China's Taishan nuclear power plant, no abnormalities in radiation dose Meet the requirements = Ministry of Foreign Affairs
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Hong Kong government chief executive Carrie Lam told reporters that the Hong Kong Observatory and the Water Department are monitoring radiation doses, but so far no abnormalities have been seen.
[Reuters] – Zhao Lijian, a spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, leaked radioactivity at the Taishan Nuclear Power Station in Guangdong Province, China on the XNUMXth. → Continue reading
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Hayashi Chung Moon
Hayashi Chung(Carrie Lam, Carrie Lam, Chinese:Hayashi Chung Moon,English:Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-Ngor,1957May 5 -) isHong KongPolitician.Chief of Parliament, Served as Director of Development Bureau, now the 4th generationHong Kong Special Administrative RegionCum first generationNational Security Maintenance Committee ChairTo serve.キ リ ス ト 教徒(Catholic church).The original name was "Chung Moon", and the current name is the husband's surname "Lin" after marriage..
Hong Kong on May 1957, 5Wan Chai OfAtZhejiang ProvinceZhoushan CityBorn as the fourth child to a low-income parent in Hong Kong, which originated in Hong Kong.The registered domicile of the moon is Zhejiang Province.NingboIt is said that A boy was born later in the Chung family, and Tsukiyaku was the "fourth of five siblings." He spent his childhood in Nakkei, where he received primary education.He received a secondary education at the school and played the role of "head prefect" (≒ student representative) at the school. After graduating from the school,Hong Kong universityEnrolled in. The major at the time of admissionSocial workHowever, at the end of the first grade, majorSociologyWas changed to "Faculty of Sociology". While attending the school, participated in the student movement,,Etc. laterI got acquainted with people. AlsoTsinghua UniversityParticipated in planning student exchange with. SociologyBachelorGot1980Graduated from the Faculty of Sociology of Hong Kong University.
In the same yearHong Kong GovernmentAnd then worked for various Hong Kong Government-affiliated organizations.
2007Appointed Director of Development on July 7. In office2011から2012OverHong Kong governmentSenior official新界Of the illegal construction of houses (illegal construction of houses), which was rampant among the old inhabitants of the country, attracting high public support.
Appointed Chief of Parliament on July 2012, 7. Appointed Chairman of the Debt Committee on low-income issues on November 11. Directed to strengthen crackdown on importers on December 12th and 15th, following a protest demonstration against rising prices and street occupation caused by Chinese importers buying up daily necessities in Hong Kong Arrested 158 importers.
2013On August 8, it will decide the payment of benefits to the low-income group living in a very small apartment in a commercial and industrial building. In response to this, critics criticize the benefits to residents who live in illegally narrow apartments, but argue that "it is the apartment that is illegal, not the residents.".
Next year due to high support from citizensSecretary of AdministrationWas suggested as a leading candidate But as of 20142017Had announced that he had not run for the election. However, in January 2017 he resigned as Secretary of State and ran for the election of the Secretary of Administration.. At that time, it was the chief financial officer who received the most support from the public.But won the election on March 3. According to the announcement of Hong Kong election, 1,163 people cast valid votes, and 777 votes of Zheng Lin were won. China NationalXinhua News AgencyAfter the noon of the day when the election was confirmed, the company issued a preliminary report, confirming the high interest of the Chinese Central Communist Party executives.
August 2017, 3,No. 678 appointed female first administrative secretary.. April 4th in BeijingChugoku OfLee KeqiangPrime MinisterAnd was passed the Ordinance of the State Council.. I took office as Secretary-General on July 7..
In 2020, Carrie LamBank accountsIs closed,Credit cardEtc. can no longer be used.This is because the U.S. Congress passed a bill in July of the same year to impose sanctions on Chinese officials involved in Hong Kong's infringement of autonomy. It was reported that he was forced to receive an annual income of HK $ 521 million (about 7000 million yen) and to make all payments in cash..
Response to 2014 anti-government demonstration
August 2013, 10,2016 OfLegislative CouncilAppointed to be the person in charge of a specialized team that gathers opinions on the election system for the election and 2017 Secretary-General election.. One democratic group has one voteGeneral election"Idealism,Hong Kong Basic LawIgnore"A person who does not oppose the Chinese government should be appointed as the administrative secretary." Said a negative thought.
I oppose this attitude of the Hong Kong governmentCourt-Chen Kenmin-VermilionSubmits a political reform proposal for a general election and is rejectedCentralDeclare to occupy and demonstrate.. Student groups and democratic groups have joined this2014 Hong Kong anti-government demonstrationThere has occurred. Chung Lin talked with Yura on July 7 before the protest, demanding that the protest be discontinued, but negotiations broke down..
October 10, host demoSuenaga YasushiMeet with a representative of the student group. Demands dissolution of demonstration, but negotiations broke down because of refusal of Zhou's opinion for general election.. Since then, he has been reluctant to hold talks with student groups, and stated that on November 11, police will be put in place to remove barricades in areas occupied by demonstrators based on a ban on occupation by the High Court. Then, on November 11, the barricade was forcibly removed... After the forced removal, barricades were removed and demonstrators were forcibly removed in various places on December 12.Liang ZhenyingSecretary of State declared the end of anti-government demonstration.
Responding to the 2019 fugitive ordinance amendment and opposition demonstration
2019September 9, Hong Kong received backlash from citizens2019 Fugitive Ordinance AmendmentWill also decide to withdrawProtestDid not converge and on October 101967 OfIt's been 52 years since thenMartial lawGiving authority close toEmergency situation regulationsWas activated.
2020May 8,Hong Kong National Security Maintenance ActAs a person involved in the enforcement ofUS TreasuryBy "In the United StatesAsset freezeProhibiting transactions with Americans"SanctionsSpecified as a target.
Response to new coronavirus infections
2020XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,New coronavirus infectionAs a countermeasure, it announced that it will prohibit more than 3 people from gathering in public places from March 29th.This effectively prevented protest rallies and demonstrations..
On July 2020, 7, 29 million residents outside their homesMASKSMandatory to wear..To crack down on demonstratorsIn 2019, the year before the enforcement, people wearing masks were arrested by police..
- --A word that refers to Carrie Lam's consul.
- ^ "Erotic Conflict: Mr. Zheng Lin Lin, "Director of Port of Administration".Apple Daily. (March 2013, 3) 2014/12/31Browse.
- ^ Chen FangSee also
- ^ As of August 1979, you can see a photo of the deputy leader of the "Hong Kong University Students' Union Tsinghua University Exchange Team" and an image with the name and profile of "Chung Moon" on the internet (probably in 2019).
- ^ “Hong Kong Political Keyword Commentary-Procedure without a clear text”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 3) 2014/12/28Browse.
- ^ “China appoints Hong Kong Parliamentary Secretary Mr. Zheng Lin Lin, Secretary of Finance remains”. Wall Street Journal(July 2012, 6) 2014/12/28Browse.
- ^ “Formation of “Poverty Commission” to support low-income groups”Hong Kong Post. (July 2012, 11) 2014/12/28Browse.
- ^ “Mainland parallel importers, 6 measures to crack down”Hong Kong Post. (July 2012, 9) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Mainland parallel importers arrested 5 people in 158 days”Hong Kong Post. (July 2012, 9) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Providing allowances to residents of extremely small apartments in industrial buildings”Hong Kong Post. (July 2013, 8) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Following 4 candidates for the next Secretary of State pay attention to women”Hong Kong Post. (July 2013, 10) 2014/12/28Browse.
- ^ “Secretary of State Secretary Announces No Runaway for Election”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 4) 2014/12/28Browse.
- ^ "The favorite of the Xi regime?" Mr. Zheng Lin announces running in Hong Kong. Asahi Shimbun(July 2017, 3) 2017/3/26Browse.
- ^ “China's “support” Mr. Zheng Zhou Lin is elected for the first time in July, first voted. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 3) 2017/3/26Browse.
- ^ a b No. 678 of the State Council of the People's Republic of China (Chinese)
- ^ “China appointed Mr. Zheng Lin to top Hong Kong to take office on July 7”. Kyodo News(July 2017, 4) 2017/4/11Browse.
- ^ "Ceremony of the main hall, attending Taiwan and Hong Kong, without official invitation". Sankei News(July 2019, 10) 2019/10/24Browse.
- ^ "His Majesty the Emperor's "Reign of Regents", who attended from overseas? Prince Charles, Aung San Suu Kyi and others”. Huff post(July 2019, 10) 2019/10/22Browse.
- ^ "Chinese officials in Hong Kong infringement can be sanctioned ... US bill passed parliament”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2020, 7). 2020/11/29Browse.
- ^ "Hong Kong Chief Executive "A pile of cash at home" Confession of life that the account cannot be used due to US sanctions”. AFP (July 2020, 11). 2020/11/29Browse.
- ^ “Hong Kong starts discussions in the general election, 17-year election of administrative director”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2013, 10) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Principal Secretary Denies Nomination of Residents in Elections”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 3) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “General Election Forum Held by Moderate Democrats”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 6) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Central Occupation Action, to be implemented in July next year”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 4) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Secretary of State urges founders of Central Occupation to give up”Hong Kong Post. (July 2014, 7) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “[Hong Kong Democratization Demo] Dialogue is a parallel line. Students are disappointed next time, and will continue to demonstrate.”. Sankei News (Sankei Shimbun). (November 2014, 10) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Resume dialogue with students “There is no room at the moment” Hong Kong Government”Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (June 2014, 11) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Hong Kong launches forced removal of barricades, courts, etc.”Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (June 2014, 11) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “Hong Kong Secretary Declares End of Demonstration-Police Forces Eliminates Last Base”. Bloomberg(July 2014, 12) 2014/12/29Browse.
- ^ “There is no “urgent ordinance” activation plan in the Hong Kong government-Mr. Chen Chi-si, Advisor of the Secretary-General”. Bloomberg(July 2019, 9) 2019/10/4Browse.
- ^ “Hong Kong activates “Urgent Ordinance” for the first time in half a century. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2019, 10) 2019/10/4Browse.
- ^ "U.S. Treasury sanctions 11 Hong Kong administration director Zheng Yue Lin from Hong Kong”(Japanese). Newsweek Japanese version (September 2020, 8). 2020/8/9Browse.
- ^ "Hong Kong bans rallying of XNUMX or more people Prevents spread of infection”(Japanese). Sankei Shimbun (September 2020, 3). 2020/12/3Browse.
- ^ "Video: Hong Kong makes it mandatory to wear masks outside home "On the brink of large-scale infection"”(Japanese). AFPBB (September 2020, 7). 2020/12/3Browse.
- ^ Kyodo News (March 2019, 10). “Hong Kong arrests 13 people for violating Prohibition on Face Cover ｜ Kyodo News”(Japanese). Kyodo News. 2020/12/3Browse.
- ^ Encourage Hong Kong residents to inform, China's compliant "superior" Secretary: International: News: Yomiuri Shimbun Online
| Hong Kong SAR|
Absorbed dose(Kyushu Senryo, absorbed dose[Annotation 1]) IsradiationPer unit mass by irradiation ofmaterialThe amount of energy absorbed by.The unit of absorbed dose isGray(Gray, symbol: Gy) is used[Annotation 2].
Absorbed dose is not defined as a substance as its definition.Therefore, it is necessary to determine the substance according to the problem to be dealt with.Often usedOrgan absorbed dose(The substance is an organ of the human body)Air absorbed dose(The substance is air).
When a substance is irradiated with radiation, the substance absorbs the energy of the radiation due to the interaction between the radiation and the substance (mainly ionizing and excitation) (radiation gives energy to the substance).Without specifying the type of substance[Annotation 3], The amount of energy (J / kg) absorbed by a substance per unit mass (1 kg) by irradiation with radiationAbsorbed doseIt is called (absorbed dose).Gray [Gy] is used instead of [J / kg] as the unit[Annotation 4].
Radiation is generally harmful to the human body, but the most important factor in determining the health effects of radiation is this radiation.ExposureIt is the absorbed dose given to the organs of the human body (organ absorbed dose).However, even if the absorbed dose is the same, the effect on the living body differs depending on the type of incident radiation (gamma rays, alpha rays, etc.) and the energy of neutron rays.Therefore, in the world of radiation protection, the absorbed dose is multiplied by the radiation load coefficient, which is a correction factor, instead of the absorbed dose.Equivalent doseIs used.
Absorbed dose (organ absorbed dose) is mainly used outside the area of radiation protection.Definite impactIs a problem, or it represents the dose of medical exposure due to radiodiagnosis / treatment in the medical field.Doctors usuallyRadiation therapyPrescribe in Gy or mGy units[Annotation 5].
Substance with mass m [kg][Annotation 6]The average amount of energy absorbed by When [J] (joule), the absorbed dose (marked as D in the symbol) is
(Absorbed dose [Gy])
Is defined as.What is defined in the differential form indicates that it can be defined in terms of points rather than a constant volume of matter.Also, average energy What we are trying to do is to use each radiation[Annotation 7]This is because the behavior of is random and can only be considered as average energy.
- ^ Or Total Ionizing Dose, abbreviation: TID It may also be expressed as.
- ^ Note that 1 [Gy] = 1 [J / kg].
- ^ Even if the same type of radiation is irradiated, the energy given to each substance is different, so if the substance (absorber) that absorbs energy by irradiation is air, the absorbed dose to air, and in the case of humans, the organ (tissue). It is necessary to specify the substance according to the purpose of use such as absorbed dose..
- ^ 1 [Gy] = 1 [J / kg].
- ^ The main reasons why organ absorbed dose [Gy] is used in the medical field
- Most of the radiation used in medical treatment is basically radiation (X-ray, gamma ray, beta ray) with a radiation load coefficient of 1.0.
- In the medical field, exposures in a wide range of doses, from the number [mGy] used for diagnosis to the number 10 [Gy] used in radiation therapy, are dealt with.The dose that can be commonly used in this wide range of doses is the absorbed dose as a basic dose (the equivalent dose is a unit for the purpose of radiation protection and is a numerical value used within the range that does not exceed the dose limit. Therefore, it is a number. Equivalent dose cannot be used for exposures above [Gy]).
- ^ In the definition of absorbed dose, there is no specific definition of the target substance..
- ^ Electromagnetic waves (gamma rays, X-rays) are considered to be treated as photons and are counted as [books].
- Tomoko Kusama, Tomoaki Kai,Nobuhiko Ban"Radiation Health Science" Kyorin Shoin, 1995.
- Tomoko Kusama "Radiation protection Q & A for you and your patients』Medical Science Company, 2005, revised new edition.
- "Basic knowledge of radiation useful for nursing practice-15 chapters to protect patients and themselves" Tomoko Kusama (eds.), Igaku-Shoin, 2007.
- Yuichiro Morishita, "Survey Research for Setting Peripheral and Individual Dose Equivalent Standards," AIST Metrology Standards Report, Vol. 4, No. 6, Metrology Standards Center, December 2007.
- "Radiation and Isotope Lectures and Practices" Japan Radioisotope Association (ed.), Maruzen, 1992.