NY Foreign Exchange Market = Small Dollar Depreciation, FOMC Reserve Bitcoin High for the First Time in 5 Weeks
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Weekend reports that Amazon.com will start accepting Bitcoin payments by the end of the year have been seen as material.
[New York XNUMXth Reuters] – In the New York foreign exchange market, the dollar is modest against a basket of major currencies ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Bitcoin(British: Bitcoin) In 2008Satoshi NakamotoInvented by an unnamed person or group using the name,Peer to Peer(P2P) typeCryptocurrencyIs..This currency has its implementationOpen source softwarePublished as, and started to be used in 2009.
as a feature,Central BankAnd decentralized without a single administratorDigital currencyIt can be sent from user to user on the P2P Bitcoin network without the need for an intermediary...Trading is networknode Validated by, all Bitcoin transaction historyBlock chain Recorded in a distributed manner in a ledger called (blockchain).
Can be exchanged for other currencies, products and services as actual demand..On the other hand, it has been criticized for being used for illegal transactions, a large amount of electricity used by miners, price fluctuations, and theft from exchanges.It's also used as an investment, but some regulators have issued warnings for investors about Bitcoin..
- August 2008, 8-Domain name "bitcoin.org" is registered on the Internet.
- July 2008, 10-"Satoshi NakamotoWith the name ""Bitcoin: Peer-to-peer electronic cash systemWas first introduced in a treatise titled ".
- January 2009, 1-Bitcoin operation begins.
- May 2010, 5-USAFloridaIt is said that the programmer bought two pizzas for 2 Bitcoins, which is the first example of a commercial transaction with Bitcoin...For this reason, May 5nd is called "Bitcoin Pizza Day"..
- March 2013, 3-A bug in Bitcoin software version 11 temporarily splits the blockchain into two independent chains with different rules. For six hours, the two branched Bitcoin networks were operated at the same time, each with its own transaction history.Most of the network has been downgraded to version 0.8 of Bitcoin software, and normal operation has been restored by choosing a backward compatible version of the blockchain..
- October 2013-USAFederal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is onlineBlack market OfSilk roadClosed and seized US $ 2850 million worth.
- October 2013, 12- People's Bank of ChinaBans the use of Bitcoin by Chinese financial institutions.
- January 2014, 1-Charlie Shrem () and Robert Fiera (), director of the BitInstant exchange and vice chairman of the Bitcoin Foundation, arrested on suspicion of money laundering with Bitcoin Be done.
- February 2014, 2-Major exchangesMount gox[Annotation 1][Annotation 2] Stopped all transactions"We have decided to temporarily suspend all transactions to protect the exchange site and customers.".Wall Street JournalAccording to the 25th,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クThe South Federal District Attorney's Office launches an investigationMount goxSent a subpoena to order the preservation of documents, etc... 28th, the companyTokyo District CourtToCivil Rehabilitation LawWas applied for and accepted..The company claims that the damage amount is 85 bitcoins (equivalent to 114 billion yen) and cash of 28 billion yen. (The equivalent of 480 billion yen is correct). ) GLOCOMAccording to visiting researcher Masanori Kusunoki, the customer can tamper with the originally issued transaction ID, and even if the original ID is inquired, there is no transaction ID, so transactions can be requested as many times as necessary.According to Takayuki Sugiura, the representative of "", if the password of the "wallet" that manages the private key can be stolen, a large amount of unauthorized withdrawals are possible..Detail is"Mount goxSee
- June 2014, 6-US Online Travel LargestExpediaStarts using Bitcoin for hotel reservations.
- October 2014, 7- DellStarted accepting Bitcoin payments for selling its products through the official website.
- August 2014-AmericanRakutenSuper Logistics Starts Handling Bitcoin Payments.
- As of December 2015, 12-The market capitalization of Bitcoin is about 18 billion yen.
- January 2015, 1-Major ExchangesCoinbaseBut,AmericaOpened "Coinbase Exchange", a Bitcoin exchange licensed by 24 states.
- October 2015, 10- European Court of Justice(ECJ) said, "Buying and selling BitcoinExcluded from the application!Judgment.
- As of April 2017, 4-The market capitalization of Bitcoin is about 29 billion yen, 23785 BTC is 1 yen .
- As of May 2017, 5-Bitcoin's highest price surpassed gold's highest and rose to the $ 25 level per Bitcoin, which tripled at the beginning of the year..
- October 2017, 7- ロシアAlexandre Benik of the personMount GoxThrough your own Bitcoin exchange, you can illegally obtain profits fromMoney launderingOn suspicion ofGreeceI found out that I was arrested during my stay.
- October 2017, 8- Hard forkByBitcoin cashSplit.
- August 2017, 8-Data compression technology "Segwit" is activated.
- October 2017, 10- Hard forkBy医 ､ 医Split.
- October 2017, 11- Hard forkBitcoin diamond splits due to.
- October 2017, 12- Chicago Board Options ExchangeBitcoin at (CBOE)Futures tradingThe start of the.
- October 2017, 12- Coinbase The transaction price at was $ 1 per Bitcoin.Bitcoin's price, which had been rising until now, has since fallen to $ 19891.99 on December 2018, 12, and this high was not exceeded until December 15, 3128.89.
- October 2017, 12- Chicago Mercantile ExchangeStart Bitcoin Futures Trading at (CME)..The trading unit is 5 Bitcoin, and the contract month is monthly..
- October 2018, 1- Lightning networkThe world's first purchase of goods was made by. Then, on February 2, the same year, the world's first person who made a business transaction (purchase of pizza) with Bitcoin bought pizza again on the Lightning Network. 
- October 2019, 6- Chicago Board Options Exchange(CBOE) Bitcoin futures trading closed.
- Bitcoin futures trading starts on September 2019, 9.
- December 2019, 12-Bitcoin atOption tradingThe start of the.
- October 2020, 1- Chicago Mercantile ExchangeBitcoin at (CME)Option tradingThe start of the.
- October 2020, 11- United States Department of Justice(DOJ)Silk roadSeized a billion dollars of Bitcoin.
- February 2021, 2 --The market capitalization exceeds 20 trillion dollars (about 1 trillion yen)..
- May 2021, 5-Implementation testing of the major upgrade "Taproot" begins.
- June 2021, 6-El Salvador approves Bitcoin as fiat currency.
- September 2021, 9-Bitcoin is introduced as fiat currency in El Salvador.
How it works
Bitcoin is called secp256k1Elliptic curveBased onECDSAThe transaction is encrypted by the algorithm..Also, the equation of the secp256k1 curve used in Bitcoin is 2=3+7..In Bitcoin, the format that improves the protocol is called Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)., It has been proposed to add support for Schnoor signatures.
As auxiliary units, there are "mBTC (millimeter bitcoin)", "µBTC (micro bitcoin)", "bits", "satoshi (or Satoshi, read as Satoshi)" and the like. satoshi is the creator of BitcoinSatoshi NakamotoIt is the smallest unit of Bitcoin attached in commemoration of, and is equivalent to 1/1 million Bitcoin... Bits are one millionth Bitcoin, equal to μBTC, and are called bits (in English notation).bitsAnd plural).
In addition, there is a difference in meaning depending on the size of the acronym, uppercase letters (Bitcoin) refer to protocols and trading networks, and lowercase letters (bitcoin) refer to the currency itself..
Blockchain and mining
Blockchain is a method in which transaction data for a certain period of time is collected in block units on computers that make up a distributed network, and the data is synchronized while verifying each other.It is called a "blockchain" because it is a mechanism that connects and accumulates transaction records like a chain, and Bitcoin is traded using that technology..
Mechanism of transaction approval work
Bitcoin senders can use transaction information such as amount and recipient (transaction), The minors that make up the network (minerTo a node called (miner)broadcast(Forward.The miner summarizes the received transaction information in the form of a block and adds it to the end of the blockchain.However, in order to record a new block, it is necessary to solve a problem with a large amount of calculation.Miners compete to solve the problem, and only those who succeed in adding blocks first can get a certain amount of reward.Collectively the above processesMiningIt is called (mining).Inconsistencies such as double payments are checked by other nodes when recording blocks on the blockchain.
The difficulty has been adjusted so that the problem can be solved in about 10 minutes, and the sender has to wait about the same amount of time for the integrity of the transaction to be confirmed by the miners and recorded on the blockchain.All Bitcoin currencies in circulation are thus supplied to the market in the form of rewards for miners..
The blockchain may branch in some cases.For example, a malicious attacker has tampered with a block in the past, or multiple miners have added blocks at the same time.Bitcoin solves these problems with the principle of "trusting the longest blockchain," which is the result of many calculations that make up the chain..
Even if an attacker rewrites the past transaction history, the chain derived from it must be longer than the other chains in order for the history to be trusted.This requires more than half the CPU power of the entire network...Also, if the number of nodes participating in Bitcoin is large enough, it is difficult to secure such CPU power.Bitcoin is thisDistributed agreement algorithmThe idea (Proof of Work) To ensure robustness.
If multiple miners add their own blocks and the chain diverges, each miner on the network chooses one of them to work on mining.When more new blocks are added to one chain, the other chain is abandoned.
The wallet (account / storage location) in Bitcoin is the Bitcoin address (account / storage location) that holds the private key.address/ Account number)..As for the Bitcoin address, a "public key" is created by the "private key", and a bitcoin address is created from the "public key"...Also, when sending money from that address, we will respondSecret keyWill be required.
There are the following types of Bitcoin wallets.
A hot wallet is a wallet in which the wallet's private key is connected to the Internet.Typically, there are the following three.
- Web wallet
- Mobile wallet
- Desktop wallet
A web wallet manages a wallet on your behalf.Web serviceIt is a wallet of.It is highly convenient because it can be used regardless of the type of terminal, but the security aspect will be left to the service provider..
In addition,Windows,MacOS,iOS,AndroidSuch asoperating systemWorks onsoftwareWallet is called a software wallet (client wallet).When installing software on a desktop PC, it is called a desktop wallet, and when installing it on a mobile terminal, it is called a mobile wallet..
The first wallet to come out was Bitcoin Core, released as open source software by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009... Bitcoin Core not only functions as a wallet, but also has the function of participating in the Bitcoin network as a full node and performing mining..
A cold wallet is a wallet in which the wallet's private key is isolated from the Internet.Typically, there are the following two.
- Hardware wallet
- Paper wallet
A hardware wallet is a wallet that uses dedicated hardware.The hardware wallet is used by connecting to an external machine (such as a personal computer) connected to the trading network (Ethernet).The private key is stored inside the hardware wallet, but since the wallet only signs and sends it to the connected machine, the possibility of leaking the private key is lower than that of the software wallet..
A paper wallet is a paper with a bitcoin address and a private key (private key / encryption code) printed on it.crackingIt is the safest because there is no risk of the private key being leaked.However, you need to be careful about deterioration and theft of ink and paper..
Bitcoin is a digital asset that can be traded in P2P (Peer to Peer), "It is difficult to earn, supply is limited, and verification is easy", which is said to have three useful properties as a currency..
Also a Bitcoin advocateSatoshi Nakamoto"The fundamental problem with traditional currencies lies in all the trust they need to function as a currency. In order for a central bank to be trusted, it must not devalue the currency. Don't, the history of fiat money is full of destruction of its trust. ".
Bitcoin is your home currencyinflationIt has been shown to be a popular alternative currency in countries suffering from rates, capital restrictions and economic sanctions by international organizations.Some are in trouble due to inflation and strict capital controlsArgentinianIt is,Argentine pesoUsed as an alternative currency to In addition, some Iranians use it to avoid currency sanctions doing. June 2021, 6 in Central AmericaEl SalvadorApproves Bitcoin as legal tender for the first time in the worldIntroduced on September 9th..The country is Bitcoin and the other fiat currencyU.S. dollarWe are promoting the spread by establishing a new ATM to exchange money, developing an electronic wallet application for smartphones "Chivo", and conducting a campaign to earn 30 bit coins by registering with Chibo..
Economic journalists and analystsスペインWith the distribution volume inCyprus shockSuggests to be related to.CyprusThen, when financial difficulties arise,Financial institution OfdepositTo tax your accountBlockadeBy doing so, the people of CyprusNational powerThe movement to transfer assets to "bitcoin", which is beyond the reach of the market, has increased, and it has been widely reported.
Speculation on Bitcoin
As an example, the Winklebos brothers bought Bitcoin in 2012, and in 2015 they also established the New York-based cryptocurrency exchange Gemini...But on the other hand, in 2013European Banking Authority(EBA) warns against such speculative risk.
In 2020, it will be an American company engaged in data management and analysis in the business field.Company is starting to buy Bitcoin.
Cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin are called "altcoins".CryptocurrencyThe ratio of Bitcoin's market capitalization to the market capitalization of the entire market is called "bitcoin minance"...Bitcoin Minance is used to understand the flow of funds between Bitcoin and Altcoin, and is an indicator for speculating on cryptocurrencies..
Bitcoin can be obtained by mining, exchanging goods, services, other currencies, or receiving donations.Bitcoin is commonCredit cardCosts are reduced compared to 2-8% of merchant fees, It is possible to realize a settlement cost that is even cheaper than the credit card fee, and it is not affected by weekends and holidays.In addition, both sellers and buyers do not need to enter personal information, card numbers, or other information that would cause problems if leaked to the outside.for that reasonE-commerceIs steadily solidifying as a payment method for.
As an example of adoption by a well-known commercial corporationOkCupid,reddit,WordPress,Virgin Galactic ,Specified nonprofit corporation,AdvocacyIn a groupFree Software Foundation,WordPress,Tor,Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF),Wikimedia Foundation And so on.
Problems and analysis
Bitcoin credit without a central governing body is mutually formed by all network participants.While there is a risk that there is no central organization that strives to prevent value decline, it is also not possible to control value against the intention of the user. .
Use for crime
The European Banking Authority (EBA) and other sources have warned that "Bitcoin users are not protected by the right to request refunds or chargebacks."The use of Bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement agencies and the media.
Officials in the United States and other countries recognize that Bitcoin can provide legal financial services, but criminal activity is centered around the darknet market and theft.Bitcoin theft is possible and there are examples, Offline precautions can reduce this risk.
The link to criminal activity has hindered the expansion of the user population, and distribution trends have attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislatures, and law enforcement agencies, and in fact the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the US Senate, Investigated by the state of New York.. The FBI "probably attracts cybercriminals as a means of transferring or stealing money," the 2012 report said..
Black market and money laundering
In 2012, the British economic magazine Economist reported that Bitcoin's popularity "is based on its utility value as a means of purchasing illegal drugs.".. 2013, UKGuardian"Mainly used for online gambling and illegal drug purchases," the paper said., The same year,Huffington post"Online gambling is a high percentage," he said...Legitimate transactions are believed to be less than the actual number of drug purchases involved, About half of all transactions are settled on a single online gaming site.. 2012,Carnegie Mellon UniversityAnd a study by the Information Network Association estimated that 4.5-9% of Bitcoin's total circulation was for drug purchases on the single online market, the Silk Road...Although most of the transactions were essentially speculative, the study claims that drugs account for a much larger proportion than goods and services... In 2013, the Huffington Post reported that unidentified online firearms dealers are using Bitcoin for payments..
In addition, various regulators and law enforcement agencies, including the European Banking Authority,Money launderingBe wary of use..A 2012 report by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) acknowledged the risk of money laundering, but stated that no cases were found...Some cite the openness of transaction history as an obstacle to money laundering..Raised the need for measures to eliminate money laundering in 2015 and raised concerns about industry shrinkage due to over-regulation..
Theft and unauthorized mining due to unauthorized access
In the traditional currency industry, if an asset is compromised in the middle of a transactionConsumer protectionRegulations require businesses to make payments to a certain extent, but in the case of businesses that mediate Bitcoin transactions, there are multiple cases where Bitcoin was stolen and customer assets were lost and did not return. Happened twice..Since transactions are irreversible with Bitcoin, once an unauthorized accessor sends an asset to another person, it cannot be undone..
2011 year 6 month,SymantecWarned that hidden mining by botnets could consume hardware, increase power consumption, and increase computer temperature...If you are infected with a computer virus, the latestVideo cardBuilt intoBut by the full GPU acceleration tech OfParallel computingBandwidth is consumed by malware.. For mining in mid-August 2011BotnetIs detected againFor mining in less than 3 monthsTrojan horseInfected withMac OS XWas discovered.
U.S. Treasury Department in March 2013 Has enacted regulatory guidelines for "decentralized cryptocurrencies", and "miners" who sell money in the United States have been designated as currency sellers and have been subject to business registration and other legal obligations..
In August 2013, the German Ministry of Finance stated that Bitcoin "can be used as an accounting unit for multilateral settlement"., Capital gains tax was levied on holding for more than 1 year.
The New York State Department of Financial Services announced in November 2013 that it would conduct a survey on BitLicense and guidelines to raise concerns and regulate wealth transfers and criminal activity (especially the Silk Road). Held a hearing in New York City.. AlsoUnited States Internal Revenue Service(IRS) states that it is "actively working to create its own standards.".
At the same time, the European Banking Authority (EBA) gave subtle approval in light of usage.Previously, official warnings were issued because there are no regulations or approvals by banks in the EU and EFTA regions and there are risks, but they acknowledged that they are not covered by various regulations and are unnecessary, and recognize the current situation. Changed.
In Japan, on September 2014, 6LDPIT Strategy Commissioner has published a proposal to forgo regulation..The proposal defines virtual currencies such as Bitcoin as "value electromagnetic records (value records)".
ロシアThen in January 2014,Central BankHas stated that it currently has no plans to ban any cryptocurrencies.The government plans to establish a legal framework to protect citizens and corporations to prevent illegal use of cryptocurrencies..
China (People's Republic of China)Then, in mid-April 2014, a major state-owned commercial bank began closing accounts on Bitcoin exchanges...While China is pushing ahead with Bitcoin trading regulations, the profits from the sale of mined Bitcoin will be returned to China.Bitcoin mining activity, which accounts for more than 7% of the world, is tolerated for a while because it can control the market., Chinese government in April 2019ComputerAnnounced a policy to ban the mining of virtual currencies such as Bitcoin because of the waste of electricity, The world's largest mining equipmentChinese companies like this also require a large amount of computing powerArtificial intelligenceBecame focused on government-supported industries such as.
While there are such regulatory movements, there are movements aimed at introducing Bitcoin as a new currency. June 2021, 6,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euApproves Bitcoin as legal tenderIntroduced on September 9th.
Energy consumption and carbon footprint
Concerns about Bitcoin's environmental impact are Bitcoin's energy consumption andcarbon dioxideRelated to emissions..The difficulty in converting energy consumption into carbon dioxide emissions is due to the decentralized nature of Bitcoin, which makes it impossible for miners to localize to determine the composition of electricity used.The results of recent studies analyzing the carbon footprint of Bitcoin vary..
In a study published in Nature Climate Change in 2018, Bitcoin "alone is enough CO to boost global warming above 30 ° C within 2 years.2Can generate emissions. "..However, other researchers have criticized this analysis, claiming that "the underlying scenario is inadequate, leading to overestimation.".
According to a study published in Joule and American Chemical Society in 2019, Bitcoin's annual energy consumption is 17~ 22.9 Mt CO2 annual carbon emissions, which isJordan,Sri LankaCountries such asKansas CityIt is a level comparable to the amount of emissions of.International Energy Agency(IEA) has 10-20 Mt CO annual carbon emissions associated with Bitcoin2Nature Climate Change's forecasts are just "sensational forecasts for Bitcoin," as were warned about the increase in the Internet and its energy consumption in the late 1990s. ing.
Footnotes and references
- ^ The number of customers is 12, of which 7 are Japanese.
- ^ As of November 2013, the world's largest, $ 11-1 million a day.500% of the world.2000% at the time of bankruptcy.The Rise and Fall of the World's Largest Bitcoin Exchange By Robert McMillan and Cade Metz, WIRED, 11.06.13]
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- ^ Bits to Usd converter
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- ^ Bitcoin bankruptcy "Mt. Mount also made a mistake" Expert pointed out, fund sloppy management Archived August 2014, 3, at the Wayback Machine.Sankei Shimbun morning edition Saturday, March 2014, 3
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- ^ Expedia now accepts Bitcoin for hotel reservations
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- ^ Daisuke Yamazaki (October 2015, 10). "Bitcoin is" exempt from consumption tax ", the European Court (ECJ) decides"Bitcoin news 2016/2/6Browse.
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- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun morning edition May 2017, 5
- ^ Mainichi Shimbun electronic version US Judiciary Authority Bitcoin Money Laundering Man Detained in Greece 2017/7/30
- ^ "[What is Bitcoin Cash] Why did it split from Bitcoin?”(Japanese). We are beginners in stocks!Genius Stock Investor's Severe But Useful Knowledge. 2021/4/12Browse.
- ^ "What is a soft fork?”(Japanese). blog.liquid.com. 2021/5/22Browse.
- ^ "Bitcoin splits again--the identity of the new "Bitcoin Gold"”(Japanese). CNET Japan (September 2017, 10). 2021/4/12Browse.
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- ^ CBOE Starts Trading Bitcoin Futures | Reuters
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- ^ CME Group Self-Certifies Bitcoin Futures to Launch Dec. 18
- ^ Bitcoin Futures Contract Specs --CME Group
- ^ https://cointelegraph.com/news/lightning-networks-pizza-day-first-ever-physical-purchase-on-lightning-network
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- ^ Ballyhooed Bitcoin Futures Contract Bows Out With a Whimper --Bloomberg
- ^ Bakkt Cleared To Launch In September | Bakkt
- ^ Bakkt Bitcoin Options On Futures To Launch Dec 9 | Bakkt
- ^ CME Group Announces Jan. 13, 2020 Launch for Bitcoin Options
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- ^ Bitcoin market capitalization reaches $ XNUMX trillion-higher returns than stocks
- ^ What is the Bitcoin price forecast for 2021?
- ^ Bitcoin's next goal, reaching a market capitalization of $ 1 trillion
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- ^ Sinclair, Sebastian (December 2020, 12). “Bitcoin over $ 4 million invested by a U.S. company was based on coins | coindesk JAPAN | Coindesk Japan”(Japanese). CoinDesk Japan. 2021/5/14Browse.
- ^ "Nexon, a company listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, purchases Bitcoin worth 1 billion yen, the first case in Japan”(Japanese). CoinPost ｜ Cryptocurrency Bitcoin News / Investment Information. 2021/5/14Browse.
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- ^ For growth in merchant numbers, see "BitPay Passes 10,000 Bitcoin-Accepting Merchants On Its Payment Processing Network". Techcrunch. Techcrunch.com (September 2013, 9). 2013/10/21Browse.
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- ^ a b Ryota Hayashi (October 2014, 10). “Bitcoin introduced and revived by Rakuten Group”. Toyo Keizai. 2017/5/12Browse.
- ^ (October 2013, 11). “Bitcoins in space". 2013/12/18Browse.
- ^ https://www.fsf.org/donate/
- ^ http://en.blog.wordpress.com/2012/11/15/pay-another-way-bitcoin/
- ^ https://blog.torproject.org/blog/announcement-tor-project-now-accepting-bitcoin-donations
- ^ https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2013/05/eff-will-accept-bitcoins-support-digital-liberty
- ^ http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give/ja
- ^ Nathaniel Popper (December 2013, 12). “In the Murky World of Bitcoin, Fraud Is Quicker Than the Law”. The New York Times. 2013/12/12Browse.
- ^ Timothy B. Lee (November 2013, 11). “12 questions about Bitcoin you were too embarrassed to ask”. The Washington Post. 2013/12/12Browse.
- ^ For lack of mainstream use, see Chen, Adrian (1 June 2011). "The Underground Website Where You Can Buy Any Drug Imaginable”. As of May 2012, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011/6/16Browse.. Gawker.
- For attention by law enforcement and regulatory bodies, see Lavin, Tim (August 2013, 8). “The SEC Shows Why Bitcoin Is Doomed". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg LP. 2013/10/20Browse.
- ^ a b "Bitcoins Virtual Currency: Unique Features Present Challenges for Deterring Illicit Activity". Cyber Intelligence Section and Criminal Intelligence Section. FBI (April 2012, 4). 2013/10/20Browse.
- ^ “Monetarists Anonymous”. The Economist, (The Economist Newspaper Limited). (September 2012, 9) 2013/10/21Browse.
- ^ Ball, James (March 2013, 3). “Silk Road: the online drug marketplace that officials seem powerless to stop". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. 2013/10/20Browse.
- ^ Wyher, Tommy (October 2013, 10). “The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin". The Huffington Post. Thehuffingtonpost.com, Inc .. As of October 2013, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/10/21Browse.
- ^ Mardlin, John Jeffrey (October 2013, 10). “How Will The FBI Shut Down Of Silk Road Affect Bitcoins?”. Quora (Forbes) 2013/10/21Browse.
- ^ Geuss, Megan (August 2013, 8). “Firm says online gambling accounts for almost half of all Bitcoin transactions”. Ars Technica 2013/10/21Browse.
- ^ a b Christin, Nicolas (2013). “Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement Analysis of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace”. Carnegie Mellon INI / CyLab. Pp. 8 2013/10/22Browse.
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- ^ "EBA Warning on Virtual Currencies”. European Banking Authority. As of December 2013, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/12/13Browse.
- ^ Meiklejohn, Sarah et al. (October 2013, 10). “A Fistful of Bitcoins: Characterizing Payments with Men with No Names”. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). 2013/9/2Browse. Paper is explained by Kirk, Jeremy (August 2013, 8). “Bitcoin offers privacy-as long as you don't cash out or spend it”. PC World
- ^ a b c Bretton Woods 2015 White Paper
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- ^ "Researchers find malware rigged with Bitcoin miner”. ZDNet (June 2011, 6). As of January 29, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/1/24Browse.
- ^ Goodin, Dan (August 2011, 8). “Malware mints virtual currency using victim's GPU”. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 12.
- ^ "Infosecurity --Researcher discovers distributed bitcoin cracking trojan malware”. Infosecurity-magazine.com (August 2011, 8). As of January 19, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/1/24Browse.
- ^ "Mac OS X Trojan steals processing power to produce Bitcoins --sophos, security, malware, Intego --Vulnerabilities --Security”. Techworld (November 2011, 11). As of September 1, 2012オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/1/24Browse.
- ^ Lee, Timothy (March 2013, 3). “US regulator Bitcoin Exchanges Must Comply With Money Laundering Laws”. Arstechnica. As of April 2013, 4オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/3/19Browse. “Bitcoin miners must also register if they trade in their earnings for dollars.”
- ^ "US govt clarifies virtual currency regulatory position”. Finextra (March 2013, 3). As of April 19, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/3/19Browse.
- ^ "Application of FinCEN's Regulations to Persons Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies”. Department of the Treasury Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. As of March 2013, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/3/19Browse.
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- ^ Yomiuri Shimbun Morning Edition June 2014, 6
- ^ "Центробанк опровергает «запрет Биткой на в России»”. Bit Новости (March 2014, 3). 2014/3/10Browse.
- ^ "Pernyataan Bank Indonesia Terkait Bitcoin dan Virtual Currency Lainnya”. Bank Indonesia. 2015/12/18Browse.
- ^ Sankei News Bitcoin Exchange China's Two Largest Accounts Closed "Money Laundering Concerned" "Starting Locking Out" 2014.4.15 08:49
- ^ Kelion, Leo (September 2013, 12). “Bitcoin sinks after China restricts yuan exchanges". bbc.com. BBC. 2013/12/20Browse.
- ^ "Bitcoin split The future of currency talked about by two Chinese miners”. NIKKEI STYLE (June 2017, 12). 2017/12/28Browse.
- ^ Katrina Hamlin (August 2017, 8). “China's strong Bitcoin strategy". Reuters. 2017/8/19Browse.
- ^ "Chinese government bans cryptocurrency mining.How far will the impact spread?". WIRED (September 2019, 4). 2019/4/13Browse.
- ^ "Bitcoin mining China Bitmine, next to virtual currency aiming at AI". Bloomberg (September 2018, 6). 2019/4/13Browse.
- ^ "Islamic Bitcoin ban behind the plunge". Hodokyo (September 2018, 1). 2018/4/3Browse.
- ^ "Why Bitcoin is "contraindicated" in the Middle East "I don't admit it at all"”. / Withnews (January 2018, 1). 2018/4/3Browse.
- ^ Hern, Alex (March 2018, 1). “Bitcoin's energy usage is huge – we can't afford to ignore it”. The Guardian. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2018, 1. 2019/9/18Browse.
- ^ Ethan, Lou (January 2019, 1). “Bitcoin as big oil: the next big environmental fight?”. The Guardian. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 8. 2019/9/18Browse.
- ^ Foteinis, Spyros (2018). “Bitcoin's alarming carbon footprint”. Nature 554 (7691): 169. bibcode: 2018Natur.554..169F. two:10.1038 / d41586-018-01625-x.
- ^ Krause, Max J .; Tolaymat, Thabet (2018). “Quantification of energy and carbon costs for mining cryptocurrencies”. Nature Sustainability 1 (11): 711–718. two:10.1038 / s41893-018-0152-7.
- ^ a b Mora, Camilo (2018). “Bitcoin emissions alone could push global warming above 2 ° C”. Nature Climate Change 8 (11): 931–933. bibcode: 2018 NatCC ... 8...931M. two:10.1038 / s41558-018-0321-8.
- ^ a b Stoll, Christian; Klaaßen, Lena; Gallersdörfer, Ulrich (2019). “The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin”. Joule 3 (7): 1647–1661. two:10.1016 / j.joule.2019.05.012.
- ^ Masanet, Eric (2019). “Implausible projections overestimate near-term Bitcoin CO2 emissions ”. Nature Climate Change 9 (9): 653–654. two:10.1038 / s41558-019-0535-4. OSTI 1561950.
- ^ Dittmar, Lars; Praktiknjo, Aaron (2019). “Could Bitcoin emissions push global warming above 2 ° C?”. Nature Climate Change 9 (9): 656–657. bibcode: 2019 NatCC ... 9...656D. two:10.1038 / s41558-019-0534-5.
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- ^ Köhler, Susanne; Pizzol, Massimo (20 November 2019). “Life Cycle Assessment of Bitcoin Mining”. Environmental Science & Technology 53 (23): 13598–13606. bibcode: 2019EnST ... 5313598K. two:10.1021 / acs.est.9b05687. PMID 31746188.
- ^ Kamiya. “Commentary: Bitcoin energy use --mined the gap". iea.org.As of August 2020, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/12/5Browse.
- Edward Castro Nova ""Virtual currency"Impact" Translated by Sanae Ino and Akiko Yamamoto, Chukei Publishing (Publishing) KADOKAWA(Release) <Kakugawa EPUB Selection 011>, June 2014, 6.ISBN 978-4-04-080012-7.
- Hitoshi Okada・ Ikuo Takahashi and Shigeichiro Yamazaki "Virtual currency"Toyo Keizai Inc.(Published), May 2015, 5.ISBN 978-4-49-268138-1.
- Ryoji Kashiwagi "FinTech" 2016/08 Nikkei newspaper publisher Nikkei Library
- Cryptocurrency Research Institute "Newspaper does not reportVirtual currencyA book that shows the true identity ofHidekazu system, August 2014, 11.ISBN 978-4-7980-4218-3.
- Kevin Kelly"Technium" -Where is technology going? Katsura Hattori (Translation) Technium 2014/06 Misuzu Shobo
- Kenji Saito "Bitcoin found by this Conditions of surviving currency』Taro Jirosha Editors, May 2014.ISBN 978-4-8118-0772-0.
- Kenji Saito "インターネット"Money" that changes with Bitcoin "What Bitcoin taught" Gentosha Media Consulting <Gentosha Renaissance New Book-6-1>, December 2014.ISBN 978-4-344-97126-4.
- Yoichi Takahashi "The Truth About the Japanese Economy" Bitcoin may establish a certain position ... 2014/05 KADOKAWA / Chukei Publishing
- Yasushi Takashiro "A true IT revolution starting with dangerous money Bitcoin』Fusosha Publishing, July 2014, 7.ISBN 978-4-594-07083-0.
- Seibu Tadashi"The mystery of money Gold, Bank of Japan notes and Bitcoin』NHK Publishing <NHK Publishing New Book 435>, March 2014, 5.ISBN 978-4-14-088435-5.
- "Nikkei Business" Bitcoin-Challenge to the State 2014/04/21 Nikkei BP
- "Introduction to Finance" Nihon Keizai Shimbun Inc. (edit) 2014/03 Nikkei newspaper publisher
- "Journal of Financial Planning" Special Feature FintechTransforms the Future of Finance and FP Japan Association for Financial Planners Bulletin September 2016 (No. 9) Japan Association for Financial Planners
- "Newsweek (Japan version)" Possibility of Bitcoin 2014/02/25 Hankyu Communications
- Yukio Noguchi"Cryptocurrency Revolution = The Virtual Currency Revolution Bitcoin is just the beginning』Diamond, June 2014.ISBN 978-4-478-02844-5.
- Bitcoin Research Institute "Bitcoin for the first time』Supervised by Kenji Sasaki, AT Publication, July 2014, 7.ISBN 978-4-906784-21-9.
- Kunimi Mabuchi (supervised) "Impact of Blockchain" Bitbank Co., Ltd. & "Impact of Blockchain" Editorial Committee (Author) 2016/06 Nikkei BP
- Kenichiro Mogi, Takafumi Horie, Hajime Kanasugi"Money, the nation, and our future" Hackers 2014/12 Kosaido Publishing
- Koichi Yasuoka (April 2014, 4). “Bitcoin is an "infinite chain lecture" from the viewpoint of computational complexity theory". Nikkei BP. 2014/10/24Browse.
- Hiroyuki Yamanaka; Mitsuru Iwamura (March 2014, 3). “"Bitcoin is bad in the first place" Mitsuru Iwamura, Professor, Graduate School of Commerce, Waseda University". Nikkei Business Online.As of August 2014, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/10/24Browse.
- Yoshio Yoshimoto, Muneka Nishida "CryptographycurrencyThe mechanism of "bitcoin" to become (money) Three reasons why it can be "good money" "Kodansha <Blue Bucks B-3>, May 1866, 2014.ISBN 978-4-06-257866-0.
- "WIRED VOL.25 "/ Special Feature The Power of Blockchain Block chainWill change the world 2016/10 Condenast Japan
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