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🌏 | Baidu, China, 1% increase in sales in the first quarter AI and cloud business contributed


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Baidu, China, 1% increase in sales in the first quarter AI and cloud business contributed

 
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Baidu has entered fields such as cloud services, AI, and autonomous driving to diversify its sources of income.
 

[Reuters] – China's Internet search giant Baidu announced on the XNUMXth the first quarter ... → Continue reading

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Cloud computing

Cloud computing(British: cloud computing) IsインターネットSuch asComputer networkViaComputerresourceTheServicesIt is a usage form provided in the form of[1]. For shortク ラ ウ ドOften called, cloud is in English(I.e.Means. With the global spread of the cloud, online users will be able to receive the services they need, when they need them, streamline all operations, and enhance the creativity of society.

the term

First used as a term in 1996 CompaqIs said to be in-house materials[2].

A shape similar to a “cloud” was created in 1977. ARPANET,[3],Year 1981 CSNETで[4], Used to represent a network of computer equipment, both of which laterインターネットDeveloped into. The term "cloud" refers to the InternetMetaphorHas been used as. The term "cloud" was used in 1993. Distributed computingWas also used in the field of[5].

Overview

conventionallyOn-premisesThe main method was to own and operate the IT infrastructure hardware itself in the organization. On the other hand, in this method, the user receives various information processing services from an information system owned by an external organization via a network such as the Internet. What the user needs is a minimum connection environmentPersonal computer,Mobile information terminalSuch asclient, And the service usage fee. A group of computers that actually perform most of the processing (server, Storage, etc.) on the service provider sideData centerIt is installed inside, and the service provider side carries out the asset management and operation and maintenance of them.

The user interface is mainlyWeb applicationIt is provided in the form of.1995 OfインターネットImmediately after the commercial use ofApplication service providerTrial and error has been done with a similar form such asJava appletThe format depended on vendor specific technology such as.2005Begins withAjaxIn the boom ofWeb applicationAfter great potential was found in2006ToGoogle OfCEOIsEric SchmidtAdvocated by.

Services provided in this form are referred to as "cloud computing services" or simply "Cloud service".The service provider is "ク ラ ウ ドService providerOr just "Cloud providerAlso called. As a new paradigm, "Sky Computing"[6], The service when the network is closer to the device is called "fog computing" or "edge computing"[7].. The edge is the outer edge of the network,Content delivery networkThe closest business user to your accessMirror serverIs a typical example.

Wide network access, rapid adaptability, measured service, on-demand self-service, and resource pooling are key characteristics.National Institute of Standards and Technology Defined by (NIST)[8].. NIST explains:[9].

Network, server,storage,ア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ン, A shared pool of configurable computing resources such as services, andon-demandIt is one of the models in which it can be accessed and quickly provided and utilized with minimal administrative effort or interaction between service providers. This cloud model isUsabilityAnd consists of 5 basic characteristics, 3 service models, and 4 deployment models[10]. — National Institute of Standards and Technology

In the case of the full cloud system, it is sufficient if the terminal and the Internet connection environment are prepared, and it becomes possible to simplify the internal IT equipment. Therefore, mainly for small and medium-sized enterprises with mobility, companies that simplify the internal IT equipment by selecting a method of connecting to a business system on the cloud from a lightweight notebook PC to perform business are rapidly increasing. The adoption of the full cloud system has made it possible to diversify working styles and is also useful in promoting remote work. Since the latter half of the 2010s, we have been aiming for the full digitalization of human work.Digital transformation (DX)Is booming.

Prehistory

2006Similar attempts have been made before the proposal of, but the social impact of this method was not obtained due to the limitations of processing performance and line speed.

1980 eraAlsoValue Added Network (VAN)Existed. However, in the 1980s, communication lines were expensive and slow, and the technical specifications were not standardized, so they were used only to a limited extent so that they could be introduced as one element of business.

Sort

Classification by service provided

The classification according to the type of service provided is as follows.

Classification by arrangement form

The classification according to the arrangement form (deployment) is as follows.

  • Public cloud --General services via the Internet. In a narrow sense, it refers only to the public cloud. Services provided online.[11]The point is a service that partially lends the cloud.
  • Private cloud --Companies build and install an environment using this technology in-house,IntranetA form used by the user department via, for example. In the case of own assets such as data centers and servers,ア ウ ト ソ ー シ ン グThere are also cases such as procurement. Compared to the public cloud, investment and operation management are required, but security and asset protection can be strengthened.
  • Hybrid cloud -A form that combines the above public cloud and private cloud. It is possible to use and cooperate according to requirements such as business, data and security.

Utilization technology

The main technologies used internally to realize this method are as follows.

The use of computer resources via networks has been carried out since the dawn of computers in the 1950s, and is basically not a new technology. Traditional examples and terms includemain frameProvide hourly calculation service via network usingValue-added communication network(VAN), orApplication service provider,Network computing,Utility computing, SaaS, etc. exist.

However, behind the spread of the term and service form called "cloud computing" since the 2000s,Open standardThe fact that the procedure common to all over the world has been established and spread has been great. For example, the development of the Internet and Internet-related technologies, variousstandardization, The speed and cost reduction, and on the provider side, the use of servers and software with less restrictions on specific manufacturers due to the spread of open source technology, at various levelsVirtualizationSharing of computing resources by technology and realization of flexible provision according to each user. Conventional similar services are not open due to barriers between services and technical barriers, and the procedure to start using them is complicated, and even if it is the widest, information can only be transmitted within the service to be used. , Anyone in the world can use it with easy procedures, and cooperation between services is easy, which is a big step forward.

Depending on the provider's requirements, depending on the provider, a dedicated line connection may be used instead of via the Internet, and not via virtualization.Bare metal(Physical server unit), original technology,Quality of ServiceDifferentiated by adopting or using a service fee system according to the actual service level. A large-scale provider installs huge data centers in multiple locations around the world and connects them with high-speed lines to improve availability such as disaster countermeasures.Multi national companyUser companies, such as, need only connect to the nearest access point and do not need their own international line.

History

The term was first used in 2006 by Google CEO OfEric SchmidtIs said to be byGoogle App Engine,Amazon EC2It was popularized around 2006 and 2008 when, etc. appeared.

However, the form of “providing computer processing in the form of a service via a network” has existed in the past.1960From the generationTime sharing systemSuch asData centerUtilization (sharing a centralized virtual environment remotely via a network and charging as a service on a pay-as-you-go or flat-rate basis),1980TeenagerVAN,1991From aroundインターネットBased onASP, And even SaaS. Generally, of these, those that mainly provide the use of packaged software have come to be called SaaS.

It is said that the historical changes in the usage of computers are as follows.

  1. main frameCentralized processing in its heyday
  2. Distributed system(Open system)Client serverDistributed processing such as
  3. インターネットNew centralized processing centered on network
  4. Globally distributed users receive services without being aware of servers (cloud computing)

For example, it is a representative Japanese automobile companyToyotaIn the case of, even before this method was generalizedToyotaIT assetsIntranetでToyota groupAbout 4,000 companies (supplier, Stores, etc.,networkIt provides an environment where the system can be used via.

The chronology since the SaaS terminology has been generalized is shown below.

Similar terms

There are more similar concepts and terms than before, just paraphrasing orBuzz wordThere are many claims that it is.20084 Sun MicrosystemsCEO Jonathan Schwartz said, "What is the cloud?Network computingWas rephrased with a new word." CEO of Oracle in September 2008Larry EllisonCriticized, "We've already done it, the advertising phrase has changed."[20]. It is also argued that there are many companies that the management team leads and promotes on-site technologists on the basis of "I do not know what it is, but it seems to be an industry trend".[21].

On the other hand, unlike the conventional concept, there is a view that opportunities to utilize large-scale infrastructure are open to individuals and small groups, which may lead to social change.[22].

From the point of view of system configurationNetwork computingFrom a provider perspectiveApplication service provider, From the perspective of software provision form, SaaS, from the perspective of billing methodUtility computingIt can be considered that such systems and services are called "clouds" from the user's point of view.

The existing similar terms include the following.

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Baidu

Baidu(Baidu,pinyin: Bǎidù) IsPeople's Republic of ChinaThe largest inSearch engineI will provide aCompanyIs.Founded20001. Head office北京市In百度 百科,Hundred degree input methodEtc. are also provided.

In the global search engine marketGoogleSecond place aftercomScoreCompany, August 2009 survey),Mainland ChinaThen Google etc. cannot be used, and Baidu occupies the largest share.Since it is a company originating in China and has China as its main market, it is sometimes called "Google in China".[1].

As of May 2020, 12Alexa rankingThe ranking in China is 4th in the world and 2nd in China.[2]

History

Founder'sLi YanhongIt is,Beijing UniversityAfter graduationNew York State UniversityStudy abroad at. Dow Jones & Company, Inc.InfoseekAfter returning to China20001Founded Baidu, Inc. in Japan.

After that, it grew rapidly, and in May 2005NASDAQListed on.On the first day of publication, the public offering price soared from $ 27 to $ 122.54.The increase on the day was up to 354%, and it is one of the most profitable stocks on the first day of the IPO in the US stock market.In addition, it should be noted200710ToMarket capitalizationHas risen to $ 118 billion.

200612Is a Japanese corporationBaidu Japan, Inc.Founded,20073Has started a beta version service of the Japanese version site Baidu.jp. In June 2007, as an outside director of Baidu, Inc.SonyFormer chairmanNobuyuki IdeiIs appointed.2008May 1Full-scale service of Baidu.jp started.It is also featured in general newspapers and television news.2008May 12, The top page of the video search and image search of the search site Baidu has been renewed. Service ended in March 2015[3].

In 2008, Chinese censorship authoritiesEdison Chen Photo ScandalHe criticized Baidu for spreading obscene photos of popular actresses through the website and ordered an apology. On November 11th and 15th,China Central Television (CCTV) aired a program featuring fraudulent activity related to XNUMX-degree advertising[4].

2014, OriginalStanford University Center for Artificial IntelligenceDirector and leader of Google's AI research team(English edition)Became Chief Scientist of Hundred Degrees[5].. Next day2015Developed by Hundred DegreesSuper computer OfAIAnnounced that it became the best in the world in terms of voice recognition ability content, surpassing Google etc.[6][7].

2017January,BYD,Ford,Daimler,NVIDIA,Microsoft,Intel,Honda Motor Co., Ltd.[8],Toyota[9]Etc. also participateSelf-driving carEstablished the world's largest corporate alliance "Apollo Program" to jointly develop[10]And the next2018May 7ToKing Long Passenger CarStarted mass production of the world's first highly autonomous driving bus (level 4) "Apollon", which has been jointly developed with[11].. October 2018, Google, Microsoft,AppleA major AI industry group to which(English edition)First member of a Chinese company[12].

2018 year 2 month,US-China relationsIs the world's largest as it has become an important cyber issuehackerIt is a celebrationDEFCONAnnounced to co-sponsor the first overseas event with Baidu in Beijing[13].

Chugoku

  • October 2000, 1- Beijing UniversityEstablished Baidu.com, Inc. in the Cayman Islands with Robin Li, an alumni of[14].
  • June 2001-Established Baidu Network Technology Co., Ltd. in Beijing.
  • August 2001-Announced Baidu, a beta version of the search engine.
  • October 2001, 10-Baidu (Baidu.com) officially announced.
  • February 2002- MP3File search is newly established.
  • July 2003-with imagesNEWSNew search.
  • November 2003-Baidu bulletin board is newly established.
  • February 2005- Phone Number,movies,tv setNew search service.
  • June 2005-Baidu Knows (knowledge site) is newly established.
  • October 2005, 8- NASDAQListed on.
  • September 2005, 9-Baidu Maps Search Beta launched.
  • January 2006, 1-Announced Baidu Kokugaku.
  • April 2006, 4-Baidu Baike is newly established.
  • July 2006, 7-Launched beta version of Baidu Space.
  • December 2008-Changed company name from Baidu.com, Inc. to Baidu, Inc.
  • November 2012-was an equity-method affiliateiQIYI, Inc.Take control of and consolidate.
  • May 2013-Acquired PPStream Inc.'s online video business and integrated it into iQIYI.
  • February 2013- (Chinese version)(Street View) is now available.
  • August 2017-Alibaba Group's Baidu Deliveries food delivery businessEle.meIntegrated into[15].
  • April 2018-Baidu's financial services business is split as Du Xiaoman Financial.
  • September 2020 --Smart Living Group business split[16].
  • February 2020- JOYY Inc. Entertainment Livestreaming Business "YY LiveConcluded an acquisition contract.
  • March 2021, 3 --Listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Japan

  • February 2006- JapanBeing a corporationBaidu Japan, Inc.Established.
  • February 2007- SonyFormer chairmanNobuyuki IdeiBecame an outside director of Baidu, Inc.
  • February 2007- JapaneseVersionSearch ProductsBeta version of service baidu.jp is now available.
  • January 2008, 1 --Baidu.jp full-scale service started.
  • December 2008, 12 --Baidu Image Search and Baidu Video Search Top Page Renewed
  • October 2010, 5- Character input system"Baidu IMEWas released.
  • December 2011, 12-Character input system "SimejiWas acquired.
  • March 2015-Japanese version search service ends[3].

Service provided (China)

To date, 35 services have been provided in China.[17]..ChineseSearch ProductsIn addition to its strengths, it is popular with young peopleBoard,マ ル チ メ デ ィ アThe expansion of services (images and videos) is attracting Chinese users. From April 2006Encyclopedia Of百度 百科Newly established.

  • Baidu App
  • Baidu Search: Search engine
  • Haokan: Short Video Platform
  • Quanmin: Short Video Platform
  • 百度 百科:Encyclopedia
  • Baidu Knows: Q & A service
  • Baidu Experience: Practical life information service
  • Baidu Tieba: Social Media
  • Baidu Cloud: Cloud service
  • Hao123: Navigation site
  • Baidu Direct Seeding: Live Streaming Platform

MP3 search

A popular feature for Baidu users is MP3 search.this isMP3,WMA,rmIt is a service that allows you to search for audio / video files such as files. MP3 search is mainly in ChinaMusicUsed to search for.

On March 2005, 3, Chinese record company Shanghai Ayumu Music Culture Propagation Co., Ltd.CopyrightBaidu is suing for being infringed.Besides,Universal MusicIn November 2006, Baidu won the proceedings for similar proceedings filed by major record companies such as.

Baidu has been working on copyright issues since 2007EMIWe are promoting alliances with the music industry, such as newbusiness modelIt is reported that it has begun to build a platform for.

Baidu Map

OriginatorChineseIn the version of Baidu,MapSearch function is built in.The Japanese version of the search service does not include map search.

What makes it different from other search engine mapsPeople's Republic of ChinaAlthough the areas claimed by the territorial rights are recorded in various places including Taiwan, the display on land outside China has been greatly simplified.AlsoSouth China SeaIs a Chinese territory according to Chinese domestic law, MalaysiaBorneoSarawakA maritime line (so-called ""Kudan Line") Is drawn[18]..The southernmost sea area isJames Reef(漢字Notation is "Soma Shoal"). From August 2013(Chinese version)(Street View) has started, and you can see the scenery in China.

Service provided (Japan)

Search system

2006From the second half of BaiduCrawler"BaiduspiderExcessive crawling behavior to Japanese sites by "" has become conspicuous, and users have become difficult to access sites such as major electronic bulletin boards, and there is a movement to block access from Baidu crawlers. It came to be.

In March 2007, Baidu apologized for overloading each Japanese website and announced measures such as unifying the frequency management of crawling.[19]..Also, in May of the same year, it announced that it introduced "Baidu Checker", a new crawler with less load, and that the load on the website can be suppressed to about several hundred bytes on average.[20].. As of July 2009, BaiduImagespider and BaiduMobaider are crawling separately, especially BaiduMobaider ignoring Robots.txt.

Baidu, Inc. reflects the needs of Chinese users and determines search rankingsauctionMethod is used.However, the person in charge of the Japanese corporation has stated at seminars that this model of search ranking will not be introduced in Japan.

Regarding the handling of harmful content in the image search function of baidu.jp, it became a hot topic in both Japan and China.[21]..Currently on baidu.jpAdult contentA filter has been introduced. Since October 2008, 10, this filter function has been enabled by default.

Search services for Japan, etc. ended in March 2015[3].

Japanese input system

SimejiとBaidu IMEAre offered.

Problems

Domain name hack

2010May 1, Baidu.com managed in the United StatesDNSThe record has been tampered with by someone who claims to be "IRANIAN CYBER ARMY".When I accessed Baidu, the message "The site was hacked by Iran's cyber army" was displayed in English and Latvian against the background of the Iranian flag.This was allegedly due to the gross negligence of Register.com, which manages the domain, to change the registered email address in response to an anonymous individual's request.Once you change your email address, you can easily hijack your domain by applying for a password.

Response to the Senkaku issue

On the search engine homepage尖 閣 諸島I posted an illustration of the Chinese flag flying over it and displayed an animation[22].

Unauthorized transmission of input information of Japanese software

2013January,Japanese input system OfBaidu IMEHowever, it was discovered that the input character information was sent to Baidu's own server without the permission of the user.Baidu Japan sent the data to its own server, but only explained that it improved the input accuracy.[23][24].

At the same timeSimejiThere was also a report of unauthorized transmission and an announcement from a security company's net agent.On the other hand, Baidu explained that only users who agreed to the terms were accepted.However, at a later date, the bug "Sent even if log transmission is turned off" was actually found, and as a result, the initial report and the announcement of the agent were correct.The problem isSimeji It was fixed in 6.6.2.

Creating a backdoor for Android OS

2015In October, it was reported that the software development kit (SDK) "Moplus" provided by Baidu had a very serious vulnerability called "Wormhole". Trend microAs a result of investigating this vulnerability, the company confirmed that "Moplus" was equipped with an intentional backdoor creation function in November of the following year, and announced this.[25]..PC magazineI / OThen, I took up this case as a news article and said, "I have to say that it is a very vicious backdoor" and "The reliability of XNUMX degrees has fallen to the ground."[26].

group Enterprise

  • Baidu Holdings Limited
    • Baidu (Hong Kong) Limited
      • Baidu (China) Co., Ltd.
      • Baidu.com Times Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
      • Baidu Cloud Computing Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
    • Baidu Online Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd.
      • Beijing Baidu Netcom Science Technology Co., Ltd. [VIE]: Operates Baidu's domestic service in China
      • Beijing Perusal Technology Co., Ltd. [VIE]
    • Baidu International Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd.
    • iQIYI, Inc.
      • Beijing QIYI Century Science & Technology Co., Ltd.
        • Beijing iQIYI Science & Technology Co., Ltd. [VIE]: Providing video distribution service "iQIYI"
    • Guangzhou Tsu Rainbow Media Co., Ltd .: Live streaming platform "YY LiveOffer
    • Baidu Japan, Inc.: Japanese corporation

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Source

  1. ^ Rich Smith (June 2020, 6). “Why Baidu Stock Jumped 10% Today” (English). NASDAQ. https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/why-baidu-stock-jumped-10-today-2020-06-16 2020th of February 6Browse. 
  2. ^ "baidu.com Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic --Alexa". Alexa Internet. 2020th of February 12Browse.
  3. ^ a b c Baidu quietly ends search for Japan, but Simeji and advertising business continue | TechCrunch Japan
  4. ^ Will Google win China too? Hundred degrees of eighteenth, hit by music search(JBpress August 2009, 5)
  5. ^ Gannes, Liz (May 2014, 5). “Baidu Hires Coursera Founder Andrew Ng to Start Massive Research Lab". Recode. 2018th of February 10Browse.
  6. ^ "China Baidu is banned from participating in the global AI (artificial intelligence) contest due to rule violation: Is the background excessive competitiveness between the United States and China?". Japan Business Press(July 2015, 6). http://gendai.ismedia.jp/articles/-/43680/ 2017th of February 7Browse. 
  7. ^ "Apology for artificial intelligence test results-Baidu, China". WSJ(July 2015, 6). http://jp.wsj.com/articles/SB11098407163782254164904581026792358306856 2017th of February 7Browse. 
  8. ^ "Honda joins China's Baidu autonomous driving alliance for the first time in a Japanese car". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 7). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO3176592014062018TJ1000/ 2018th of February 6Browse. 
  9. ^ "Chinese Baidu Autonomous Driving Union, Toyota Participates". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2019, 7). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO46888320T00C19A7EAF000/ 2019th of February 7Browse. 
  10. ^ "Baidu, 50 companies and autonomous driving Ford, etc. and" Apollo program "". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 7). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDX05H0L_V00C17A7FFE000/ 2017th of February 7Browse. 
  11. ^ "Started mass production of XNUMX-degree self-driving bus to expand in Tokyo and Shenzhen”. AFP (July 2018, 7). 2018th of February 7Browse.
  12. ^ "Search giant Baidu joins US-led AI industry group First Chinese company". Reuters (September 2018, 10). 2018th of February 10Browse.
  13. ^ "World-class hacker festival to be held in Beijing". People's network (September 2018, 2). 2018th of February 10Browse.
  14. ^ "Form 20-F”. US Securities and Exchange Commission. 2021th of February 4Browse.
  15. ^ "Ele.me merges with Baidu Deliveries to integrate food delivery business". Kyodo PR Wire. 2021th of February 4Browse.
  16. ^ "IT giant Baidu spins off smart living business and retains control | 36Kr Japan | Largest Chinese tech startup media”(May 2020, 10). 2021th of February 4Browse.
  17. ^ Products of Baidu, Inc.(English)
  18. ^ Map border example
  19. ^ Baidu.jp, Apology and remedy for Baidu Spider (Press Center)(As of January 2007, 6Archive)
  20. ^ Baidu.jp launches new Spider with less load (press center)(As of January 2007, 6Archive)
  21. ^ Chinese authorities block access to "Baidu Japan" from China or Impress
  22. ^ Baidu, Tencent Show'Patriotism' as China, Japan Dispute Islands --Bloomberg News September 2012, 9
  23. ^ Chinese "Baidu" software sends Japanese input without permission
  24. ^ China Baidu announces opinion on IME input information transmission problem, "Simeji mis-send log due to bug"
  25. ^ Software development kit "Moplus" with vulnerabilities, in fact, implementation of backdoor function turned out
  26. ^ Ayuki Miike "Backdoor of Development Tool Made by Baidu" "I / O Io" Vol. 41, No. 1, Engineering Co., Ltd., January 2016, p. 1, ASIN B016YNZ6VE.

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