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🌏 | WHO, heterogeneous corona vaccine mixed inoculation "dangerous tendency" caution


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WHO, heterologous corona vaccine mixed inoculation "dangerous tendency" caution

 
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WHO said that while data on mixed vaccinations are currently limited, more data are expected to be available, "it is necessary to assess both immunogenicity and safety."
 

[Geneva XNUMXth Reuters] – World Health Organization (WHO) Chief Scientist Somiya Swaminasan is different ... → Continue reading

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Vaccine mixed inoculation

Immunogenicity

Immunogenicity(Men Ekigen,British: immunogen) Is a component of the immune system (antibody,lymphocytes) May specifically bindantigenOr a substance.The term antigen comes from its ability to induce the production of antibodies.All antigens are recognized by specific lymphocytes and antibodies, but all of themImmune responseDoes not cause.The ability of an antigen (immunogen) to provoke an immune responseImmunogenicity(British: immunogenicity) Called[1].

The word immunogen is sometimes used interchangeably with the word antigen, but only the immunogen can provoke an immune response.[2]..In general, both are substances capable of producing antibodies (antigens) or substances capable of stimulating an immune response (immunogens).

Immunogen elicits an immune responseEpitopeCan be defined as a complete antigen consisting of a (determinant) and a macromolecular carrier[3]..As a clear exampleHaptenThere is.Haptens are low molecular weight compounds that can bind to antibodies but cannot provoke an immune response.As a result, the hapten itself is non-immunogenic and cannot elicit an immune response until it binds to a larger carrier immunogenic molecule.Unlike free haptens, hapten-carrier complexes can act as immunogens and elicit an immune response.[4].

Until 1959, the terms immunogen and antigen were not distinguished.[5].

Carrier protein used

It is a copper-containing respiratory protein isolated from Keyhole Limpet (Keyhole Limpet, Limpet (or Limpet, also known as Megathura crenulata)).Due to its evolutionary distance from mammals, high molecular weight, and complex structure, it is usually immunogenic in vertebrates.[6].
It is a substitute for KLH (also a blue carrier immunogenic protein) isolated from the concholepas Concholepas. It has the same immunogenicity as KLH, but has excellent solubility and flexibility.[7].
It is made from bovine serum and has the same immunogenicity as KLH and CCH.Catified BSA (cBSA) is a highly positively charged protein with significantly improved immunogenicity.This change increases the number of antigens that can bind to proteins.[8].
OVA, also known as egg white albumin, is the major protein (60-75%) contained in chicken egg white. Since the OVA dissolves in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), it is possible to bind insoluble haptens to aqueous buffers.The immune response can be enhanced by injecting the adjuvant with the immunogen.[9].

Immunological adjuvant

Adjuvant(British: adjuvant,Latin: adiuvare (Help)) is a substance different from an antigen that enhances the immune response by various mechanisms.Here are some examples of immune responses:

  • Professional to antigen-exposed sitesAntigen presenting cellsMobilization of (APC)
  • Increased antigen delivery due to delayed / sustained release (depot production)
  • Immunomodulation by cytokine production (Th1orTh2Response selection)
  • T cellsInduction of response (long-term exposure to peptide-MHC complex (Signal 1) and stimulation of expression of T cell-activating co-stimulatory molecule on APC surface (Signal 2))
  • Targeting (eg on APC)LectinCarbohydrate adjuvant targeting receptors)

Although adjuvants have been used as additives to increase the efficiency of vaccines since the 1920s.Generally, adjuvant administration is used in both experimental immunology and clinical practice to ensure high quality and quantity of memory-enhanced antibody responses, which maximize the production of specific immune responses. It is necessary to prepare and administer the antigen by the method of conversion.Complete as a commonly used adjuvant(English editionAnd incomplete Freund's adjuvant,Aluminum hydroxide,Aluminum phosphateThere is a solution etc.[10][11].

footnote

  1. ^ Murphy K. (2012). Janeway's Immunobiology 8th edition. Garland Science. Pp. 717–721, 789 
  2. ^ Cruse JM; Lewis RE (2010). Atlas Of Immunology.CRC Press. P. 167 
  3. ^ Cruse JM; Lewis RE (2010). Atlas Of Immunology.CRC Press. P. 163 
  4. ^ Abbas AK; Lichtman AH; Pillai S. (2012). Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 7th edition. Elsevier, Ed. Gruliow R .. pp. 101–103, 483 
  5. ^ Medical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. “Immunogen". 2021/4/1Browse.
  6. ^ Harris JR; Markl J. (1999). “Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KHL): a biomedical review”. Micron 30 (6): 597–623. two:10.1016 / s0968-4328 (99) 00036-0. 
  7. ^ Arancibia S .; Del Campo M .; Nova E .; Salazar F .; Becker MI (2012). “Enhanced structural stability of Concholepashemocyanin increases its immunogenicity and maintains its non-specific immunostimulatory effects”. Eur J Immunol 42 (3): 688–99. two:10.1002 / eji.201142011. 
  8. ^ Chen JS; Chen A .; Chang L.Ch .; Chang WSW; Lee HS; Lin SH; Lin YF (2004). “Mouse model of membranous nephopathy induced by waveguide bovine serum albumin: antigen dose response relation and strain differences”. Nephrol Dial Transplant 19: 2721–2728. 
  9. ^ De Silva BS; Egodage KL; Wilson GS (1999). “Purified protein derivate (PPD) as an immunogen carrier elicits high antigen specificity to haptens”. Bioconjug Chem 10 (3): 496–501. two:10.1021 / bc9800724. 
  10. ^ Abbas AK; Lichtman AH; Pillai S. (2012). Cellular and Molecular Immunology. Elsevier. P. 85 
  11. ^ Cox JC; Coulter AR (1997). “Adjuvants –a classification and review of their modes of action”. Vaccine 15 (3): 248–256. two:10.1016 / s0264-410x (96) 00183-1. 

 

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