WHO, heterologous corona vaccine mixed inoculation "dangerous tendency" caution
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WHO said that while data on mixed vaccinations are currently limited, more data are expected to be available, "it is necessary to assess both immunogenicity and safety."
[Geneva XNUMXth Reuters] – World Health Organization (WHO) Chief Scientist Somiya Swaminasan is different ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Immunogenicity(Men Ekigen,British: immunogen) Is a component of the immune system (antibody,lymphocytes) May specifically bindantigenOr a substance.The term antigen comes from its ability to induce the production of antibodies.All antigens are recognized by specific lymphocytes and antibodies, but all of themImmune responseDoes not cause.The ability of an antigen (immunogen) to provoke an immune responseImmunogenicity(British: immunogenicity) Called.
The word immunogen is sometimes used interchangeably with the word antigen, but only the immunogen can provoke an immune response...In general, both are substances capable of producing antibodies (antigens) or substances capable of stimulating an immune response (immunogens).
Immunogen elicits an immune responseEpitopeCan be defined as a complete antigen consisting of a (determinant) and a macromolecular carrier..As a clear exampleHaptenThere is.Haptens are low molecular weight compounds that can bind to antibodies but cannot provoke an immune response.As a result, the hapten itself is non-immunogenic and cannot elicit an immune response until it binds to a larger carrier immunogenic molecule.Unlike free haptens, hapten-carrier complexes can act as immunogens and elicit an immune response..
Until 1959, the terms immunogen and antigen were not distinguished..
Carrier protein used
- (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin,KLH)
- It is a copper-containing respiratory protein isolated from Keyhole Limpet (Keyhole Limpet, Limpet (or Limpet, also known as Megathura crenulata)).Due to its evolutionary distance from mammals, high molecular weight, and complex structure, it is usually immunogenic in vertebrates..
- (Concholepas Concholepas Hemocyanin,CCH)
- It is a substitute for KLH (also a blue carrier immunogenic protein) isolated from the concholepas Concholepas. It has the same immunogenicity as KLH, but has excellent solubility and flexibility..
- Bovine serum albumin(Bovine Serum Albumin,BSA）
- It is made from bovine serum and has the same immunogenicity as KLH and CCH.Catified BSA (cBSA) is a highly positively charged protein with significantly improved immunogenicity.This change increases the number of antigens that can bind to proteins..
- Ovalbumin (Ovalbumin,OVA)
- OVA, also known as egg white albumin, is the major protein (60-75%) contained in chicken egg white. Since the OVA dissolves in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), it is possible to bind insoluble haptens to aqueous buffers.The immune response can be enhanced by injecting the adjuvant with the immunogen..
- Professional to antigen-exposed sitesAntigen presenting cellsMobilization of (APC)
- Increased antigen delivery due to delayed / sustained release (depot production)
- Immunomodulation by cytokine production (Th1orTh2Response selection)
- T cellsInduction of response (long-term exposure to peptide-MHC complex (Signal 1) and stimulation of expression of T cell-activating co-stimulatory molecule on APC surface (Signal 2))
- Targeting (eg on APC)LectinCarbohydrate adjuvant targeting receptors)
Although adjuvants have been used as additives to increase the efficiency of vaccines since the 1920s.Generally, adjuvant administration is used in both experimental immunology and clinical practice to ensure high quality and quantity of memory-enhanced antibody responses, which maximize the production of specific immune responses. It is necessary to prepare and administer the antigen by the method of conversion.Complete as a commonly used adjuvantAnd incomplete Freund's adjuvant,Aluminum hydroxide,Aluminum phosphateThere is a solution etc..
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