints) / Ishikawa Prefectural Industrial Research Institute". 2018th of February 4Browse.
  7. ^ Masafumi Kume. “Evolution of car paints and painting methods". JAMAGAZINE April 2007 issue. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.As of August 2007, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007th of February 12Browse.


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