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🌏 | EU Strategy for Russia, Basic Resistance / Suppression / Involvement = Senior Representative of Borel


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EU Strategy for Russia, Resistance / Suppression / Involvement Basically = Senior Representative of Borel

 
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The European Commission, the EU's executive body, will publish a new report on Russia on the 16th.
 

[Brussels, XNUMXth Reuters] – Borrell, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security, is the Foreign Minister of the European Union (EU). → Continue reading

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European Commission

European Union
European Union flag
European Union politics

 -Story--History 

European Commission(Oh, I'm sorry,British: European Commission, abbreviation:EC) IsEuropean UnionPolicy enforcement agency.It is responsible for the daily operation of the coalition, such as submitting bills, implementing decisions, and supporting basic treaties.[1].

The committee is run by a collegial system of 27 members. One member is elected from one member state, but members are required to represent the interests of the entire European Union rather than their country of origin. One of the 1 membersEuropean CouncilAppointed,European ParliamentApproved byChairmanIs.The term of office of the committee members is five years. Original from 5GermanyDefense MinisterUrsula von der Lyen Von der Leyen CommitteeIs leading.

The expression "committee" has the meaning of "committee of members" mentioned above, and also broadly means an institution.In other words, it is also an expression that refers to a mechanism responsible for policy enforcement with a department called the "Directorate General", which has about 25,000 employees.The European Commission as an organization is mainlyブ リ ュ ッ セ ルIt is inBerlaymont BuildingBased in, within the committeeEnglish,French,GermanIs the working language[1].

History

European Commission, French Foreign MinisterRobert SchumannMay 1950, 5Schumann DeclarationFounded bySupranational institutionIt is derived from one of the five major institutions established under the European community system.European Commission 5European Coal and Steel CommunityCan be traced back to the highest institutions of3 communitiesUnder various chairpersons, I changed the authority and composition many times.[2]..The European Coal and Steel Community is all over EuropecartelIn recent years, with the help of whistleblowers, he has imposed huge sanctions on numerous large-scale unfair competitions.Britain's departure from the European UnionIt became to show influence to.

Installation

The first committee was the "Supreme Body" of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, when it was chaired.Jean MonetIs.The highest institution is the supranational institution of the newly established European Coal and Steel Community, which operates on August 1952, 8.Luxembourg CityIt started with. In 1958Roman TreatyHas come into effect and is newly added to the European Coal and Steel Community.European Economic CommunityEuropean Nuclear CommunityTwo new communities have been established.However, the executive body of these two communities was not the "highest body" but the "committee".[2]..The reason for such a name change is with the executive bodyBoard of directorsThis is due to a new relationship with.FranceSome member states should put restrictions on the powers of the Supreme Authority, arguing that they should give more authority to the board than the executive bodies of the two new communities.[3].Louis armandIs the European Atomic Energy CommunityWalter HallsteinWas appointed chairman of each of the European Economic Community, and the Commission of the European Economic Community held its first meeting on 1958 January 1.The European Economic Community Commission has reached an agreement on a previously disputed grain price agreement and alsoGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade OfKennedy RoundWhen it first appeared in the international scene, it gave a positive impression to a third country.[4]..HallsteinCommunity lawAnd had a great influence on the legislation in the member countries.There wasn't much interest in the early operation by Hallstein,European Court of JusticeWith the help ofHallstein CommissionStrongly impressed the Commission's authority so that future Commission actions could be taken more seriously.[5]..However, in 1965 in FranceCharles de GaulleThe administration is ostensiblyCommon agricultural policyAlthough it was supposed to be against other member countriesThe United KingdomMembership issues andEuropean Parliament direct electionImplementation ...budgetHowever, there was a disagreement, and as a result, he was absent from the board of directors, causing a veto exercise.Although the crisis was resolved the following year, the European Atomic Energy Community Commission chairman and the European Economic Community chairman Walter Hallstein would spend a term in addressing the issue, otherwise Hirsch and Hallstein. IsJacques DelorsLike, it may have been considered the most dynamic leader[4].

initial

Prior to July 1967, 7, the executive bodies of the three communities stood side by side,Brussels TreatyBy these threeJean RayIntegrated into a single institution chaired by[2]..With this integrationRey CommissionTemporarily increased the number of committee members to 14, but after that, it was returned to a system of nine members, one from a small country and two from a large country.[6]..Rey Commission in the community in 1968Customs unionAnd worked to strengthen the powers of the European Parliament through direct citizen elections.[7]..Ray was the first chairman of the three community committees and supreme bodies, but Hallstein is generally considered to be the first chairman of the committee in its current form.[2].

Malfatti Commission,Mansholt CommissionWorked on currency emphasis and was the first to the north in 1973Expansion of the communityAlso hit[8][9]..Due to the expansion of the community, there are two British people,デンマークアイルランドWill send one member at a time,Ortoli CommissionUnder this, the number of committee members became 13.The Ortoli Commission will run an expanded community during times of economic and international turmoil.[6][10]..The Commission also began to act as an external representative of the community,Roy JenkinsAs the chairman of the communityGroup of Eight (Summit)Came to attend[11].Jenkins Commissionfollowed by,Thorn CommissionThen the community expanded to the south, and againSingle European ProtocolWork on[12].

Delors Commission, Santer Commission

The most successful of all the committeesJacques DelorsTo be the headDrroll CommitteeTherefore, the chairpersons after Dror have not received the same evaluation as Dror.Dror is alleged to have given the European Commission direction and action[13]..Dror and his committee also said,EuroAlso considered to be the "father of"[14].International Herald TribuneAt the end of his second term at the end of 1992, the newspaper described Dror's achievements as follows:

He arrived when Europessimism was at its worst. Although he was a little-known former French finance minister, he breathed life and hope into the EC and into the dispirited Brussels Commission. In his first term, from 1985 to 1988, he rallied Europe to the call of the single market, and when appointed to a second term he began urging Europeans toward the far more ambitious goals of economic, monetary and political union.[15]
Dror rescued the European Community from stagnation.The chairman took office when pessimism about Europe was at its peak.Originally known as France's Treasury Minister, Dror brought vitality and hope to Brussels, which had lost power with the European Community. In the first term from 1985 to 1988, Dror brought Europe back to life by calling for the creation of a single market, and after the second term, integrated Europeans in economics, currency and politics. That is, he made it toward a more grand goal.

To replace DrorJack sunterreWas appointed.However, in 1999Sunterre CommitteeWas forced to resign after being pursued by the European Parliament for corruption.This was the first time the European Commission had resigned altogether, and the event was also an indication that the European Parliament had strengthened its powers.[16]..However, the Santer CommissionAmsterdam TreatyIt can be said that it has achieved results regarding the creation of the euro.[17].

Prodi Commission, Barroso Commission

After the suntailRomano ProdieWas appointed chairman.The Treaty of Amsterdam strengthened the authority of the European Commission, and Prodi was described in newspapers as the equivalent of the "prime minister."[18][19].. In 2001Nice TreatyFurther strengthened powers, the chairman gained stronger powers on the composition of the European Commission[2].

2004 years,Jose Manuel BarrosoBecomes chairman.But at this time,Barroso CommissionThe European Parliament has opposed the case.In response to this opposition, Barroso was forced to rethink his personnel case shortly before taking office.[20].Prodie CommitteeWas expanded to 2004 people in May 5, but the Barroso Commission has changed to 30 people.This is due to the fact that in response to the increase in the number of member countries, the Treaty of Amsterdam abolished the system of selecting two members from each of the major powers and changed to a system of one from each country.[6].

2009 European Parliament electionsBarroso will be reappointed as chairman in response to the result of.However, although the term of the 1st Barroso Commission expired on October 2009, 10, the 31st Commission will continue to operate as an interim committee until the European Parliament approves the 2nd Commission.[21]..The interim system lasted more than four months, during which time the European Parliament urged Barroso's proposed Second Committee to reconsider its personnel case, as it did for the First Committee.As a result, the Second Barroso Commission was approved by the European Parliament on 4 February 2, and the new Commission was launched the next day.The term of office of the Second Committee is until October 1, 2.[22]..The reason why the second committee took a long time to be established is that there was a history of the provisions on the maximum number of members of the European Commission in the Basic Treaty.It is said that the system of the Treaty of Nice stipulated that the number of members of the European Commission immediately after the number of member states reached 2 must be less than the number of member states.So in January 27ルーマニアWith the addition of Bulgaria, this provision was to be applied to the next committee.In response, it came into effect on December 2009, 12.Lisbon TreatyUnder the system, the number of members will be two-thirds of the number of member states unless otherwise decided by the European Council.However, it was necessary to ratify the Lisbon Treaty in Ireland in 3.ConstitutionThe amendment was opposed in a referendum.The opposite factor was the possibility of losing a member from Ireland.In response, the European Council has agreed not to reduce the number of members after the Lisbon Treaty comes into force in order to re-implement the referendum.However, the basic treaty still requires that the number of members be smaller than the number of member countries, and for this reason, for member countries that do not have members.Senior Foreign and Security Policy RepresentativeThe "26 + 1 method" was proposed to allocate[23][24]..This guarantee was successful and the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty was approved in Ireland's second referendum in 2009.

The Lisbon Treaty also states that the Commission for Foreign Relations and the Council of the European UnionHigh Representative for Common Foreign and Security PolicyWas said to be integrated.This position, which also serves as Vice-Chair of the European Commission, is responsible for foreign policy in the European Commission and chairs the Council of the European Union.[25]..Furthermore, under the Lisbon Treaty, the chairman will continue to be appointed by the European Council, but the selection of the chairman is just before.European Parliament electionsIt was decided to consider the result of.In the past, the European Parliament used the phrase "approve" the Commission, but it was changed to "election" after the Lisbon Treaty came into effect.

authority

The European Commission acts as an institution with supranational powers, independent of the governments of its member states.Therefore, the European Commission was sometimes described as "the only institution that thinks about Europeans."[26]..The government of each country of origin proposes one member, but the members are required to be neutral so that they are not influenced by the government of the country of origin that nominated them.This represents the government of the member statesEuropean Union Council, Is claimed to represent "organized civil society" in the European Parliament, or treaties directly elected by citizensEconomic and Social CouncilIn contrast to[1].

Policy enforcement

Maastricht TreatyArticle 17 states that the Commission will promote the general interests of the European Union and take appropriate action for that purpose.On the other hand, with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the European Council was stipulated as a formal body.The European Council has the authority to appoint the European Commission, but at the same time the European Council has the authority to execute within each member country, and the European Union has two bodies with the authority to execute. It can be said that there are one.However, under the current systemEuropean CommunityThe European Commission has executive authority in the field of[27][28]..Former European Commission executive authorityBelgian Prime MinisterGuy VerhofstadtHas said that the name "European Commission" should be changed to "European Government", saying it is "ridiculous".[29].

Submission of bill

The European Commission is the only European Union body to have the right to submit bills.By law, these bills cannot be drafted by legislative bodies.However, the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament can require the Commission to submit a bill.It also shares the right to submit bills with the Council of the European Union in the area of ​​Common Foreign and Security Policy.Committees usually form the basis of the bill, and the monopoly of this authority is intended to ensure that the bill is drafted in a coordinated and orderly manner.[30][31]..Some argue that the European Parliament should also have the right to draft, citing the power of most member parliaments to monopolize this power.[32]..With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty,European Union citizensCan request the European Commission to draft a bill by submitting a petition signed by one million people, but this petition is not legally binding.[33].

In recent years, the European Commission has been working to create European criminal law. In 2006, a cargo ship chartered by a European trading company disposes of hazardous wasteコ ー ト ワ ワ ー ルHowever, when the company abandoned it without proper treatment, the local residents were killed or injured, and the European Commission started an investigation into the drafting of a law on hazardous waste.At that time, some member states had no punishment for sending hazardous waste out of the country and were members of the European Commission.Franco Flattini(Judiciary / Freedom / Safety) and (Environment) promoted the proposal to introduce "environmental crime".Both members were heard in the European Court of Justice for proposing criminal law, but the court endorsed the European Commission's proposal for criminal law. By 2007, other draft criminal law proposals underway include:Intellectual property rightCriminal crackdown on[34], 2002 amendment to the framework decision for terrorism countermeasures, outlawing of terrorism-related agitation activities, recruitment of human resources (especially activities using the Internet) and vocational training[35].

Law enforcement

Once the bill is adopted by the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, the European Commission is responsible for ensuring its enforcement.The European Commission enforces policies through the governments of member states and the institutions of the European Union.In introducing the necessary measures to implement the policy, the European Commission is assisted by a so-called committee of representatives of member states.[36]..In addition, the European CommissionEuropean Union budgetResponsible for the execution ofEuropean Accounting AuditorSpending European Union funds under the supervision of.

The European Commission is obliged to ensure compliance with basic treaties and various laws and regulations, and may, in some circumstances, file proceedings in the European Court of Justice against Member States and other European Union agencies.The role of the European Commission is described as "the guardian of the Basic Treaty".[1]..The European Commission also has in some areas in parallel with Member States and Common Foreign and Security Policy.European Union foreign policyCarryingWorld Trade OrganizationRepresents the European Union.Also, as mentioned above, the chairman is attending the GXNUMX summit.[1].

Committee composition

The European Commission is a collegial body of 27 "European Commissioners", including one chairman and several vice-chairmen.Each member is nominated by the government of the member country, one member per country, but the members do not represent their respective countries of origin in the committee.[37](However, in reality, there are actions that represent the interests of the country of origin.[38]).When the selection of members is presented, the chairperson will assign the policy in charge to each member.The authority of committee members is determined by their policy, and changes from time to time.Education commissioners, for example, are becoming more important due to the increasing importance of education and culture in the European policy-making process.[39]..In addition, the competition committee members are influential positions worldwide.[37]..The entire committee must be approved by the European Parliament before it can be officially launched.[1]..The members are assisted by the secretariat, which provides policy advice, while bureaucratic organizations such as the Directorate General are in the professional preparation of policy.[40].

Appointment

Candidates for chair are nominated by the European Council and appointed as chair by the European Parliament.Candidates for chairs elected by the European Council are often experienced government leaders.In the draft European Constitution Treaty, when selecting a candidate for chairman, just beforeEuropean Parliament electionsThere was a provision that the results of the above must be taken into consideration. The European Constitution Treaty was not in effect when the candidate for chairman was elected in 2004,Last election resultThere was increasing pressure to elect a candidate for chairman from the centre-right party.After all, the centre-rightEuropean People's PartyJose Manuel Barroso, who belongs to, was elected as a candidate for chairman[41].

There are other factors besides the European Parliamentary elections when the European Council chooses a candidate for chair.It is which region of Europe the candidate for the chair is from, and a person from Southern Europe was desired for the selection of candidates in 2004.It also takes into account the political influence of the candidate and is required to be reliable but not overwhelming other members.In addition, France states that the chairman must be fluent in French.In addition, the degree of progress towards integration of the country of origin of the candidate chairman was also taken into account, especially.Euro areaThat it is inSchengen AgreementIt is important to participate in[42][43][44].

By setting the above requirements, multiple candidates will be listed.[45]This has been criticized by some members of the European Parliament.In other words, the selection of people will take a long time,European Liberal Democratic UnionThe representative is "The process of this selectionJustus Lipsius"Carpet city in Japan" and said that it only produces "lowest common denominator"[46]. AlsoEuropean Green Party / European Free AllianceCo-representativeDaniel Corn-BenditAsks Barroso after his speech at Barroso's hearing, "If you are the best candidate, why didn't you name yourself as the first candidate?"[47].

Political form

The Barroso Commission, which was established at the end of 2004, was established later than originally planned because the approval of the European Parliament was rejected once and the personnel cases had to be reviewed. In 1ルーマニアブルガリアJoined the European Union and added one member from each of the two countries, increasing the number of committee members from 1 to 25.The growing size of the European Commission has led Barroso to perform the duties of chairman of the Commission in a manner closer to the presidential system, which has been criticized by some.[48].

However, despite Barroso acting more like a presidential system than successive chairpersons, the role of the European Commission is becoming hidden behind the great powers of Britain, France and Germany.Under these circumstances, the Lisbon Treaty is permanent.President of the European CouncilWas to be founded[49]..In addition, the Commission's political activity is becoming more prevalent, and Valström welcomes this situation as it will lead to increased public participation in events on a European scale.[50].

組織

The European Commission is based in Brussels and has a chairman's office and a meeting room for the committee.Berlaymont BuildingIt is located on the 13th floor of.In addition to Berlaymont, the European Commission is also in BrusselsLuxembourg CityDoing business in multiple buildings[1][51]..European ParliamentStrasbourgThe European Commission is also holding a meeting at Winston Churchill Building in Strasbourg to attend discussions in the European Parliament.[52]..The European Commission is divided into departments called the Directorate General, which correspond to the ministries and agencies of each government.Each Directorate General is in charge of a specific policy area or business, for example, the Directorate General of Foreign Relations and the Directorate General of Translation are under the European Commission in charge of their respective policies and operations.Each Directorate-General assists the Commissioner in the areas of policy in charge of the European Commission, the Directorate-General prepares bills in the areas of responsibility, and the bills approved by a majority of the Commissioners are consulted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union.[1][53]..There have been many criticisms of the European Commission's Directorate-General, which is wasting time in a turf war between the rugged Directorate-General and European Commissioners.There are also criticisms that the Commission may have been manipulated by the Directorate General because of the lack of time for the Commission to supervise its staff.[54][55].

According to the European Commission's announcement, as of April 2007, 4 people were employed by the European Commission as full-time and temporary workers.In addition to this, 23,043 people worked as contract employees and seconded employees from member countries.By nationality, the directorate-general of translation had the largest number of staff, 9,019.ベルギーIs the highest at 21.6%, and it is estimated that 16,626 employees live in Belgium.[56]..He is the head of the European Commission's bureaucracy and has been serving since 2005.[26].

public relations

It is the Directorate General of Communication that responds to the press.The noon press conference takes place on weekdays in the Commission's press room in Bell Lemon Building, where reporters can ask Commission officials questions on various topics and the official answers on television. It can be relayed.Broadcasting such exchanges on television is unique in the world.[57]..In BrusselsWashington DCMore media outlets are gathered, and the media of European Union member states are sending reporters to Brussels[58].

According to one researcher, the European Commission's press release has a unique tactic.The press release has been issued in multiple draft stages to emphasize the role of the Commission and is used to clarify the legitimacy of the European Union and the Commission. Situations involving multiple departments in a single press release are a source of competition within the committee and among the areas of responsibility of the members.For this reason, a very large number of press releases were issued, 1 in the year 2006, which characterizes the situation of political exchanges in the European Union.[55].

Composition of committee sub-organizations

As mentioned above, the term of office of one European Commissioner from each member country is five years.MinisterIt is considered to be equivalent to.And under the European Commission, "Ministry"" By each field corresponding to ""Directorate General"(Some have different names) are placed, and these areEU lawWe are executing various operations based on.The following organizational structure is as of October 2012[59].

  • Policy sector
    • Directorate General of Budget
    • Directorate General of Agriculture and Rural Development
    • Directorate General of Climate Action
    • Directorate General for Competition
    • Directorate General of Economy and Finance
    • Directorate General of Education and Culture
    • Directorate General of Employment, Social Issues and Unity
    • Directorate General of Energy
    • Directorate General of Enterprises and Industry
    • Directorate General of the Environment
    • Directorate General of Transportation and Transportation
    • Directorate General of Fisheries and Maritime Affairs
    • Directorate General of Health and Consumer Protection
    • Directorate of Information Society and Media
    • Directorate General of Markets and Services in the Region
    • Directorate General of Justice
    • Directorate General of Interior
    • Directorate General of Regional Policy
    • Directorate General of Research and Innovation
    • Directorate General of Taxation and Customs Union
  • External relations department
    • European Aid Cooperation Bureau
    • Directorate General of Expansion
    • Directorate General of Humanitarian Aid
    • Directorate General of Trade
  • Inward service department
    • European Policy Advisory Department
    • European Commission Information Protection Officer
    • Directorate General of Human Resources and Security
    • General Information Bureau
    • Infrastructure Logistics Bureau
    • Directorate General of Internal Audit
    • Directorate General of Interpretation
    • Legal Affairs Bureau
    • General Affairs and Salary Bureau
    • Directorate General of Translation
  • Comprehensive service department
    • European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF)
    • Statistics Bureau (Eurostat)
    • Directorate General of Communication
    • Publishing office
    • Secretariat

Democratic concerns

Some criticisms have been made of the lack of democratic involvement in the European Commission's appointment method.[60][61]..Despite the Commission's executive body, its candidates are primarily elected by the Government of the Member States, which means that citizens cannot directly refuse the Commission's appointments.However, as mentioned above, the Commission's personnel case requires the approval of the European Parliament, and the European Parliament can vote no confidence in the Commission.However, the election for the European Parliament1999Since then, the turnout has fallen below 50%.This number isUnited States CongressAlthough it is higher than the national elections in some countries,President of the United StatesUnlike, there is no direct election for the President of the European Commission, which is a factor in public opinion that the position of President of the European Commission is skeptical of democratic legitimacy.[60] ..Another problem is that the electorate is not clear, on a European scale.Civil societyThere is nothing that reflects the will of the people in the creation of[62]..The Treaty of Lisbon officially included a procedure for the election of the President of the European Commission to be associated with the last election of the European Parliament.In the concept of Vice-Chairman Valstrem,European partyWill increase its presence and the European Commission President will be elected through the European Parliamentary elections[63].

Another view of the Commission is that the policy areas in which the Commission leads the drafting are not suitable for institutions that are accountable for voter pressure.In this regard, the Commission is placed in an independent position, focusing on policy areas that are less prominently at issue in elections.European Central BankIs contrasted with.However, such an argument is that many European Union policy areas affect the lives of ordinary people living in member states, and that citizens with voting rights have the right to express their opinions on government policy through elections. That isDemocracyBecause of the principle of, it is by no means widely accepted.In addition, from some of the European Commission's advocates, the Council of the European Union, which is composed of ministers of member states, is responsible for all areas of the bill submitted by the European Commission, and some areas of the bill is European. It has been pointed out that the legislation adopted without the approval of the government is limited in any member state, as each parliament must approve it.[64].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

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Coordinate: North Latitude 50 Degrees 50 Minutes 37 Seconds East longitude 4 degree 22 min 58 sec /50.84361 degrees north latitude 4.38278 degrees east longitude / 50.84361; 4.38278

Enforcement agency

Enforcement agency(Shikokikan) is used in any of the following meanings.

  1. CorporationInVoting bodyExecute administrative affairs (in the case of a public corporation) or business (in the case of a private corporation) based on the decision oforgan.
  2. In particular,Ordinary local governmentEnforcement agency (see this section).
  3. Administrative agencyIs a kind of administrativeEnforcementorImmediate compulsionInstitution to do.
  4. trial(Refer to this item).
  5. In addition, especially in relation to the abovedecreeMeaning specified in (see this item).

Execution body of ordinary local public bodies

Enforcement agency

As shown below, the executive body is usually the head of a local public body (Prefectural governor-Mayor), Committees and members (for example)Board of education,Public Safety Commission,Election Management Committee,Audit CommitteeEtc.) are included.

  1. In addition to the head of the ordinary local public body, a committee or a member shall be appointed as its executive body in the ordinary local public body as required by law.
  2. The committee of an ordinary local public body may, pursuant to the provisions of the law, establish rules and other regulations regarding the affairs belonging to its authority as long as it does not violate the law or the ordinances or rules of the ordinary local public body.
  3. Ordinary local governments may establish a self-governing dispute resolution committee, examination committee, council, investigation committee and other mediation, examination, advisory or investigation organizations as affiliated organizations of the executive body, as provided by law or ordinance. it can.However, this does not apply to the executive organs specified by Cabinet Order.

Obligations of the executive body

Local Autonomy Law Article 138-2Then,Enforcement agencyabout,

"Ordinary local governmentThe executive body of the ordinary local public bodyOrdinance,budgetOtherParliamentOffice work based on the vote ofdecree,RuleIt is obliged to manage and execute the affairs of the ordinary local public body based on other regulations in good faith at its own discretion and responsibility. "

Is prescribed.

Enforcement organization

Also, under the Local Autonomy Law, Enforcement agencyThe organization of the company is defined as follows.

  1. The organization of the executive body of an ordinary local public body shall be systematically organized by the executive body having a clear range of administrative affairs and authority under the jurisdiction of the head of the ordinary local public body. ..
  2. Under the jurisdiction of the head of an ordinary local public body, the executive organs of ordinary local public bodies must communicate with each other and exercise their administrative functions as a whole.
  3. The head of an ordinary local public body shall endeavor to coordinate any doubts about its authority between the executive bodies of the ordinary local public body.

To assist the office work of the executive agencyAuxiliary organization(Deputy GovernorAnd staff etc.) are placed.

Institution that executes the trial

An institution that executes a trial (especially a civil trial) is called an executive institution, and is contrasted with a judicial institution that conducts a trial.In Japanese law, there are examples such as Article 7.Under Japanese law, the enforcement agency for civil execution is裁判 所(For small-amount litigation claim executionCourt clerk)WhenBailiff(Civil Enforcement Law, Article 2, Article 167-2, Paragraph 1), and the enforcement bodies for civil maintenance execution are courts and bailiffs (Civil Conservation Law, Article 2, Paragraph 2).

Enforcement agency under the Tax Procedure Law

Under Japanese law, under the Tax Procedure Law, "execute delinquent disposition"Administrative agencyOthers ...,裁判 所(... For the execution of small-amount litigation claims,Court clerk),Bailiffas well as the Bankruptcy trusteeIs defined as "executive body" (National Tax LawArticle 39, paragraph 2,National tax collection lawArticle 2, Paragraph 1, Item 13,Local tax lawArticle 13-3 (2)).

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