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🌏 | US, UK, and EU sanctions against Belarus "Stop oppressing your own people"


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US-UK-Canada EU sanctions against Belarus "Stop oppressing your own people"

 
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He said it would take measures against "escalation of violence and oppression," including forcibly landing civilian aircraft operated by Ryanair and detaining dissident journalists.
 

[Luxembourg / Washington XNUMXst Reuters] -US, UK, Canada, European Union (EU) XNUMXst, ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Forced landing

Forced landing(Kyosei Chakuriku) isaircraftUnintended regardless of the intention of the side空港The act of being forced to land.In a broad senseDivertIncluded inCountryAnd third party coercion.

Things associated with violation of territorial air

For aircraft that continue to fly without permission, wireless communicationFighterDemonstration byMenacing shootingIt is internationally recognized that if you do not comply, you will be forced to land after giving a warning.Instructions from the intercepted fighterChicago ConventionAlthough the procedure is defined by (Airspace invasionSee section),1970 eraAfter that, the warning procedure was not followed or was not recognized, leading to an armed attack (1973).Libyan aircraft shot downSeeShot down, 1978Korean aircraft shooting caseSeeCrash landing on, 1983Korean aircraft shooting down case(Shooted down) was also seen.

2014IsIndonesia Saudi ArabiaA small jet with a government official on boardEast Nusa TenggaraKupangForced landing.At this time, it is reported that the Indonesian government has forced landing of small aircraft of unauthorized flight in the past several times.[1].

Things that accompany hijacking

A third party who boarded the aircraftarmsDue toIntimidation,IntimidationOccupy (hijack) the aircraft and force it to land.

Main forced landings by hijacking

Those who abduct and detain passengers

There is an example of forced landing in order to detain rebel activists who boarded an aircraft passing through their own country.[2].

footnote

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Related item

Ryan air

Ryan air(Ryanair) Isアイルランド OfDublin CountyFingal cityHeadquartered in IrelandCheap airline.

It is the largest airline in the world in terms of international passenger numbers.[3], The corporate slogan is "Low fares, Made simple. "

Overview

Europe's largest low-cost carrier

Ryanair (NASDAQ : RYAAY) Is1984May 11Established in[4],1985May 7Started operation in.1997Since the deregulation of Europe, it has expanded in a blink of an eye with cheap fares as a weapon, and is currently developing the largest route network among European low-cost carriers.アイルランド OfDublin AirportWhen,The United Kingdom OfUK3rd largestLondon Stansted AirportThe mainfocusBesidesEuropeIt has operating bases at about 50 airports.

Cheap fares

Ryanair is surprisingly cheap and popular in terms of cheapness.Japan also,UK - ParisIt was a hot topic for a while because it was a very cheap price, starting at only 0.99 euros (note that this price was limited in the number of flights and seats available).By the way, Ryanair, which was shocked by this fare, set a fare of 0.01 euro with a pre-purchase discount on many routes.

AmericaOf major low-cost carriersSouthwest AirlinesFaithful to the established business model of the metropolis, large-scale international空港Instead of using the suburban second and third international airports,インターネットWe have realized such charges by omitting various costs, such as booking airline tickets mainly by airline tickets and not having a sales agent.[5].

History

1984Since its establishment[1], Ryanair is Waterford- London GatwickIt has grown from a small airline that operated between to Europe's largest airline.

Early days

Ryanair1984Founded as "Dunlen Enterprise" by Christopher Ryan, Liam Lonergan (owner of Irish travel agency Club Travel) and Tony Ryan, founder of Guinness Peat Aviation.[6][7]..Shortly thereafter, it was renamed to "Ryanair"[8]..Waterford-15 seats between London and GatwickEmbraer EMB110Turbo propBy machine1985Started operation in.

1986ToDublin - London LutonAdd a second line between,AeringusBritish AirwaysFor the first time, he directly competed with Duopoly.European Economic CommunityUnder partial deregulation of the (EEC), new routes within the EEC can operate as long as one of the two governments has given approval (the so-called "double disapproval" regime).The Irish government at the time refused approval to protect Aer Lingus, but BritainMargaret ThatcherApproved due to conservative government deregulation.

That same year, Ryanair's board of directors acquired an 85% stake in London European Airlines.As a result, from the following yearAmsterdam - ブ リ ュ ッ セ ルThe flight between[9].1987, Ryan hired Michael O'Leary as a financial and tax adviser.1988, London European Airlines operated as Ryanair Europe and later began operating charter flights[10].

Ryanair's passenger numbers continued to grow, but were generally sluggish.1991By then a restructuring was needed, including the closure of Ryanair Europa.O'Leary is tasked with making the airline profitable, and instantly the keys to profitability are low fares, fast round-trip aircraft times, no frills, no business class, and single-model aircraft operations. Decided[11].1989In addition, Short Sandlingham was sponsored by Ryanair, but did not fly a profitable route.[12].

Southwest AirlinesAfter returning from his visit to, Ryanair was dominated by the then state-owned airline.EuropeI was convinced that I could make a huge foray into the aviation market. Competing with major airlines by offering "no-frills" low-cost services.By operating to regional airports, we paid a lower handling fee than large international airports.1995By then, after consistently pursuing a low-cost business model, Ryanair celebrated its 225th anniversary with 10 million passengers.

1992 to 2009 years

In 1992,European UnionDue to deregulation of the European Union (EU) European aviation industryEU member statesAirlines were given the right to operate regular flights between other EU member states, a great opportunity for Ryanair.[13]..With DublinNASDAQ OfStock exchangeAfter listing onStockholm, Sandefjord, Torp (Oslo110km south of),Paris Beauvais Tillé,Brussels CharleroiStarted operation to.1998Soaring with new capital,Boeing 737-80045 aircraft, 20 billionU.S. dollarI placed a large order at.

2000ToOfficial websiteWas launched.Online bookings will continue to contribute to the goal of lowering fares by selling tickets directly to passengers and excluding costs incurred by travel agencies. Within a year, three-quarters of all bookings were accepted on the website.

Ryanair2001ToBrussels Charleroi AirportLaunched a new base in.In the latter half of the same year, to Boeing, which seems to be a big discount737-800 Ordered 155 aircraft,2002から2010Introduced over[14]..Of these, about 1002005It was delivered by the end,BoeingOf the mechanicstrikeDue to the production turmoil that occurred in2005There was a slight delay in the second half[15].

20034, Ryanair has rival company BuzzKLM Royal Dutch AirlinesAcquired from[16].

2004The loss of € 2 million in the second quarter was the first loss recorded in 330 years, but soon after that it made a profit.same yearMay 5Ryanair's routes have expanded further due to the increase in EU member states[17].

The rapid addition of new routes and bases has made it possible to increase passenger numbers, making Ryanair one of the largest airlines in Europe.20058To, the companyThe United Kingdom OfBritish AirwaysClaimed to carry 20% more passengers in Europe[18].

2006May 9In the last six months, passenger numbers increased by more than one-fifth to 6 million and revenues increased by one-third to € 5 million.

2006May 2,The United Kingdom OfChannel 4It is,documentary"Dispatches: Ryanair Caught NappingWas broadcast.He criticized Ryanair's training policies, security procedures, and aircraft hygiene, emphasizing the low morale of staff.Ryanair denies allegations[19]He claimed that promotional materials, especially photographs of the stewardess sleeping, were forged by undercover agents.This special feature is also published in JapanThe whole world is visible! TV special investigation department]2009May 3Was broadcast to[20].

2006May 10, Ryanair in IrelandFlag carrier,AeringusStarted buying € 14 billion to buy.2006May 10, Aer Lingus refuses to buy Ryanair[21].

20068, Overturned the payment policy for online check-in as it began to charge passengers for check-in at the airport.It states that reducing boarding procedures at the airport will reduce overhead costs.[22].

RyanairChief executive officer(CEO) Michael O'Leary20074, Ryanair2009He said he plans to build a new long-haul route around that time.It is operated by a brand different from Ryanair and has a fare of 10.EuroWith a low fare calledVirgin AtlanticThe purpose was to compete with airlines such as.The route connects Ryanair's current base airport to about six cities in the United States.The company name will be Ryan Atlantic and it is said that it will sell tickets through the Ryanair website under the partnership agreement.[23].20102Is in service because it takes time to select equipment for low-cost operation.2014Announced that it will be postponed to[24][25].. further2014About the time of entry2019The policy to be followed is clarified.

200810, Ryanairスペイン Ofバ レ ン シ アClosed the base in[26].

same yearMay 12, Ryanair has launched a second tender offer for Aer Lingus, which will contribute € 7 million in cash.The proposal included a 800% premium on Aer Lingus' share price over the last 2 days.Ryanair said, "Other EUFlag carrierBecause of the integration, Aer Lingus has been marginalized and circumvented by a small, stand-alone regional airline. "The two airlines alleged to operate separately, and Ryanair claimed to double Aer Lingus' short-haul aircraft from 2 to 33, creating 66 new jobs.[27][28][29]..Aer Lingus' board of directors rejected the proposal and advised shareholders to take no action.Irish government of RyanairChief executive officerHe accused Michael O'Leary of CEO of "underestimating airlines" and said the acquisition of Ryanair would have a "significant negative impact" on industry competition and Irish consumers.[30].

2009, RyanairBoeingandAirbusAnnounced that it is in talks to order up to 200 aircraft.Ryanair has previously dealt with Boeing aircraft, but Michael O'Leary said he would buy Airbus aircraft if he wanted to offer a better deal.John Lee Hee, Chief Commercial Officer (CCO) of Airbus,20092Denied that no negotiations were taking place[31].

2009May 2, Ryanair2010All by the beginningAirport check-in deskAnnounced plans to close10Realized in[32].

20096, Ryanair reports first annual loss,May 3Reported losses during the closing period were € 1 million[33].

200911, Ryanair canceled the negotiations with Boeing because the negotiations did not go smoothly.2013から2016Announced that it is considering delivering 200 aircraft and returning them to shareholders in cash.[34]..Boeing's rival Airbus was once again mentioned as an alternative vendor to Ryanair, but Michael O'Leary and Airbus CCO John Leahy rejected it.[35].. same year12, Ryanair revealed that negotiations with Boeing had failed.The plan is to order all 112 aircraft that have already been ordered,2012By then, the total number of aircraft was planned to exceed 300.Ryanair then confirmed that it had reached an agreement on the price, but could not agree on the terms because it wanted to take over certain terms from the previous contract.[36].

2010 era

2010January,アイス ランド Of2010 Eiyafiyatra Yorktle eruptionRyanair is obliged to refund passengers stranded after a week of flight turmoil caused byEuropean UnionDecided to stop refusing to comply with (EU) regulations[37].May 4In a statement released in, Ryanair described the regulation as "unfair."May 4Ryanair said that due to a failed negotiation with the Airport Administration to reduce charges.Budapest OfList Ferenc International AirportAll routes from are abolished.BudapestThis is the only airport in service, and there are no low-priced airports nearby.

In June 2010, RyanairIrish GovernmentTo abolish tourism tax, implying that it is destroying tourism in Ireland[38].

In June 2010, Ryanairブルガリア OfPlovdivWe held a press conference in Plovdiv from November on two flights a week. London StanstedAnnounced Bulgaria's first destination to connect[39].

Ryanair is the smallest hub in late 2010 due to higher airport chargesBelfast City AirportShannon AirportStarted withdrawal of all routes from[40].

In the last three months of 2010, Ryanair lost € 3 million, compared to a loss of € 1,090 million in the year-ago quarter.As a result, more than 1,030 flights were canceled in the quarter.Ryanairstrikebad weatherCondemned the loss due to the cancellation of the flight[41].

20113, Ryanair opens maintenance hanger at Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, the largestEquipment maintenanceIt became a base.

20116, With RyanairChinese commercial aircraftIt is,Boeing 737Is a rival ofC919Signed a contract to cooperate in the development of[42].

201111から20124By the time, fuel costs were high and the economic situation continued to be sluggish, so we reduced costs by suspending the takeoff of 80 aircraft.[43].

2012May 6, RyanairChief executive officerMichael O'LearyAeringusAnnounced its intention to offer full cash to acquire.Previously blocked the acquisitionEuropean Commission The2017Stopped again[44].

201310According to a survey by, it was the cheapest airline in Europe with no fees at the base rate, but it turned out to be the fourth cheapest airline if fees were included.[45].

2013May 10Announced a series of "customer service improvements" to be implemented over the next 6 months.These includeboarding passIncluded a reduction in reprint fees, free changes to minor mistakes in bookings within 24 hours, and a second small carry-on baggage.Ryanair from passengersfeedbackSaid that it is making changes as a result of[46].

2014May 1, RyanairDublin Airport2,000 million euros, 10 euros in the Airside Business Park, expanding the former office insideSquare feetMoved to the new Dublin headquarters in Dublin.same yearMay 4ToEnda Kennyprime minister, Finance Minister Michael Noonan, Oisin QuinnMayorOfficially opened by.

2014May 9, Ryanair has up to 200 aircraftBoeing 737 MAX 8100 billion (100 fixed orders, 220 optional)U.S. dollarI agreed to purchase[47].

201512からMilan Malpensa AirportAnnounced plans to focus on[48].

2016May 3For companiesBoeing 737-700Started a corporate jet charter flight to rent[49][50].

201611, Ryanair is Ryanair Holidays (Ryanair Holidays) Was started.In addition to flights, it sells accommodation and transportation.アイルランド,The United Kingdom,GermanyStarted in, and other markets will follow[51]..RyanairスペインBased inTour operatorLogi Travel (Logitravel) And accommodation provider World to Meet ()World2Meet) And established Ryanair Holidays[52].

20174, Ryanair is a connecting flightAirline ticketHas started to be issued.If you fail to make a connection, you can rebook at no additional cost.European UnionCompensated in accordance with (EU) Flight Compensation Regulations.In the first place, such a ticketRome Fiumicino AirportWas sold only for connecting flights at[53].

In 2017, we will add 5 new aircraft each year over the next five years.2020 eraAt the beginning, it announced plans to aim for 1 to 2,000 million passengers.[54].

Abandonment of single airline strategy

For over a decade, Ryanair has beenアイルランドIt has been operated as a single airline only by registration,2018From other countries registrationsubsidiaryBegan to start introducing.

2017Toポーランドから地中海ToCharter flightsTo operate,2018Announced that it will launch an independent Polish subsidiary.The name of the subsidiary isRyanair Sun(Currently Buzz) and operates with Polish registration[55].. InitiallyBoeing 737-800There is only one machine of the mother companyAircraft leasingComplemented the business with.2018In the second half, Ryanair Sun moved all Polish-based aircraft to the country.In addition, Ryanair's regular FR flight number was used to operate regular flights.

2018 years,Niki AirlinesIs the founder ofNiki LaudaIt is,Air berlinEstablished Laudamotion (now Lauda), the successor to Niki Airlines, which was collapsed as a result of bankruptcy.Initially, Ryanair awaited government approval and purchased a 75% share of Laudamotion with the intention of increasing its share to 25%.The contract is 201862018 prior to the start of operations3Was announced in.After increasing its share to 75%, Ryanair launched Laudamotion the same year12Acquired by[56].

2018May 9,pilot,Flight attendant,EmployeeIs employed under an Irish contract and is subject to national law due to the transition from workers to their own labor law, as well as due to salary issues.strikeAsked.As a result, 250 flights were canceled, affecting about 4 passengers.[57][58].

2019May 6, RyanairマルタAnnounced that it will establish Malta Air with the government.At that time, it was supposed to replace flight 61 operated by Ryanair.Equipment will be registered in Malta and a hangar for repairs and maintenance will be set up[59][60]..Ryanair2020By mid, currently operating to MaltaBoeing 737-800Is expected to move to Malta Air, and the number of aircraft will increase from 6 to 10 (all painted with Malta Air).[61].

Chief executive officerMichael O'Leary on March 2020, 3ベルギー Ofブ リ ュ ッ セ ルAt the A4E Aviation Summit held inNew coronavirusHe said he hopes to get "sick" and expects to recover by the summer of 2020.[62]..But then Ryanair said in a statement that it expects demand to return to 2022 levels by the summer of 2019.[63].

Global pandemic of new coronavirus infectionsHas a great influence on Ryanair.Chief executive officerMichael O'Leary政府The airline has announced a number of changes, although it categorically claims that aid from is not an option.This includes the loss of 2020 jobs announced on May 5, 1, which will primarily affect pilots and flight attendants.This is due to the airline's announcement that it will suspend most operations until June 3,000.[64][65]..Michael O'Leary announced in July 2020 that it posted a net loss of € 7 million in the April-June period of 2020.Net income for the same period last year was € 4 million[66].. April 2020,Irish GovernmentDue to restrictions on the new coronavirusアイルランドThreatened to leave[67]..Although the original plan was to skip 60% of the previous year's schedule, it was decided in October 2020 to reduce flights to 10% between November 2020 and March 11.According to O'Leary, this was due to the relaxation of quarantine travel measures.EUIt is said that it is the result of "the government's inadequacy for air travel"[68].. By the end of December 2020, it reports that the annual number of users has decreased by 12% compared to 2019.[69].

Long-distance route entry plan

20074, Ryanair announced that it plans to establish a new company to fly long-haul routes (mainly Atlantic routes) around 2009.The company name is Ryan Atlantic (RyanAtlantic), While offering seats at low fares like Ryanair, unlike the policy of operating only economy class aircraft so far, upper class ()first class) Is set.this isVirgin Atlantic AirlinesIt is said that it is against airlines such as.The route connects Ryanair's current hub airport to about six cities in the United States.However (though this is not limited to Ryanair), it follows the policy of avoiding central airports in large cities, where landing fees are high and crowded, and using smaller airports in the suburbs.Already nowOhioPort Columbus International AirportWe are considering the service to and are in negotiations.From the airport, an American low-cost carrierSkybus AirlinesCode share flightsHowever, Skybus Airlines stopped operating in April 2008, so the plan returned to a blank slate.The equipment used isAirbus A350 XWB,Boeing 787We are planning to procure and launch about 40 to 50 aircraft.

The minimum fare is 10 euros (about 1320 yen) one way, and the lowest priced seats will be offered on each flight up to 60 seats.On the other hand, the upper class will cost up to 5000 euros (about 82 yen) and will provide a limousine service to the airport and a lounge service with showers and beds.As a destination, the American sideニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Duffel Bag,Denver,Dallas,Los Angeles,Las Vegas..European sideDublin,UK,Liverpool,Frankfurt,BarcelonaAre planned respectively.

In 2010, it announced that it would postpone service to 2014 because it took time to select equipment for low-cost operation.[24][25]..Furthermore, in 2014, it announced that it will enter the market after 2019.

Movement over the alliance

Capital relationship with Aer Lingus

IrishFlag carrierIsAeringusHas often announced the acquisition of2006,2008,2012ToTakeover bid(TOB) was conducted and it became the largest shareholder holding nearly 30% of the shares of Aer Lingus, but the acquisition has not been realized due to refusal from Aer Lingus.European CommissionAnd the UK Competition Commission has expressed concern that a new entry in Ireland would be virtually impossible if the acquisition were to take place.

2013May 2, Ryanair's offer to buy Aer LingusEuropean Commission・ Ryanair announced that it is expected to be rejected by the EC.Despite the proposal under competition law, Ryanair urged attorneys to bring the EC's decision to court, saying it was not based on the law.

2015May 2,British AirwaysSuch asHolding companyIsInternational Airlines Group(IAG) has proposed to the Company to sell its shares in Aer Lingus.We accepted the proposal and sold Aer Lingus shares to IAG by August 8, the same year, and withdrew from the deal.

Capital participation in Laudamotion

In March 2018, the shares of Austrian airline Laudamotion (now Lauda) were acquired by the chairman of the company.Niki LaudaGet more.Originally Lauda went bankrupt in January of the same year, the previous year.Niki AirlinesHas been acquired and is under the umbrella of the company, and has just resumed operations in March.With this acquisition, Ryanair has been entrusted with most of the company's operations since April.

Ryanair Group Airlines

Economic trends

The following are the main trends of the Ryanair Group since 2010 (the fiscal year ends on March 3st of each year).

2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
amount of sales(XNUMX million euros)29.8836.2943.9048.8450.3756.5465.3666.4871.5176.94
Operating income(XNUMX million euros)4.024.886.837.186.5910.4314.6015.3416.6710.17
Profit before tax (billion euros)3.414.216.336.515.919.8217.2214.7016.119.48
Net income(XNUMX million euros)3.053.755.605.695.238.6715.5913.1614.508.85
Number of Employees7,0328,0638,4389,0599,5019,58610,92612,43813,80315,938
Number of passengers (XNUMX million)0.6650.7210.7580.7930.8170.9061.0641.2001.3031.421
Passenger load factor (%)82838282838893949596
Number of aircraft (end of year)232272294305297308341383431471
Source[70][70][70][71][71][72][73][73][73]

Main office

Ryanair2014From irishDublin CountyHeadquartered in Airside Business Park, Swords, Fingal[74]..Area is 9,300 m2And 1100 millionEuroPurchased at[75]..According to the newspaper Irish Independent John Mulligan, Ryanair was expected to renovate the building for an additional € 900 million.[75].

Since 2004, the head office hasDublin AirportLocated on the premises ofAeringusWas near the head office[76]..Darly investment1992We built this facility in.Ryanair later acquired Darley Investment and opened its headquarters facility from the Irish Ministry of Transport for 30 years.leasedid. He was supposed to pay 12 euros a year for 244,000 years, but he didn't.2008Paid less than half of 12 euros 244,000 years earlier[75].

Uproar / scandal

Employment relationship

Refusal of union approval

Employee450 people, each in the companystockBecause when employees had an impact on the operation of the companyUnionThere was an early agreement not to participate in[77]..Since then, the treatment of employees has changed significantly, and employees are no longer able to acquire shares in the company.Ryanair201712Announced that it would allow a pilot union, but the company refused to allow or negotiate a flight attendant union.

2011, Former RyanairCaptainIs on dutyFlight attendantAfter handing out the union application form to and being dismissedUKWas given financial compensation by the Employment Court[78].. In 2012, the Ryanair Pilot Group (RPG) was formed.

2017May 9Pilots were mobilized due to the cancellation of thousands of flightsMay 12,イタリア,アイルランド,PortugalChief executive officerMichael O'Leary recognized the union for the first time.business modelWithout changing2018Predicted an increase in labor costs.RyanairChristmasDuring the periodstrikeWe discussed the union's approval in response to this possibility.

Employment conditions

Ryanair has tens of thousands for pilot trainingEuroForced to pay, then to Ireland to work the pilot through an agencyLtd.Faced criticism of establishing[79]. Also,スペインTo the ground staffGibraltarWas forced to open a bank account and was criticized for receiving a salary[80].

20145,MarseilleThe Ryanair branch office inFranceComplaints about not complying with the Employment LawFrench policeInvestigated.Ryanair protests against the investigation[81].

20155,デンマークAs a result of a protest from the union regarding Ryanair's employment conditions,CopenhagenThe mayor of the companyboycottannounced.Ryanair shifts focus from Denmark after a trial confirms the union's right to strike[82].

2018May 8,Germany,スウェーデン,アイルランド,ベルギー, NetherlandsRyanair pilot strikes for 24 hours and 400 flights are canceled[83].

2018May 9,スペイン,ベルギー, Netherlands,Portugal,イタリア,GermanyDue to the strike in Japan, 150 flights were canceled, accounting for about 6% of all flights.The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has requested the company to compensate 261 passengers affected under EU Regulation Article 2,400 but Ryanair refused to accept the claim.[84].. same year12CAA announced that it will take legal action against Ryanair[85].

Subsidy income and in-flight services

20% of Ryanair's revenue comes from subsidies other than ticket fares.2009Subsidized income of 5 millionEuroAnd the total revenue was 29 million euros.

Checked baggage and consumer magazines as part of a low-cost business modelHoliday Which?(Holiday witch?) ”At the airport instead of purchasing options or checking in onlineBoarding procedureI am charging an additional fee for using the facility etc.[86].

In 2009, Ryanair abolished check-in at the airport and replaced it with an automatic baggage storage machine at the airport.[87]. twenty fourEuroThe option to check in at the airport has been abolished and all passengers will have to check in online and print their boarding pass.€ 55/45 to reissue if boarding pass is not printed in advancelbNeed to pay.If you cannot check in your luggage online, the fee will vary depending on the destination airport (as of June 2012).Ryanair faced criticism of the ambiguous nature of these changes[5][88].

No frills

In-flight services are also kept to a minimum as part of cost reduction.Many of these are common to low-cost carriers.

A simplified example of in-flight and off-board services

  • Seat classEconomy classUnified to.
  • Mileage pointsOffering and abolition of seat selection.
  • News (Chinese),magazine,blanketAbolished services such as.
  • Abolition of in-flight entertainment such as personal video and in-flight music broadcasting.
  • In-flight mealAbolition of free provision of beverages and beverages and commercialization for a fee.
  • The reclining function of the in-flight seat, seat table, and seat pocket are abolished.
  • Use genuine leather upholstery for the in-flight seats, which is easy to clean.

Additional charge

Ryanair's revenue depends largely on "additional charges" other than airline ticket sales.Therefore, even if the ticket itself is exceptional, many services are often charged, but it is not limited to Ryanair.

  • In-flight mealAnd drinks (including water) are sold for a fee. (You are free to bring in food and drink).
  • Luggage storage is also charged.If you "reserve" luggage storage in advance at the time of ticket purchase, the luggage storage fee will be discounted.
  • A payment fee will be charged at the time of ticket purchase (except for certain debit card holders).
  • There is a paid "priority boarding" service that allows you to board before other passengers (= you can choose your seat).

Occasionally, Ryanair gets a lot of attention by making seemingly infeasible suggestions to increase name recognition.As an example

  • Remove some seats and start standing service[89].
  • Apply extra charges to obese passengers[90](Note that there are actually such extra charges for obese US airlines).
  • Have passengers carry their checked baggage to the plane.
  • Toilet charge[91][92].

and so on.

customer service

Ryanair has been criticized in many aspects of customer service.The United Kingdom Ofweekly magazineof"economist』, Saying that Ryanair" treats passengers as cavalier ", gives Ryanair a" natural reputation for discomfort "and is synonymous with" horrifying customer service, who disturbs and what I'm rude to him. "[93].20191A survey conducted in the United Kingdom found it to be the UK's least popular short-haul airline for the sixth consecutive year.[94]..Ryanair said passenger numbers have increased by 6% over the last six years, countering it as a more accurate reflection of airline popularity than the "non-representative survey of just 80 people."[95].20198, Ryanair said the annual "Witch? 』Survey ranked the customer service of 100 popular British brands and ranked last[96].

2002, Ryanair's first passenger, Jane O'keeffe, was awarded a free travel award, but was subsequently withdrawn.Dublin High Court awarded € 100 in damages and costs[97].

Ryanair has been strongly criticized for inadequate treatment of handicapped passengers.2002,London Stansted AirportDisabledTo passengerswheelchairRefused to provide and infuriated rights groups for the physically challenged[98]..Ryanair argued that the regulations were the responsibility of the airport authorities and said that wheelchairs were provided by 84 of the 80 ports in service at the time.[99].2004The court ruled that airlines and airport owners should share responsibility.[100]..As a result, 0.50 for all route priceslbWas added[101].

20127, 69-year-old woman Francis DuffArtificial anusExplain the need to have and carryDoctorDespite the letter from, he was refused to carry the medical kit on board.From the Ryanair boarding staff, in front of the passengersshirtI was asked to lift and prove that I had an artificial anal bag.Francis Duff previously talked about travelers' artificial anal bagspolicyI tried to contact Ryanair three times to ask about, but didn't respond[102].

2011May 4From 261 to all route prices to cover the costs incurred from EC Regulation 2004/2, which requires passengers to pay for meals and accommodation on delayed / canceled flights.EuroStarted to add[103].

Contacting Ryanair will incur chargestelephone line,FAX, ま た はMailingIt was only in, but nowWeb formCan be used.2006ToBritish ParliamentSo, for this reason, I criticized Ryanair,電子 メ ー ルRequested that customers be provided with a means of contacting[104]..This will provide a basic rate phone number for post-booking inquiries in the UK.2013 Consumer Contract (Information, Cancellation, Additional Payment) RegulationsIn enacting Article 41 of the Directive 2011/83 / EU on consumer rights under Article 21 of the EU, it chose to omit the exemption from passenger transport services.

Passenger treatment

If you miss your connecting flight due to a delay in Ryanair's flight, you will still be responsible for purchasing a replacement ticket.This is because it is not premised on connecting.It is also known to blatantly target competitors with advertising.

As with other European airlines, regarding significant delays and cancellations of our flights, as with other European airlines.checkThe price is refunded due to such reasons.this is,European UnionIs due to the rules set by[105].

Improving customer service

2014May 6, Ryanair has announced a campaign to rebuild itself as a more family-friendly airline.Michael O'Leary at the company's 2014 General MeetingChief executive officerThe CEO said airlines need to "don't offend people unnecessarily." Up to 8,100% of the 20 million passengers are families and said they would like to raise that number.Ryanair's Chief Marketing Officer, Kenny Jacobs, on the websiteLive chatAnd said it has improved the quality of the services and experiences it offers.[106]..This change had a positive impact on the company's finances[107].

Canceled in September and October 2017

20179から10Received widespread criticism after announcing that 1-40 flights per day (about 50% of total daily flights) would be canceled.[108][109][110][111][112]..This cancellation was notified to passengers with very little or a few hours before departure.Ryanair said the cancellation was aimed at "improving the punctuality of the entire system," which decreased in the first two weeks of September. The punctuality that decreased in the first two weeks of September was "Air traffic controlWith delaystrike,bad weather,pilotFlight attendantThe impact of increased vacation allocations to[113].

12Late "Witch? According to the survey, with RyanairVueling AirlinesWas rated as the worst in the world in customer service for short-haul carriers.In contrast, Ryanair was "the world's largest international airline (1 million customers) and the world's fastest growing airline (2,900 million customers in 2017)900 Annually. This survey of 1 people is not representative and worthless, and we apologize to less than 9,000% of passengers affected by flight cancellations and winter rescheduling. " Issued[114].

public relations

Controversial advertising

Ryanair Advertising and Michael O'LearyCEO Ofsatire, Our company for freePropagandaDeliberately controversial to do[115]Has caused many complaints to the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and sometimes to airlinesLawsuitWas raised[116][117][118][119].

2009May 2 OfBBC News OfLive interviewThen, Michael O'Leary realized that it was a "quiet news day" and Ryanair was on board.WCCharged (1lb) Was considered[91]..After that, it was reported in the media for several days, but eight days later, the charge was admitted to be a promotional stunt, saying "it is unlikely, but it will be an interesting and very cheap PR".[120][92].

Ryanair often makes direct comparisons in advertising to attack competitors.One of them isブ リ ュ ッ セ ル OfManneken PisIn the photo of "Pissed off with Sabena's high fares? Low fares have arrived in Belgium.(Sabena Belgian AirlinesAre you angry with the high fares?Cheap fares have arrived in Belgium) ”Was published.At the beginning "piss"PissingIt has both meanings of being angry and angry.Sabena Belgian AirlinesLawsuitCause裁判 所Arbitrated that the advertisement was misleading and offensive.Ryanair announced an apology after being ordered to stop advertising immediately or impose a fine.The ruling also required that it be published on Ryanair's website.[121].

Another provocative advertising campaign is "Expensive BAstards!(Expensive bastard!) ”, With RyanairBritish AirwaysPublished a comparative advertisement.this is,BastardsThe first two letters (BA) of the British Airways abbreviation, BApunIs.Like Sabena Belgian Airlines, British Airways disagreed with the accompanying price comparison and filed a proceeding against Ryanair.The High Court upheld Ryanair and ordered BA to pay Ryanair's court fees.The judge ruled that "Ryanair is complaining about exaggerating that the BA price will be five times higher, even though the BA price is only three times higher."[122].

2007, RyanairNorthern Ireland(The United Kingdom)ofBelfastIn the advertisement when a new service is launched inShin Fein PartyMartin McGuinness (Deputy Prime Minister of Northern Ireland,IRA(Former senior commander of the party) stood with party leader Gerry Adams and said in a speech bubbleRyanair fares are so low even the British Army flew home.(Even the British went home at Ryanair's fare) ”Was written[123][124].Ulster Unionist PartyProponents responded with anger to the ad, but the Labor Standards Bureau (ASA) said it did not believe the ad would cause widespread crime.

High school girlDressed asモデルIn the advertisement ofHottest back to school fares(The sexiest new semester sale) ”Was added.thisEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWith 2 papersThe United Kingdom OfNational newspaperI posted an advertisement on one of the papers. After receiving 1 complaints, the advertisement was widely reported by national newspapers. ASA said, "It seems to associate teenage girls with sexually provocative behavior, irresponsible, and seriously widespread.crimeIs likely to cause, "he said, instructing airlines to withdraw ads in the United Kingdom."We will not withdraw this ad and will not offer any of the efforts ASA requires," Ryanair said.Also, "Major BritainDaily newspaperMany of them do not cause serious and widespread crimetoplessIt is absurd to regularly post pictures of partially dressed women and claim that pictures of fully dressed models cause'serious widespread crime'. " Said[125].

Misleading advertising

Ryanair generally does not operate at major airports.However, it has been criticized for entering the names of major cities in its destinations and for entering secondary airports that are far from the original cities that were not constructed for tourism and have no transportation access.As an exampleParis Beauvais Airport(85km north-northwest of Paris, in ParisRegional areaDoes not belong to),Brussels Charleroi Airport(46km south of Brussels),Milan Bergamo Airport(45km from Milan),Frankfurt Hahn Airport(102 km from Frankfurt,KoblenzMainzClose to),Stockholm Skavsta Airport(89km from Stockholm),Barcelona Reus Airport(88km from Barcelona) and so on.

Ryanair needs time from the Advertising Standards Office (ASA) to the airport, so the London-Brussels routeEuro starI was ordered to stop claiming to be faster than.Ryanair argued against this, and the flight time was列車He pointed out that it is shorter than that and that it also takes time to reach the Eurostar station.[126].

20084Ryanair received a series of complaints and faced an investigation by the British Fair Trade Commission (OFT). It turned out that he violated seven advertising rules in two years. Christopher Graham, director of the ASA, commented that formal inquiries to OFT were rare and last occurred in 2."We want to work with advertisers within a self-regulatory system rather than a legal body, but Ryanair's approach leaves us with no choice," Ryanair said. Repeatedly demonstrated lack of sex. "[127].

20097, Ryanair "officially" after reaching an agreement with OFTWebsiteAnd other ads have taken some steps to increase clarity and transparency.Ryanair's website includes a statement that "listed prices do not include optional prices" and added a price list to facilitate price comparisons.[128].

20107Ryanair has once again caused controversy over the allegedly misleading ad.Two newspapers have published advertisements that offer a one-way fare of £ 10 to European destinations. ASA is a rivalEasy jetIn response to complaints from, this proposal was judged to be "highly misleading"[129].

20114In addition, Ryanair said,A place in the sun destinations(Warm destination) ”, But it was banned because some destinations were found to have only about 1 hours of sunshine and a temperature of 3-0 ° C per day.[130].

2016In addition, Ryanair has websites such as Opodo and Cheap Air.Screen scrapingAnd false advertisements to prevent Ryanair data from being displayed[131].

20202Ryanair instructed Ryanair to provide adequate evidence to support its environmental claims after the ASA banned ads claiming to be Europe's lowest-emission airline, as misleading. .."The worst of the major airlines" in the adcarbon dioxideHe claimed to be "emissions" and a "low carbon dioxide emission airline" based on the top 27 European airlines. The ASA asked about some numbers and the definition of "major airline" for the purpose of evaluation.The petitioner stated that the advertisement was misleading and could not be substantiated. As a response to ASA, RyanairEuropean Air Navigation Safety OrganizationAnd quoted the airline efficiency rankings of Brighter Plant.However, ASA said Ryanair used the 2019 efficiency rankings, which "have little value as a proof of comparisons made in 2011." The ASA argued that it should not be displayed again in its current format, saying it would be misleading to passengers.[132].

Infiltration coverage by the British broadcaster

The United KingdomBroadcasting stationChannel 4Has two female staff members of the airlineCabin attendantWe sent in as an infiltration interview for 5 and a half monthsdocumentary"Dispatches: Ryanair Caught Napping』,JapanBut "The whole world is visible! TV special investigation department』(March 2009, 3) was broadcast.The actual conditions taken up in Japan are as follows.[20].

  • In the training of the cabin attendant, "The security test is done because it is stipulated by law, and the Ministry of Transport does not prohibit the test while looking at the textbook, so you can take the test while looking at the note. "The instructor said[20].
  • "Because all passengers have to board in 25 minutes.passportThe check does not have to be careful.If you have it in your hand, that's OK, "said the cabin attendant.[20].
  • Because it will take off in a short time of 25 minutesLife jacketReconfirmation and cleaning of the cabin are not performed sufficiently[20].
  • Cabin attendant shifts can last 1 hours a day for a week, and some fall asleep in flight.[20].
  • Despite the extension for a long time, the captain will be dismissed if he does not serve soft drinks[20].

Ryanair denied all of this in writing to a British show, claiming that promotional materials, especially photos of stewardess sleeping, were forged by undercover agents.[19][20].

additional fee

20112, Ryanair passenger Milo Garcia, before arriving at the airportboarding pass40 for passengers who did not printEuro/ 30lbClaimed to Ryanair that the additional charge was unreasonable.Judge Barbara Cordova of the Barcelona Commercial Court said that under the International Air Travel Convention, Ryanair would print a boarding pass and request it to go to the airport, or charge 40 euros / 30 pounds if you do not have a boarding pass. He claimed that the fine was abused because he couldn't do it and the airline law required airlines to issue boarding passes.Judge Cordoba declares that "the terms of the contract that Ryanair requires passengers to obtain a boarding pass to the airport are abusive and therefore invalid.(abridgement)It has been a long-standing practice that airlines have always been obliged to provide boarding passes. "The judge ordered a refund for Milo Garcia.Ryanair decidesappealAnd the Spanish Court of Appeals in 201111Overturned this ruling and determined that the additional charges are in compliance with international law[133].

201112, Ryanair bans additional charges when customers pay by credit cardBritish Ministry of FinanceAnnounced to oppose the plan[134].European Union(EU) law has already been drafted for additional payment methods[135].

fuel

2012May 7,スペイン OfMadridViolent aroundthunderstormOccurredMadrid Barajas AirportThree Ryanairs arriving atValencia AirportI changed my course to.All three aircraft held in the air for 50-69 minutes declared a state of emergency because less fuel was calculated when landing at Valencia Airport than the final reserve.may Day)Did.The Irish Civil Aviation Bureau (IAA) investigated the event and came to various conclusions, including:

  • All three departed for Madrid with fuel that exceeded the requirements of the flight plan.
  • The crew detoured to Valencia with more fuel than the minimum detour fuel indicated in the flight plan.
  • Detouring with a fuel close to the minimum detour fuel in the situation presented in the evening of the problem was likely to present a challenge to the crew.The first retention was in the southwestern part of Madrid, but the detour time to another destination increased.
  • The crew found that less fuel was calculated to land in Valencia than the final reserve and declared a state of emergency in accordance with EU-OPS.
  • Heavy thunderstorms around Madrid were more important than when the crew reviewed Madrid's weather information.As a result, the additional fuel was affected.
  • Increased air traffic in crowded airports such as Madrid in thunderstorm conditions can result in significant extensions.
  • Valencia's air traffic control was under great pressure due to the number of aircraft bypassing the airspace.[136].

The IAA has made some recommendations, including reviewing Ryanair fuel measures when there is a high likelihood of detours in bad weather and requiring the prefecture to provide guidance to crew on fuel when maneuvering at crowded airports. Created.The Spanish Aviation Security Agency also recommends "delaying the review to Madrid to consider whether additional fuel is needed for normal operation, especially if the southern runway is operating" did[136].

Later, the Civil Aviation Accident and Accident Investigation Commission (CIAAIC) said, "Ryanair's fuel conservation policy complies with legal minimum requirements, but tends to minimize the amount of fuel that the aircraft operates on. Yes, we are not prepared for unforeseen circumstances below the legal minimum requirements. "[137].

NetherlandsIn an interview with the research program "KRO Reporter"AnonymousOf Ryanair who wantedpilotThe four claimed that they were under pressure to load as little fuel as possible to reduce costs.Ryanair and itsChief executive officer(CEO) Michael O'Leary denied the allegations and sued the show[138].2014May 4, A Dutch court ruled that the show provided sufficient evidence in two broadcasts of May Day, May Day (2 and 2012 broadcasts) to support Ryanair's allegations of fuel policy.Ryanair was ordered to pay the legal costs of the case[139].

Carbon dioxide emissions

2018, RyanairEuropean UnionIn (EU)carbon dioxide(CO2) Became one of the 10 companies with the highest emissions.This is the first time an airline has been ranked in, and it is the only non-coal-fired power company.In the same year Ryanair released 1 megatons of CO2Emissions equivalent to the above were recorded, increasing by 5% in 49 years.Environmentalists severely criticized Ryanair and thought it was an indication that aviation was not taxed.[140].

Coronavirus support for new coronavirus

From the end of March 2020New coronavirus infectionUnder the influence of政府Ryanair was forced to cancel due to the necessary cancellations due to travel restrictions set by.As a result, many employees have been temporarily banned and some employees using the Irish Temporary Wage Subsidy Program (TWSS) have reduced their salaries by up to 50%.[141]..Passengers who were canceled were informed of a voucher or alternative flight.Ryanair has stated that it will not offer cash refunds until the end of the coronavirus crisis, offending many passengers who have to wait months for refunds under EU regulation.

Complaints to the aviation observer have increased sharply over the handling of refunds from Ryanair, and passengers have complained that they have been refused refunds due to cancellations.[142]..Many organizations take a stance on the aviation industry through media actions and declarations[143].イタリアCivil Aviation Bureau ENAC threatened Ryanair's ban on flights to the country on suspicion of violating local new coronavirus regulations[144].

Ryanair's Michael O'LearyChief executive officerOn boardSocial distanceHe said the company's plane wouldn't fly if it was required to leave the middle seats vacant to keep it.Closing the space between seats was "stupid" and had no merit.[145].

competitor

Ryanair has several low-cost airline competitors.2004About 60 low-cost carriers have been established in.アイルランド OfFlag carrierIsAeringusWas traditionally a "full service carrier",2002Has shifted to a low fare strategy, and competition with Ryanair has become even more fierce on Irish routes.Ryanair is a member of the European Airlines (A4E) and previously disappearedEuropean Low Fares Airline AssociationWas a member of[146][147].

Airlines that compete directly with Ryanair have been treated competitively and have been accused of lowering fares to significantly reduce their competitors.2003In response to My Travel Wright, which began competing with Ryanair on the Birmingham-Dublin route, several routes were set up until the latter withdrew.Go was another airline that tried to operate Ryanair's existing Dublin-Glasgow and Dublin-Edinburgh routes.Fierce competition continued and Go eventually withdrew from Dublin[148].

20049, Ryanair's biggest rivalEasy jetFirst service to IrelandCoke - London GatwickAnnounced the line.Until then, easyJet did not compete directly with Ryanair.Easy Jet later Gatwick-Cork Line, Gatwick- ShannonLine, Gatwick-Knock Line,London Luton --Abolished Shannon line[149].

2012, Ryanair is a low cost carrierWizz AirAlso corresponded to.Wizz Airポーランド OfWarsaw Chopin AirportI was planning to fly from to cheaper[150]..Ryanair had previously operated the Warsaw-Dublin route, but withdrew after claiming that the charges at major Warsaw airports were too high.Wizz Air has begun operations at Modlin Airport, and Ryanair has also begun several routes from the same airport.Also, most of the routes were the same as those operated by Wizz Air.

スウェーデンThe United KingdomThe only passenger in betweenferryThe Newcastle-Gothenburg line, which has been operating under various operators since the 19th century, is on the line.200610As a reason for abolishing it, DFDS Seaways, which was the operating company at that time,Gothenburg-Landwetter Airport - Edinburgh AirportLondon Stansted AirportMentioned that it was due to competition with Ryanair flying[151].

Destination

Main article:Ryanair destinations

Ryanair's biggestfocus TheLondon StanstedThere are 44 aircraft deployed in.afterwards,Dublin AirportBased in[152]..RyanairEuropeNorth africaIt operates from 35 focal points connecting 84 countries.Also, some non-focuses operate more flights and destinations than focus.

Ryanair has traditionally preferred to fly to smaller or secondary airports outside major cities, taking advantage of reduced landing fees and faster round-trip times to reduce costs.RyanairEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfBratislava airportIs called "Bratislava Vienna"ViennaIs 80 km away国境Beyond.In some cases,Rome Ciampino AirportThe secondary airport may not be far from the city and may be closer than the main airport in the city.

On the other hand,Amsterdam,Athens,Barcelona-El Prat,ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル,Budapest,Copenhagen,Dublin,Edinburgh,Frankfurt,Lisbon,London Gatwick,Madrid Barajas,Marseille,Oslo Gardemoen,Roman FiumicinoThere are also examples of boarding the same airport as major airlines such as.These cities often do not have a secondary airport that can be used as an alternative.2014 OfSummer: For the first time, we have opened offices at major airports in Athens, Lisbon, Brussels and Rome.TraditionalHub and spokeOperates on a point-to-point model, not a model[153].

Ryanair's biggest competitor isEasy jetAndAmsterdam,Paris-Charles de GoalIt focuses on large major airports such as, and targets business travelers.RyanairCanary islands,Cyprus,Greek islands,マルタIt also operates routes to warm cities such as.20148,イ ス ラ エ ルAnnounced ambitious plans to establish major bases in Europe and operate on various routes in Europe[154].. same year12Ryanair is the 72nd baseAzoresAnnounced plans to open a base in 2015[155].20182,Scottish GovernmentRyanair did not abolish or reduce its Air Passenger Obligation (APD)Glasgow airportAnnounced that it will abolish many routes and close its bases.20194Revived four routes to Alicante, Brussels, Malaga and Warsaw at the airport.[156].

Ryanair will negotiate service with each airportAirport feeandLanding feeIt is common to ask for a large discount, subsidies for opening new routes, and the burden of advertising expenses.In addition, if it is judged that sufficient assistance for maintaining a low fare cannot be obtained, it is often the case that the airport is withdrawn or the route is reduced and the airport is operated in better conditions. In 2004, the European Commission ruled that the Wallonia regional government's subsidy to Ryanair was illegal.[Annotation 1]For BrusselsSouth Charleroi AirportAnd London Stansted Airport have been abolished[157]..Also in 2009Air France-KLMIs protesting the "illegal subsidy receipt" to the European Commission.According to the protest, Ryanair receives more than 6 million euros annually.[158].

List of airports with many destinations 2007-17[159]
cityNumber of destinationsMaintenance rate
London Stansted18473%
Dublin13169%
Bergamo12465%
Brussels Charleroi11670%
Girona11235%
Frankfurt Hahn10344%
Weeze9745%
Alicante8961%
Madrid8657%
Pisa8653%

Flight aircraft

As of May 2020, Ryanair's equipment is as follows:[160].

List of Ryanair fleets
equipmentTotalOrderNumber of seatsRemarks
Airbus A320-2002812180Operated by Lauda
Boeing 737-7001149For trial operation
Boeing 737-800270189[161]
120Operated by
47BuzzOperated by
1Operated by Ryanair UK
Boeing 737 MAX200210197[162]Flight Problems with the Boeing 737 MAXDue to the postponement of introduction[163].
Total467222

Boeing 737 NextGen,Airbus A320,COMAC C919Although further expansion of airplanes was considered by purchasing such items, price negotiations with each manufacturer were unsuccessful.

In March 2013, it ordered 3 Boeing 175-737s from Boeing. Some of the 800 aircraft are to replace the old ones, and the goal is to have 175 aircraft.[164].

The customer number (customer code) of the Boeing airliner ordered by the company isASSo, 737-8ASBecomes

Retired equipment

As of May 2020, Ryanair's retired aircraft are:

Ryanair Retired Equipment List
equipmentYear of introductionYear of retirementRemarks
ATR 42-300[165]19891991
BAC 1-11 500[166]19861994
Boeing 737-200[165]19942005Replaced with Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737-300[165]20022004Replaced with Boeing 737-800
Embraer EMB 110[166]19851989
Avro 748[166]19861990

Accident/case related

2008May 11,Frankfurt Hahn AirportFlight 4102 from to both enginesBird strikeHappened,Rome Ciampino AirportDamaged during an emergency landing at[167]..Two crew members and eight passengers were slightly injured, taken to a hospital and closed the airport for more than 2 hours.[168]..In addition to damage to the engine and undercarriage, the rear fuselage was also damaged by contact with the runway.The aircraft was irreparably damaged and discarded.The final report of the accident isNational Aviation Safety AgencyInvestigated by (ANSV), more than 10 years have passed since the accident2018May 12ToItalianAnnounced only in[169]..English translation provided by the Aviation Accident Database[170].

2021May 5, Ryanair flight 4978ベ ラ ル ー シ OfAirspaceAlexander LukashenkoPresidentBy the order ofBelarusian Air Force OfFighter OfescortUnderMinsk National AirportToEmergency landing official[171]..Then one of the passengers, BelarusPolitical activist,journalist OfRoman ProtasevicIs BelarusPolicemenByArrestWas done[172].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ This decision was later overturned.

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