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US Tesla to work on EV import tariff reduction in India = related sources

 
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Tesla sent letters to India's Ministry of Road Transport and Ministry of Heavy Industries.
 

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Industrial

Industrial(Kogyo,English: industry) Is HaraIngredientsThemachiningdo itProductIt is about making (making) and various matters related to making products. In the word industrial, work to make products, make productsJewelry businessEtc. are also included.IndustrySecondary industryOut of (Miningexcept for)Construction industryandManufacturing industryMost of theProcessing and assembly industryI also say.

World industry and Japanese industry

Japanese industrial technologyAmerica,GermanyAlong with that, it is an industrialized country with one of the most advanced industrial technologies in the world.But in recent yearsSouth Korea,People's Republic of China,Southeast AsiaIndustrialization is progressing in each country as well.These emerging industrialized nations, such as China, are taking advantage of low wages to take a lot of work and produce industrial products.Therefore, in some industries, there are almost no factories in Japan.Deindustrialization of industry"Proceeded.To compete with the industries of low-wage countries in emerging industrialized countriesEuropeCountries that have been industrialized for a long time, such as the United States and Japan, are trying to differentiate themselves by developing products with high technological capabilities and producing products that cannot be made in emerging industrialized countries.Also,Industrialized countriesThere is also industrial competition between them.China andSoutheast AsiaThe reason why industrialized countries such as Japan, the United States, and Germany set up factories in countries with low wages is to win the economic competition between industrialized countries by producing products at lower prices.For this reason, factories in China and Southeast Asia are supported by companies in industrialized countries such as European companies, Japanese companies, and American companies, even though they are emerging industrialized countries, and the technological capabilities of factories in emerging industrialized countries are high. In some cases.

The areas where industry is thriving in Japan are mainlyThe Pacific OceanOn the sidePlainsThere are many.From the Pacific side of the Kanto regionSeto Inland Sea, There is a lot of industry in the area extending to Northern Kyushu, and these areas are collectively called "Pacific belt"It is called[1]..In Japan, international competition in industry has intensified since around 1970, and as a result, factories for products made with simple technology have moved overseas, where wages are low.In the Japanese manufacturing industryOil crisisFrom the reflection of, the research and development of energy saving has progressed, and the number of energy-saving products has increased.

Japanese industrial areas/areas

Focusing on the industrial area that is often found on the Pacific side of the Japanese archipelago called the Taiheiyo BeltMeiji EraIndustry has developed.In the Pacific belt, "Chukyo Industrial Area"When"Hanshin Industrial Area""Keihin Industrial AreaIs now "Three major industrial areas".Chukyo Industrial AreaAichiToyota City[Annotation 1],Nagoya cityIt is an industrial area centered on.The Hanshin Industrial Area is an industrial area centered on Osaka and Hyogo.The Keihin industrial area is an industrial area centered on Tokyo and Kanagawa.The Chukyo Industrial Area has the highest production value, followed by Hanshin with the second production value, and Keihin with the third production value (2).Including the industrial area, the Keihin industrial areaSetouchi Industrial Area-North Kanto Industrial AreaIt is the 5th place after.

Long time agoKitakyushu Industrial AreaIncluding Chukyo, Hanshin, Keihin, KitakyushuFour industrial zonesWas called.However, in recent years, the production volume of Kitakyushu has fallen, so Kitakyushu is removed and Chukyo, Hanshin, and Keihin are called the three major industrial areas.Except for the four major industrial areasNorth Kanto Industrial Area,Kashima Seaside Industrial Area,Keiyo Industrial Area,Tokai Industrial Area,Setouchi Industrial AreaThe industry has been developed due to such factors, and both are located in the Pacific Belt.

In regions other than the Pacific Belt, industry is generally sluggish.HokkaidoIndustries such as pulp, steel making, chemicals, and steel were well developed, but they have stagnated as international competition intensifies.Tohoku regionThen, the machine industry such as semiconductors was developed, but many machine manufacturers are seeking low wages,ChugokuWhile moving production bases to other countries, the slump has continued.NaganoThen, the silk-reeling industry first developed mainly in Okaya City, and the factory was evacuated from Tokyo during the war.Suwa basinThen, 3 cities and towns around the lake (Okaya-Suwa-Shimosuwa Town) Atカメラ,Music box,clockSuch,Chikuma RiverCommunication and electronic components in the area alongAuto partsEtc. have developed.Most in JapanIndustrializationIs delayed in the Chugoku regionSan'in,Shikoku(EhimeNanyo district, Kochi prefecture, etc.),South Kyushu,OkinawaArea.

Prefectures with high industrial production value (2018)[2]
RankingPrefecturesProduction amount
1AichiApproximately 49 billion yen
2KanagawaApproximately 18 billion yen
3OsakaApproximately 17 billion yen
4ShizuokaApproximately 17 billion yen
5HyogoApproximately 16 billion yen
6SaitamaApproximately 14 billion yen
7ChibaApproximately 13 billion yen
8IbarakiApproximately 13 billion yen
9MieApproximately 11 billion yen
10FukuokaApproximately 10 billion yen

There are about 2018 factories in Japan as of 36[3]..Among them, a factory with 1 to 299 employeesSmall and medium-sized factories", A factory with more than 300 people"Large factory".Most of the factories in Japan are small and medium-sized factories[4].

History of industrial change

in Japan,Second World WarPreviously, export of natural fiber products, etc.Textile industryWas the main industry in Japan.However, after the war, factories moved to foreign countries such as the People's Republic of China and Southeast Asia, where wages are low, andNylonWith the invention of chemical fibers such as, the proportion of the textile industry has decreased. 1960sHigh economic growthSince that timeMachine industryIt became popular (including electronic machines). As of 2014light industryAmong them, the machine industry is active.The production of transportation machinery such as automobiles is the largest in the machine industry (2014). 

Processing trade

Resources are scarce in Japan, and many raw materials are imported from foreign countries.In this way, the method of trade that earns foreign currency by importing raw materials from foreign countries, processing them in Japan to make industrial products, and exporting the industrial products to foreign countries is called "Processing trade".For Japan, processing trade is also a necessary way to earn foreign currency and develop industrial strength.Currently, in addition to making products in Japan, factories of Japanese companies are expanding into foreign countries such as the United States, hiring people from local countries to produce and sell to consumers in that area. are doing.Similarly, in Europe, factories of Japanese companies have set up operations and are producing locally.

Deindustrialization of industry

There is also a movement from Japan to move production factories to foreign countries (Southeast Asia, etc.) where labor costs are low, but as a result, the work of domestic factories will decrease and domestic production capacity will decline.Deindustrialization of industryIs happening.In addition, if a factory is built in a foreign country, the production know-how used in the factory in Japan will also be taught to foreign workers, so there is also a problem of "technical loss" in which technical know-how is leaked to foreign countries.

Industrial field

Heavy chemical industry

Out of industryAutomotive industry,Steel industry, The machine industry,ShipbuildingThe industry that manufactures relatively heavy items such asHeavy industry".automotive industryAnd precision machinery and electronic machinery are also included in the heavy industry."Industry that makes plastics and chemicals through oil refining, etc."Chemical industry".In addition, in terms of industrial statistics, the industrial field that combines the heavy industry and the chemical industry, which consists of the metal industry and the machine manufacturing industry, as opposed to the light industry, is referred to asHeavy chemical industry".

light industry

Lighter for heavy (chemical) industry, especiallyConsumer goodsManufacturing industry (Textile industry-Food industry-Printing industryEtc.)light industry"[5]..It is mainly an industry that makes daily necessities.

Metal industry

Machine industry

Textile industry

Ceramic industry

Electromechanical industry

Generator,Washing machine,microwave,Fan,Air condition,Fluorescent light,videoSuch,ElectricalThe industry that manufactures equipment related to the generation, transportation, and use ofElectromechanical industry".

Breakdown of Japanese industry

The breakdown of Japanese industry is about 70% in the heavy chemical industry (2008).Light industry is about 30%. The heavy chemical industry has flourished since the time of high economic growth in the 1960s, and as of 2014, the heavy chemical industry still accounts for a large proportion.

Industrial location conditions

Regarding the industrial location, the following things are emphasized.

Industrial worker

workIn order to prevent the sweat shed by the stains from becoming stains, most of the clothes used at work are based on blue, etc.工場Such as industrial workers who work in the fieldBlue collar(Blue-collar)In addition, it should be noted.Office workFor workers engaged in work,shirtFrom wearingWhite collarCall it white-collar.

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ The production value of Toyota City exceeds 15 trillion yen, which is the highest in Japan by municipality. ("Prefectural Census 2021-Japan National Census Chart Regional Statistics Version-" (edited and published by Kenta Yano Memorial Association, December 2020), p.12)

Source

  1. ^ NHK. “Japan's Industrial Zone-Taiheiyo Belt-”(Japanese). NHK for School. 2021/3/23Browse.
  2. ^ From "Prefectural Census 2021-Japan National Census Chart Regional Statistics Version-", P216 "Product Shipment Value, etc. (All Business Offices)".
  3. ^ From "Prefectural Census 2021-Japan National Census Chart Regional Statistics Version-", P216 "Number of Business Establishments".
  4. ^ ""Japanese industry seen from statistics" Large factories and small and medium-sized factories | Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry". www.meti.go.jp. 2021/3/23Browse.
  5. ^ "Social Geography Japanese Industry". www.hello-school.net. 2021/3/23Browse.

Related item

道路

道路(Well,Latin strata, french road,German Street adress, English road, Spanish calle)PeopleRoads for vehicles and vehicles to pass through[1], Ground passages for people and vehicles[2].

Overview

EnglishroadIs a word that refers to the road in general.street Is used as a word to mean a road (street) in an urban area, and as a result, road often refers to a road connecting cities.

The first record of "road" being used as a Chinese word is the ancient Chinese dynasty around 1000 BC.weekThe scripture of the era, "Zhourai"[3].. 『Argument』Also used[Annotation 1].. in Japan,Edo PeriodKnown as a poetMatsuo Bashoof"Okunohoso Road"Road" is used in the passage[3],Meiji EraIt has been widely used since the Bunmei Kaika period.

Roads are public properties that are the cornerstone of transportation[Annotation 2]It is an essential part of everyday life that anyone can pass through at any time, and it is shared by many people.[5]..In addition, the characteristic of transportation is that it is not limited to the physical concept of public facilities, but roads intersect to form a network, and in many cases it is possible to select multiple routes to the destination.[5]..In other words, it is important for roads to secure safe and smooth traffic routes and to function as a traffic network.[5].

History

The origin of the "road"

It is said that the origin of the road is a natural path where the grass is trampled as humans and beasts search for food and food.[6].

In the primitive society where hunting and gathering was done, it can be done with the movement of animalsKemono RoadWas sometimes used by hunters.And another primitive road is the "stepping road".The ground is compacted and the grass naturally grows as people go back and forth over and over again, picking nuts, going hunting, and catching fish to survive. It became a streak-like "michi" with less soil[7]..When human beings start farming and settle in groups, and exchange of goods and information and marriage between such villages, people come and go frequently, and at first, many people come and go on the road that each person finally took. As a result, it turned into a wide road and developed spontaneously from the time of living.[7].

Among the currently discovered ones, which are sometimes regarded as the "oldest road maintenance traces"EnglandIt is in Sweet Track OfCausewayIt dates back to around 3800 BC.

The beginning of the paved road

There is no particular inconvenience on the dirt road in fine weather, but in rainy weather it becomes muddy and muddy, making it difficult to walk.To prevent itpavementHas come to be done.

By human handspavementAs the oldest one4000 BCSomething around that time has been discovered.

Ancient EgyptiansIt is,pyramidIn the construction of, pebbles etc. are removed in order to transport a large stone block that is a construction material from a distance.Stone pavementIt is believed that the road was maintained and transported manually using rollers.[6].BabylonThen,2000 BCThere is a record that there was a paved road by that time.[6].Ancient ChineseLarge scale since the timestreetHowever, a part of it was prepared as a stone pavement.20 ADBy that distance 40,000Kilometers It was extended to (km).

イ ン カPeople () are messengersAndesI laid out the road of Inca that can be transmitted through (→Inca road).MayaAlso by Europenew worldBefore discoveryメキシコThe cobblestone road network was laid around.

in JapanSannai Maruyama Site(Jomon Period A paved road 3500 meters wide and 2000 meters long was discovered in 12-420 BC.[8].

Development and development of road network by ancient nations

With the development of ancient civilization and the birth of a nation, roads were systematically created, and the development of the road network became a symbol of power at the time.[6].

Above allRoman EmpireBuilt byRoman roadIs well known as the largest and most organized, with a total length of its road network of approximately 29 km, of which the main trunk line is 8 km.[9][10]..It is said that the ancient Romans, who were at their peak at that time, boasted, "All the roads in the world lead to Rome!"[6], The character of the road is military and political.Rome cityFlat roads with a width of several meters were laid out radially in a vast area centered on the city, and were drawn straight to connect the cities in the shortest distance.[9]..One of the most famous is in 312 BCAppius Claudius CaexConstruction started at the order ofAppia RoadThe road was 15 meters wide and was paved with paving stones.[9][10].

other than this地中海 OfCrete,Island of MaltaRemainsAncient roadIs said to be around 2000 BC, andAkemenesPersian Empire OfRoyal roadIs about 500 BCDarius IIIIn the age ofMesopotamiaThe capital ofSusa(Current(I.e.From (domestic)Asia Minor OfSardis(CurrentトルコA planned road was built that runs through the empire for about 2500 km to (domestic).[9][11].

By 220 BC in ancient China in East Asia OfEmperor Shikiによって(ちどう)とよばれる大規模な道路網の建設が始められた。建設期間10年ほどの間に造られた馳道の総延長は、現代中国の公式記録とも言われる『中国公路史』によれば1万7920里(約7481 km、秦時代の1里は417.5 m)とされ、『漢書(かんじょ)』では「道幅は50歩(約70 m)、路側に3丈(約7 m)ごとに青松を植えた」とされる[12]..Qin Shi Huang was the capital city of Chokudo at the end of the construction of the feast.XianyangWe are building a straight military road with a width of about 30 m extending north from (Kanyo).[12]..Its purpose is from the northHunsIt is to prepare for aggression, and in China today, the straight road is called "China's first highway".[12].

Trade routes for carrying goods have also been created since ancient times.Northern EuropeWas produced inamberKnown as Europe's oldest road to bring the sea to the Mediterranean coastAmber RoadHas existed since about 1900 BC[13][6]..China's established by defeating Qin Shi HuangEmpire era[Annotation 3]Since then, China's road construction has been promoted nationwide by abolishing barriers for national unification and economic and industrial development.Chang'anからCentral AsiaAcrossSouthwest Asia, The silk road connecting Europe (Silk road) Appears[14][15]..The Silk Road is best known as a ground passage for trade and has been around since the Han dynasty around 130 BC.Emperor WuDispatched to the western regionZhang QianAround the 7th century, it began with the introduction of western products and culture to the east by (choken).In the era of China, silk, which is a specialty of China, and jewelry and textiles were brought from Europe.[14]..In addition, the Silk Road played a major role as a transmission route for East-West culture, and developed while absorbing the excellent cultures of both the East and the West.[13]..In the Tang dynasty of China, a nationwide road network was built, and soil banks (signposts built with soil) were built every 5 ri (about 3 km).Station roadWas maintained[16]..The road system of the Tang Dynasty in China is also affecting Japanese roads,Ekiden systemEtc. introduced the station system from China[16].

From the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution

In Europe, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the Industrial Revolution (after the 3rd century AD--early 18th century), road maintenance declined and the stones used for pavement as Roman roads were removed by posterity farmers. The road was gradually devastated, such as being used as a building material for livestock sheds and houses.[17].. In 17th-century France, a horse-drawn carriage carrying aristocrats and kings was caught in a muddy road and encountered a rollover disaster, and a similar road tragedy covered the whole of Europe. Ta[17].

18th centuryIndustrial revolutionAt the beginning of the period, the road maintenance situation began to improve, and roads with a modern cross-sectional structure were born.After roadbed construction, road construction is carried out by laying out chestnut stones, arranging pavement stones and ramming them with a rammer, and arched bridges will also be constructed, but these construction methods and civil engineering techniques are ancient. It was not much different from the Roman road[18].

In France, we took over the road network developed during the Roman Empire and focused on the construction, maintenance and repair of new roads.[19].. In 1747, Louis XV on roads and bridgesRoyal Civil Engineering SchoolOpened in Paris and focused on training civil engineers[19]..Under the supervision of Jean Rudolf Perone (1708-1794), who was also the first principal, a modern carriageway will be developed. In 1764, Tresage (1716–1796) invented the Tresage road construction method, which is a crushed stone paved road with the same cross-sectional strain curvature as the roadbed and road surface.[19].

On the other hand, road construction and its maintenance in the United Kingdom will require strong roads that can withstand horse-drawn carriages, as carriage traffic has developed significantly since the beginning of the 16th century and the industrial revolution of the 18th century has further increased carriage traffic. Became[19]..Road maintenance in the UKparishSince it was done on a unit basis, the road conditions were poor and diverse.1706By the time, it was the first time to improve thisBarrierWas made and tolls were collected from passing vehicles.Britain sometimes had around 1100 tollhouses and over 3 km of roads.In the age of horse travel, roadsgravelPaved roadWe were aiming for maintenance with a maximum slope of over 3% above.This is because it was most convenient for the horse to be close to parallel to lift the load on the slope.

At the same timeThomas telfordRoad architects (1757 – 1834) and (1756 – 1835) each invented their own construction methods.The Telford-style road was invented in 1805 by laying crushed stone on a flat trackbed, crushing stone and gravel on it, and rolling it. The Macadam-style road installed crushed stone directly on the trackbed. It was invented in 1815 by rolling fine-grained crushed stone into the upper layer.[19]..In particular, the Macadam road was widely used because it could be constructed in a short period of time and was technically easy, and it became the prototype of the modern Macadam road.[19].

It was the European roads during the Industrial Revolution that underwent full-scale road renovationNapoleon Bonaparte(1769-1821).Napoleon is actively constructing roads to secure military transportation routes to advance the war in order to advance all-European rule, and at the Simplon Pass over the Alps on the route of the expedition from France to Italy. I ordered my subordinates to build the road[20].. The road over the Simplon Pass was completed in 100 after the Gondo tunnel pierced through the difficult construction that lost the lives of more than 1805 people.[20]. afterwards,Mont Suni PassAlso worked on road construction in Europe, and its scope extended to all Europe[20]..Napoleon's budget for road construction is said to have been about twice as much as the fortress construction budget of the same period.[20].

Historically, unlike the roads that connect cities, the roads inside cities in Europe and the United States were also waste disposal sites.In ancient Roman times, water was passed through the middle of the road to wash away filth such as excrement (PompeiiRuins etc.).Therefore, the middle of the road is several steps lower than the townhouses on both sides, and you cross both sides with a stepping stone-shaped road.Horse-drawn carriages also pass through this waterway.In modern Paris, where there was no underground sewer, it is a famous story that garbage and filth were thrown into the streets.

Modern

In modern times,AutomobileRoads are being maintained almost everywhere so that they can be moved by vehicles such as.Road transportation has become the most commonly used means of transportation in most countries.Also,Traffic safetyTraffic jamIn most developed countries, roads to eliminatelaneIt is designed to be used by dividing it into.

Vehicles and roads

The basic form of a road is just "one side".Since there is traffic on the road from both directions, "passing" occurs.In the simple form, there are no rules, but then "glare" and "collision" occur, so you can naturally create the habits and rules of whether to go on the right side or the left side of the road.

In Europe and the United States, it was basically decided to proceed on the right side.It is on the left side in England and Japan.

Even in the same direction, it is better to distinguish between pedestrians and carriages.Horse-drawn carriages and the like run in the center of the road, and pedestrians walk on the edge of the road.Some ancient roads are intentionally "rail-shaped" indentations for carriages.

It has also become common to prepare surfaces with different heights for pedestrians.

The simultaneous passage of vehicles and people increases the probability of a catastrophic accident.By separating people and vehicles, people can walk comfortably and relax, and cars can drive at high speeds with peace of mind.In the cityDowntownSo don't put in any cars, all the roadsFor pedestrians onlyThere is also a place that says.vice versa,MotorwayIn principle, high-speed driving is made possible by prohibiting driving other than automobiles.

Modern Japanese roads, if they have a certain width, are for cars to pass through.roadwayAnd for pedestrians to passSidewalkIt is divided into.There are various ways of dividing, one is to separate with a fence, and the other is to change the height.

In Europe and the United States, many people ride bicycles today, so it is becoming quite common for roads to be divided into three categories: automobiles, bicycles, and pedestrians.Japan is still behind in responding, and these three categories are gradually increasing.

As automobiles became more widespread, it became increasingly problematic that some people would drive recklessly and that there would be victims of accidents.Speed ​​limitHas come to be done.road signThe law has been improved, such as the establishment of.

Road function

The traffic function of a road has three elements: a traffic function and an access function for moving to a destination, and a retention function.In addition to the traffic function, roads are closely related to town development, and also have the functions of forming the framework of cities and districts, as well as environmental spaces and disaster prevention spaces.The current road space is also a storage space for daily life, and efficient use is required.In the underground spacewater pipe,Gas pipeEtc. on the groundElectrical wire,Telephone lineSuch aslife lineHas come to be laid.In urban areas, these lifelines are housed together to avoid digging up roads.Joint grooveTo saytunnelMay be built in the basement of the road.Also,subwayOften passes underground on the road.

Transportation function

Roads can be divided into "traffic functions" that emphasize safe, smooth and comfortable movement with high driving speed, and "access functions" that emphasize connecting to many roads and roadside facilities rather than traveling speed.[21]..Traffic functionalityhighwayIs the highest, thenHighway, Auxiliary highway,Life roadDecreases in the order of[21]..On the other hand, access functionality is highest on residential roads facing destinations such as buildings and facilities, followed by auxiliary highways, highways, and highways in that order.[21]..In other words, it is said that the traffic function and the access function have a contradictory relationship.[21].

In addition, on the road, when you park your car in the parking zone or when pedestriansbus stopThere are times when you want to stop at such things, and these required functions are called "retention functions".[21].. The three functions of "traffic function", "access function", and "retention function" are collectively called "traffic function" of roads, and are used not only for automobiles but also for all users including pedestrians and bicycles. Needed[21].

City planning and town planning

Roads not only have the function of allowing users to come and go, but also have the function of forming the skeleton of cities and districts and forming a good cityscape.Land use planningIt is also an important component with various functions to recommend Yamamachi development.[22]..Houses are built facing the road, and by the roadBlockIs formed, public facilities and shops are lined up along the road, roadside trees are arranged, and it becomes a symbol of the block in front of the station and in the commercial area.street(Street,ス ト リ ー ト,Avenue) Is formed[22]..Furthermore, in order to enhance the scenery of the symbolic "street", the height of the buildings along the road is restricted, and there is a wide range of space in consideration of aesthetics.SidewalkIs also maintained[22]..Also on the sidewalkMedian stripToPlantingWith an obiRoadside treeIt also plays a role in providing a comfortable environmental space for people in terms of greening, noise attenuation, and air purification.[22]..Furthermore, by giving it a function as a disaster prevention space, in the event of a fireFire spreadIt is expected to function as a preventive function and as an emergency traffic space such as securing evacuation routes and material transportation routes in the event of an earthquake.[22].

Infrastructure accommodation function

Above or underground on the roadTramAnd subway,Public facilitiesElectricity and gas called, lifelines such as water and sewage, telephones, etc.communication cableThe networks that are indispensable for daily life are laid out in detail, and it has a function as a space to accommodate these infrastructure facilities.[23]..There are space restrictions on the use of road space, but on roads with heavy traffic and accommodating multiple public facilities, in order to efficiently accommodate these network facilities, gas, water and sewage, electricity, etc. In the utility tunnel where communication is stored or under the sidewalkElectric wire utility tunnelIs being maintained[23]..As a side effect, the elimination of utility poles improves the road landscape and prevents road closures due to the collapse of utility poles in the event of an earthquake.[23]..In addition to this, the underground space of the road is undergroundParking Lot,地下 通路,Underground streetIt is also used for[23].

Relationship between road and residential addressing system

In Europe and the United States, roads (English:Street, Germany:Street adress) IsHouse displayIs the basis of.In the Western way of thinking, "address" is basically understood by connecting it to a road (conceptually hanging), and such an understanding method is standard.

Both sides share the same street name across the street, and it is a residential address.There are several ways to assign numbers, which vary from country to country.One way is on one side of the roadodd numberUnify with, on the other sideevenIt is to unify with.The sites are lined up in order from the smallest number to the largest number.As a result, a postman can easily deliver it, or a person who does not know the land can easily visit it.If you are a postmanMailLook at the name of the destination street written in, go to that street, then look at the number at the end, first read whether it is odd or even, thereby determining which side of the road, and display it on each house You can proceed while checking the numbers, and when the numbers match, post it to the post.

Explain what to do if the land is divided or the number of houses increases.The serial number is assigned to one side first, such as 1,3,5,7,9 ..., but for example, if the right to the house / land of 3 is divided into two, "3-a" For example, "3-b".This keeps the numbers of other numbered lands such as "1", "5", "7" .. unchanged.

JapaneseKyoto CityHowever, some addresses are written using streets (street names) ("~ (Article) Dorijoru, Shimoru, Eastiriru, Nishiiriru").In the case of Kyoto City, there are many town names, and even if they are in different places, the town names may be the same, and zip codes are set separately to distinguish these places.Due to these circumstances, it is customary to use a street name because it is easier to identify the address.

In Japan, both sides of the street shared one town name, but in 1Act on Residential DisplayWhen was enforced, the newly assigned town name and lot number began to be assigned a house number for each block surrounded by roads.On the other hand, even nowChuo Ward, Osaka CityIn some of the streets, the town names on both sides of the street remain.[Annotation 4].

Japan and roads

Japanese legal definition

JapanAs a legal definition ofRoad law,Road Traffic Law,Building Standards LawLaws such as, respectively, define the definition of roads.

"Road" of the Road Traffic Act

Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Road Traffic Act defines roads as the following three cases.

  1. Roads stipulated in Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Road Act (so-called roads)Public road
  2. Road transport lawStipulated in Article 2 Clause 8The motorway(Roads provided exclusively for the purpose of automobile traffic, other than roads under the Road Act)
  3. Other places for general transportation

"Other places used for general traffic" refers to land that is considered to be a road from the actual state of traffic, other than roads provided for public roads and automobile traffic.It is a place where unspecified people and cars can pass freely, and it corresponds to a place actually used for passage.Therefore, in general, it may be applicable even if it does not have a form as a road, and it does not matter whether it is private land or public land.In particular,Farm road,Forest road,Red lineIf is applicable and is used for general transportation,Driveway,広 場,park,Riverbed,Underground streetEtc. are also included.

The following are myths and precedents regarding "other places used for general transportation".

  • Even if it is private land, a place where unspecified people and cars can pass freely is "another place used for general transportation". (July 44, 7, Supreme Court Second Small Court Judgment, Showa 11 (A) 43)
  • "Other places used for general traffic" means "actually used for the general public and vehicles, etc." even though it does not necessarily have to be open to the general public unconditionally. It is a place where there is an objective situation that seems to be present, and it is not necessary for passersby to obtain permission from the administrator each time to pass through (Sendai High Court, December 38). Judgment on December 12)
  • When the manager does not allow the use for general traffic, that is, the situation where the permission of the manager is required for traffic and it seems that it is objectively used for the traffic of an unspecified number of people. If not, it lacks the requirements of a road. (June 45, 6, Tokyo High Court)

"Road" of the Road Law

Article 2, Paragraphs 1 and 3 of the Road Law are roads used for general traffic, and the following four roads are defined as roads.

  1. Highway national road
  2. General national road
  3. Prefectural road
  4. Municipal road

What constitutes a road is the road surface,Shoulder, In addition to the lawtunnel,bridge, For ferry facilities, roadsエ レ ベ ー タ ーFacilities / structures that fulfill their utility as a unit with roads such asPedestrian bridgeRoad attachments such as those attached to the road are also included in the road.[24]..Recognizing roads as defined by the Road Law is called "road designation" for highway motorways and general national roads, and "road certification" for prefectural roads and municipal roads. Prefectural roads and municipal roads to which the Road Law applies Is called a "certified road"[24]. So-calledPublic roadAndRoad structure ordinanceStandards such as width and structure are set by[24].

There are gradual provisions from the establishment of roads to the abolition, (1) designation / certification of routes, (2) determination of areas, (3) acquisition of land, (4) construction work, (5) start of service, (6) ) Maintenance, (7) Abolition / change of routes, (8) Disposal of unnecessary properties, etc.[24].

In addition, in Article 89 of the Road LawMain local roadIs not the type of road under the Road Law, but the main road designated by the Minister as a road to be subsidized by the national government within the necessary range of road maintenance, and some prefectural roads are general roads and major local roads. Is included[24].

"Road" of the Land Improvement Law

Land improvement lawWhat is a road based onFarm roadIt is a so-called farm road.[25]..It can be roughly divided into main farm roads and branch farm roads, and branch farm roads have a road for transporting harvested products and a connecting road for the road.[26]..As a basic farm road, by the agricultural, forestry and fishery volatile tax revenue source replacement farm road maintenance project (abbreviation: agricultural exemption road project) implemented from 1965 (Showa 40)Ministry of AgricultureAbout the road thatFarm roadCall[26].

"Road" of the Forest Law

Forest lawWhat is a road based onForest roadIt is a general term for roads provided for the purpose of forest maintenance and conservation.[26]..Forest roads are outside the framework of the relevant provisions of the Road Law, but for forest roads used for general traffic, the provisions of the Road Traffic Law, Road Transport Vehicle Law, etc. are applied.[26]..The jurisdiction is the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesForestry AgencySo, the forest road system is unique to Japan.[26]..The types of forest roads in private forests are as follows.

  1. General auxiliary forest road
  2. Green resource trunk forest road
  3. Specified forest area development forest road(Super forest road)

"Road" of the Port and Harbor Act

Port lawA road based on is provided as a port transportation facility in the port area.Harbor roadRefers to.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismBuilt on a budget and is a port managerPort AuthorityorLocal government(Prefectures and municipalities) manage[26].

"Road" of the Road Transport Law

Road transport lawArticle 2, item 7 defines roads that fall under the following three categories.

  1. Road according to the Road Law
  2. Places for other general transportation
  3. Motorways (Roads provided exclusively for the purpose of automobile traffic, other than roads under the Road Act. There are two types: "general motorways" and "dedicated motorways")

In Article 2, Paragraph 8, the above "motorway" is defined, in which "general motorway" means a motorway other than a dedicated motorway, and "dedicated motorway" means an automobile. It is said that the road was set up by a transportation company (a person who manages a car transportation business) exclusively for the purpose of using the business vehicle (the car that the car transportation company uses for the car transportation business) for transportation. It has established[27].

"Road" of the Building Standard Law

Article 42 of the Building Standards Act regards cases that fall under 1 to 5 below as roads and cases that fall under 6 as roads.

  1. Roads under the Road Law (national roads, prefectural roads, municipal roads) with a width of 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) or more
  2. City Planning Act,Land readjustment method, Old,Urban redevelopment law,New Urban Infrastructure Development Law,Dense urban development lawRoads built on the basis of 4 meters wide (6 meters in some areas)
  3. Roads that already existed when the Building Standards Act came into effect or when the city planning area was incorporated, and have a width of 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) or more.
  4. Roads with new or changed business plans under the Road Law, City Planning Law, etc., with a width of 2 meters or more (4 meters in some areas) designated by the specified administrative agency as the one whose business is scheduled to be executed within 6 years. Things
  5. Since the land is used as the site of a building, it is a road that conforms to the standards stipulated by the Cabinet Order to be built without complying with the Road Law, City Planning Law, etc. More than 4 meters (6 meters in some areas) (Designated road
  6. None of the above is included, but it is considered to be a road because it was designated by a specific administrative agency based on Article 42, Paragraphs 2 to 6 of the Building Standards Act (Article 42, Paragraph 2 Road,Article 42, Paragraph 3 RoadSuch)

There is no distinction between public roads and private roads, only motorways are excluded, and roads with a width of 4 m or more are roads.[28]..Others, such as those with a width of less than 4 m, are not positioned as "roads" under the Building Standards Act, and are called "passages" and "roads" in relation to the Building Standards Act.

In addition, although it does not meet the road access standard of Article 43 of the Building Standards Act, it is said to be "" for roads when a specific administrative agency issues a building permit based on the proviso of the same Article.

Other laws

In addition to the types listed above, there are the following types of roads under each law.[29].

other than this,Real estate registrationOn the bookGroundThere is "" as a kind of.It refers to a road used for general transportation, regardless of whether it is a public road or a private road.

Used together with the roadbridge,tunnel,Pedestrian bridgeAnd facilities such as crosswalks[Source required].

Foreign language notation

  • Showa 29By the first Cabinet Notification dated December 12,RomajiIt shows how to spell (Hepburn romanization).

Resident participation type road direct management construction

in recent yearsMunicipalitiesfinanceDue to the worsening situationLife roadAs for the above, the local government provides the equipment and materials, and the residents themselves are paying attention to the enforcement.

In the case of Sakaemura, the cost is reduced to 1/2 to 1/3 compared to placing an external order.[30].

the term

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ またMikuni periodHistory book "Wei ZhajinAbout the state of Japan at that time, "The land is steep, the trees are overgrown, and it is small.道路There is a description that "was continued", and the word "road" is used.[4].
  2. ^ Excludes some private property such as driveways.
  3. ^ Han was a Chinese dynasty between 206-220 BC
  4. ^ Taiko sewage(Back split sewage) passes between the houses that face the street, which is the division of the town name.

Source

  1. ^ Digital Daijisen
  2. ^ Kojien XNUMXth Edition "Road"
  3. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 21–23.
  4. ^ Ken Asai 2015, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b c Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 12.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 34.
  7. ^ a b Ken Asai 2001, p. 76.
  8. ^ "Special historic site "Sannai Maruyama Ruins" Sannai Maruyama Ruins Road?”. Sannai Maruyama Ruins. 2016/7/5Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d Ken Asai 2001, p. 78.
  10. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, p. 2.
  11. ^ Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 7–8.
  12. ^ a b c Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 5–6.
  13. ^ a b Ken Asai 2001, pp. 80–81.
  14. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 2018.
  16. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 14–15.
  17. ^ a b Takebe Kenichi 2015, p. 16.
  18. ^ Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 17–18.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, p. 36.
  20. ^ a b c d Takebe Kenichi 2015, pp. 18–19.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 18–19.
  22. ^ a b c d e Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 20–21.
  23. ^ a b c d Kunio Minegishi 2018, pp. 22–23.
  24. ^ a b c d e Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 18.
  25. ^ a b c d Rom International (ed.) 2005, p. 217.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 19.
  27. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, pp. 19-20.
  28. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 20.
  29. ^ Yoichi Kubota 2009, p. 21.
  30. ^ a b Toshifumi Kimura "Farmland and roads to be protected in collaboration --Sakae Village, Nagano Prefecture -"Agricultural Research Institute Survey and Information" Volume 4, Co., Ltd., January 2008, ISSN 1882-2460.
  31. ^ "Farmers, local residents, etc. participation type directly managed construction promotion manual" (Press Release), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, (August 2005), http://www.maff.go.jp/j/nousin/seko/top/t_rikai/t_chokuei/pdf/manual.pdf 
  32. ^ "A village where you can see the future of Japan, Shimojo Village, Nagano Prefecture, the inevitable birth rate of" 2.04 "" "Nikkei Business", February 2009, 2.http://business.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/manage/20090209/185533/. 

References

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